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Cancer Cell & Microenvironment

Bridgette E Drummond, Rebecca A Wingert
Specialized renal epithelial cells known as podocytes are essential components of the filtering structures within the kidney that coordinate the process of removing waste from the bloodstream. Podocyte loss initiates many human kidney diseases as it triggers subsequent damage to the kidney, leading to progressive loss of function that culminates with end stage renal failure. Podocyte morphology, function and gene expression profiles are well conserved between zebrafish and humans, making the former a relevant model to study podocyte development and model kidney diseases...
2018: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Jerzy Bazak, Jonathan M Fahey, Katarzyna Wawak, Witold Korytowski, Albert W Girotti
Ionizing radiation of specifically targeted cells in a given population is known to elicit pro-death or pro-survival responses in non-targeted bystander cells, which often make no physical contact with the targeted ones. We have recently demonstrated a similar phenomenon for non-ionizing photodynamic therapy (PDT), showing that prostate cancer cells subjected to targeted photodynamic stress stimulated growth and migration of non-stressed, non-contacting bystander cells. Diffusible nitric oxide (NO) generated by stress-upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was shown to play a dominant role in these responses...
2017: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Qian Yu, Binhua P Zhou, Yadi Wu
Metastasis accounts for a majority of cancer death. One key feature during metastasis is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by transcription factors such as Snail and Twist. In non-malignant cells, Snail has a short half-life and is degraded via ubiquitination, but its stability is increased in cancer cell. However, the mechanism by which Snail escapes ubiquitination and degradation remains unknown. Recently, we found that Dub3 is a deubiquinase of Snail. Most importantly, we determined that Dub3 responded to extracellular signals such as IL-6, and that the resultant signaling prevented Snail degradation, and promoted cancer growth, invasion, and migration...
2017: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Lin Wang, Justin H Gundelach, Richard J Bram
Treatment of cancer is frequently unsuccessful related to the loss of apoptotic signaling in malignant cells. This is a particular problem for high-grade gliomas, such as Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), which are almost universally fatal within a year or so of diagnosis. Novel therapies that capitalize on non-apoptotic cell death pathways may yield more effective outcomes, if their underlying mechanisms can be more completely deciphered. In a recent publication (ref 10), the mechanisms by which cellular cyclophilins support GBM cell survival have been identified...
2017: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Tilahun Jiffar, Turker Yilmaz, Junegoo Lee, Yair Miller, Lei Feng, Adel El-Naggar, Michael E Kupferman
It has long been known that the tumor microenvironment contributes to the proliferation and survival of neoplasms through the constant interaction with the stromal and immune compartments. In this investigation, we explored the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) though a complex intercellular BDNF-TrkB signaling system. Our studies show that conditioned media derived from patient-derived CAFs promoted HNSCC cell proliferation, in vitro cell migration, cell invasion and chemotherapy resistance, compared to normal fibroblasts...
2017: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Fernando Pastor
Aptamers are chemically synthesized oligonucleotides that can be easily engineered for cancer immunotherapy use. So far, most of the therapeutic aptamers described are antagonistic and block the function of a receptor or its soluble ligand. Recently, aptamers have been modified to act as agonists by multimerization, with a direct application in cancer immunotherapy. Several agonistic aptamers against costimulatory receptors have been described. However, systemic costimulation, though potentially a very potent antitumor immune strategy, is not devoid of auto-inflammatory side effects...
June 6, 2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Farhana Runa, Yvess Adamian, Jonathan A Kelber
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Mortality in patients with solid, epithelial-derived tumors strongly correlates with disease stage and the systemic metastatic load. In such cancers, notable morphological and molecular changes have been attributed to cells as they pass through a continuum of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) states and many of these changes are essential for metastasis. While cancer metastasis is a complex cascade that is regulated by cell-autonomous and microenvironmental influences, it is well-accepted that understanding and controlling metastatic disease is a viable method for increasing patient survival...
2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Wenjie Yin, Dorothée Duluc, HyeMee Joo, SangKon Oh
Dendritic cells (DCs) are major antigen presenting cells that can efficiently prime and activate cellular immune responses. Delivering antigens to in vivo DCs has thus been considered as a promising strategy that could allow us to mount T cell-mediated therapeutic immunity against cancers in patients. Successful development of such types of cancer vaccines that can target in vivo DCs, however, requires a series of outstanding questions that need to be addressed. These include the proper selection of which DC surface receptors, specific DC subsets and DC activators that can further enhance the efficacy of vaccines by promoting effector T cell infiltration and retention in tumors and their actions against tumors...
2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Lifu Xiao, Zachary D Schultz
Membrane receptors play important roles in regulating cellular activities. Targeting membrane receptors in cancer cells and understanding their interactions with specific ligands are key for cancer prognosis and therapeutics. However, there is a need to develop new technologies to provide molecular insight into ligand-receptor binding chemistry in cell membrane. Integrin receptors are important membrane receptors that regulate cellular migration, invasion and proliferation in tumors. Integrins have a well-known affinity towards small peptide ligands containing arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) sequence and are therefore an attractive model system to study ligand-receptor interactions...
2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Assumpta C Nwaneri, Lucien McBeth, Terry D Hinds
The need for the development of new cancer therapies and push for the design of new targeting techniques is on the rise, and would be useful for cancers that are resistant to current drug treatments. The understanding of the genome has significantly advanced cancer therapy, as well as prevention and earlier detection. This research highlight discusses a potential new type of cancer-targeting molecule, Sweet-P, which is the first of its kind. Sweet-P specifically targets the microRNA-144 binding site in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the human glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ), which has been demonstrated to increase expression...
2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Zhengqi Wang, Kevin D Bunting
A significant role of the microenvironment in leukemogenesis is beginning to emerge. The leukemia cell microenvironment consists of not only the stromal and endothelial cell components but also the normal hematopoietic cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is a latent transcription factor that is normally transiently activated by phosphorylation in response to microenvironmental signals. In hematopoietic cells, persistently activated STAT5 via aberrant receptor signaling, Janus kinases (JAKs), or intracellular tyrosine kinases is a bona fide driver of leukemogenesis...
2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Juan P Cata, Cristina Gutierrez, Reza J Mehran, David Rice, Joseph Nates, Lei Feng, Andrea Rodriguez-Restrepo, Fernando Martinez, Gabriel Mena, Vijaya Gottumukkala
Perioperative and postoperative blood transfusions (BT), anemia and inflammation are associated with poor survivals in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study investigated the impact of perioperative BT on the survival of patients with NSCLC taking into account their preoperative inflammatory status and the presence of anemia. Demographic, perioperative, and survival data for 861 patients with stage I NSCLC was collected retrospectively. The primary endpoints of interest were recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS)...
2016: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Chery A Whipple
It was once believed that tumor growth, progression, and metastasis were intrinsically driven by the tumor. Instead, recent research has demonstrated that a solid tumor is surrounded by a complex matrix of cells, particularly fibroblasts, which support and even promote tumor progression. This matrix of stromal cells, also known as the tumor microenvironment (TME), plays a critical role in cancer and may represent a novel therapeutic target. As such, understanding the complex nature of how the tumor initiates and maintains communication, or a "conversation", with the TME is the focus of current investigations...
April 26, 2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
David B Vaught, Jamie C Stanford, Rebecca S Cook
Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, occurs in nearly all tissues of all multi-cellular organisms. In order to avoid leakage of intracellular contents, which could generate tissue damaging inflammation, apoptotic cells are cleared from tissues by phagocytes, which then dispatch the engulfed dying cell through the lysosomal pathway. Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is referred to as efferocytosis. One key feature of efferocytosis is the production and release of wound healing cytokines by the phagocyte, which acts to resolve inflammation, and promote tissue repair...
2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Kalpit Shah, Neil A Bradbury
Androgens and androgen receptors play essential roles in the development and progression of prostate cancer, a disease that claims roughly 28,000 lives annually. In addition to androgen biding, androgen receptor activity can be regulated via several post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination, acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation & SUMO-ylation. Off these modifications, phosphorylation has been the most extensively studied. Modification by phosphorylation can alter androgen receptor localization, protein stability and transcriptional activity, ultimately leading to changes in the biology of cancer cells and cancer progression...
2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Jessian L Munoz, Vivian Rodriguez-Cruz, Nykia D Walker, Steven J Greco, Pranela Rameshwar
Chemotherapy with Temozolomide (TMZ), radiation and surgery are the primary methods to treat Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common adult intracranial tumor with dismal outcome. GBM resistance to therapy is the main reason of poor patient outcomes. Thus, methods to overcome the resistance are an area of extensive research. This highlight focuses on three recently published articles on the mechanism of resistance and possible therapeutic intervention, including RNA treatment with stem cells. We showed a crucial role of the developmental Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in the acquisition and maintenance of TMZ resistance...
2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Xuetian Yue, Lihua Wu, Wenwei Hu
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a secreted cytokine, plays an important role in a wide array of biological processes including inducing differentiation of leukemia cell, inflammatory response, neuronal development, embryonic implantation, stem cell self-renewal and cancer progression, etc. LIF exerts its biological functions mainly through the activation and regulation of JAK/STAT3, AKT, EKR1/2 and mTOR signal pathways. The expression levels of LIF are regulated by many different factors under different conditions in different tissue/cell types...
2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Yihang Shen, Jun Zhang, Herbert Yu, Peiwen Fei
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disease, resulting from dysfunction in any of 17 known complementation proteins: FANC-A, B, C, D1, D2, E, F, G, I, J, L, M, N, O, P, Q & S, and other unknowns. Besides the severe bone marrow failure, an extremely high incidence of cancer as well as many other clinic symptoms associated with FA patients, FA cells are known of insufficiency in homologous recombination, DNA mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, translesion DNA synthesis, and other molecular defects, leading to genome instability...
2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Huan Liu, Jin He, Jing Yang
Osteolytic bone destruction is a hallmark of bone-metastatic cancers. Current therapy is unable to completely cure or prevent this disease in patients. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) affects a diverse range of intracellular responses with well-known roles in development, cell-cycle and differentiation, inflammation, apoptosis, senescence, and tumorigenesis. This article is an overview of the contribution of tumor cell-expressed p38 MAPK to the regulation of osteoclastogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteolyticbone lesions...
January 1, 2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
Robin K Bishop, Cendy A Valle Oseguera, Juliet V Spencer
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. While a small fraction of breast cancers have a hereditary component, environmental and behavioral factors also impact the development of cancer. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family that is widespread in the general population and has been linked to several forms of cancer. While HCMV DNA has been found in some breast cancer tissue specimens, we wanted to investigate whether a secreted viral cytokine might have an effect on cancerous or even pre-cancerous cells...
2015: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
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