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Military Medical Research

Marc A Schweizer, Jud C Janak, Zsolt T Stockinger, Tristan Monchal
BACKGROUND: Since 2001, the French Armed Forces have sustained many casualties during the Global War on Terror; however, even today, there is no French Military trauma registry. Some French service members (SMs) were treated in US Military Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) and were recorded in the US Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR). Our objective was to conduct a descriptive analysis of the injuries sustained by French SMs reported in the DoDTR and subsequent care provided to them to assist in understanding the importance of building a French Military trauma registry...
February 27, 2019: Military Medical Research
Zhao-Wen Zong, Hao Qin, Si-Xu Chen, Jia-Zhi Yang, Lei Yang, Lin Zhang, Wen-Qiong Du, Xin Zhong, Ren-Jie Zhou, Dan Tan, Hao Wu
The battlefield treatments of spinal and spinal cord injury vary from civilian settings. However, there is no unified battlefield treatment guidelines for spine trauma in PLA. An expert consensus is reached, based on spine trauma epidemiology and the concepts of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. Since the specialized treatment for spine trauma are no significant difference between civilian settings and modern war, the first aid, emergency treatment and early treatment of spine trauma are introduced separately in three levels in this consensus...
February 20, 2019: Military Medical Research
Simon R Hunter
Art therapies are a broad suite of treatments including drawing, painting and music that can facilitate non-verbal communication through artistic expression. They have been used as adjunctive therapies for a range of mental health conditions. Significant numbers of returning military personnel experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and discontinuation of care is a concern. Using drawing-based art therapy as an adjuvant to classical therapies may provide a benefit for such military patients.
February 18, 2019: Military Medical Research
Evangelos N Symeonidis, Chrysovalantis Gkekas, Ioannis Tsifountoudis, Asterios Symeonidis, Christos Georgiadis, Vasileios Kalyvas, Apostolos Malioris, Michail Papathanasiou
BACKGROUND: Zinner syndrome represents a rare congenital malformation of the urinary tract. It comprises a constellation of Wolffian duct anomalies and is almost exclusively encountered as a classic triad of seminal vesicle cysts, ejaculatory duct obstruction and renal agenesis. Patients can be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Recently, minimally invasive surgical techniques have emerged, superseding traditional surgery for select symptomatic cases. Our case highlights the finding of a rare clinical syndrome that was incidentally detected during a routine mass screening of military recruits in the Greek Armed Forces...
February 14, 2019: Military Medical Research
Robert Deiss, Morgan Byrne, Sara M Echols, Stephanie M Cammarata, Lynda Potswald, Eduardo Gomez, Jennifer A Curry, Eric Garges, Grace Macalino, Brian K Agan, Mary F Bavaro
BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal and anorectal reservoirs of gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are increasingly recognized among heterosexual women. While a number of studies performed at sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics have found a high prevalence of extragenital GC/CT infection, such screening is typically not offered during routine primary care visits for women. We sought to define the prevalence of and factors associated with extragenital GC/CT among women in the U.S. Navy. METHODS: We recruited servicewomen stationed in San Diego, California, between the ages of 18 and 25 who presented for an annual physical exam between January and September, 2017...
January 29, 2019: Military Medical Research
Heinrich W Nolte, Kim Nolte, Tamara Hew-Butler
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if ad libitum water drinking, as a hydration strategy, prevents exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) during prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of EAH within the broader context of fluid regulation among soldiers performing a 40-km route-march ingesting water ad libitum. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy male soldiers participated in this observational trial. Pre- and post-exercise body mass, blood and urine samples were collected...
January 25, 2019: Military Medical Research
Gang Lv, Guo-Qiang Wang, Zhen-Xi Xia, Hai-Xia Wang, Nan Liu, Wei Wei, Yong-Hua Huang, Wei-Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: To study the influence of blood lipid levels on hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and prognosis after acute cerebral infarction (ACI). METHODS: Patients with ACI within 72 h of symptoms onset between January 1st, 2015, and December 31st, 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into group A (without HT) and group B (HT). The outcomes were assessed after 3 months of disease onset using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). An mRS score of 0-2 points indicated excellent prognosis, and an mRS score of 3-6 points indicated poor prognosis...
January 22, 2019: Military Medical Research
Ahmad M Malkawi, Ree M Meertens, Stef P J Kremers, Ester F C Sleddens
BACKGROUND: Research has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of weight management, dietary and physical activity interventions in military settings. However, a recent and comprehensive overview is lacking. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the evidence and describe key components of effective interventions in terms of improving body composition, dietary behaviors, and physical activity among active-duty military personnel. METHODS: PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were searched on the 17th of November 2017 to identify interventions that promoted diet and/or physical activity among active-duty military personnel...
December 24, 2018: Military Medical Research
Joseph Betcher, Torben K Becker, Peter Stoyanoff, Jim Cranford, Nik Theyyunni
BACKGROUND: Identification of elevated intracranial pressure is important following traumatic brain injury. We assessed the feasibility of educating military trainees on accurately obtaining optic nerve sheath diameter measurements using a brief didactic and hands-on training session. Optic nerve sheath diameter is a noninvasive surrogate marker for elevated intracranial pressure, and may be of value in remote military operations, where rapid triage decisions must be made without access to advanced medical equipment...
December 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
Katrin Schuy, Simone Dors, Loni Brants, Marie Horzetzky, Gerd Willmund, Andreas Ströhle, Peter Zimmermann, Heinrich Rau, Stefan Siegel
BACKGROUND: Military families who have a family member with a mental illness see themselves confronted with many demands. Stigmatization is one of these challenges. Stigmatization affects not only the individual who suffers from a mental illness but also other family members via stigma by association and vicarious stigma. Stigma by association occurs when mental illness stigma spills over to individuals associated with an individual with a mental illness. Vicarious stigma describes the suffering of family members when they note the impact of stigma on their relative with mental illness...
November 29, 2018: Military Medical Research
Hui Zhang, Yong-Wen Feng, Yong-Ming Yao
Recently, the definition of sepsis was concluded to be a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Severe patients always present with uncorrectable hypotension or hyperlactacidemia, which is defined as septic shock. The new definition emphasizes dysregulation of the host response and multiple organ dysfunction, which is partially attributed to metabolic disorders induced by energy crisis and oxidative stress. Mitochondria are a cellular organelle that are well known as the center of energy production, and mitochondrial damage or dysfunction is commonly induced in septic settings and is a predominant factor leading to a worse prognosis...
November 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Anisong Pilakasiri, Prasit Mahakit
BACKGROUND: It is crucial for the army to know the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome in active-duty army personnel. Little information has been reported on the prevalence of OSA and clinical features in active-duty army personnel. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of snoring and risk of developing OSA in active-duty army personnel in Thailand and to identify the co-morbidities of OSA. In total, 1107 participants who were aged 20-60 years and were deployed to the three southernmost provinces of Thailand were enrolled...
November 7, 2018: Military Medical Research
Joseph John Bevelacqua, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
This commentary addresses the article by Wu et al. entitled "On-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and countermeasures". In this article, the authors discussed the sleep problems of astronauts. Despite its challenging topic, the paper authored by Wu et al. has at least one major shortcoming. This issue is related to the observation that the sleep pattern of astronauts can be disturbed by light flash phenomenon. Since the first report by astronaut E.E. Aldrin in 1969, many astronauts have reported light flashes...
October 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Christian T Bautista, Eyako K Wurapa, Warren B Sateren, Bruce P Hollingsworth, Jose L Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Historically, sexually transmitted infections have affected the health of the U.S. military. To determine whether gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, genital herpes, and trichomoniasis are predictors of repeat chlamydia diagnoses among U.S. Army women, medical data reported into the Defense Medical Surveillance System during the 2006-2012 period were analyzed. METHODS: For all inpatient and outpatient medical records, the first and second International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) diagnostic positions were reviewed for each chlamydia case to determine the occurrence of repeat diagnoses...
October 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Elahe Faraji, Mostafa Allami, Nafiseh Feizollahi, Amir Karimi, Amir Yavari, Mohammadreza Soroush, Majid Moudi
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to identify health concerns of veterans with high-level lower extremity amputations. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study, general practitioners, an orthopedic specialist, psychologists, psychiatrists, physiotherapist and prosthetists examined 100 veterans using a short-form health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) that assessed their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and life satisfaction (SWLS) after hip disarticulation or hemi-pelvectomy amputations...
October 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Florian Bösch, Martin K Angele, Irshad H Chaudry
Despite efforts in prevention and intensive care, trauma and subsequent sepsis are still associated with a high mortality rate. Traumatic injury remains the main cause of death in people younger than 45 years and is thus a source of immense social and economic burden. In recent years, the knowledge concerning gender medicine has continuously increased. A number of studies have reported gender dimorphism in terms of response to trauma, shock and sepsis. However, the advantageous outcome following trauma-hemorrhage in females is not due only to sex...
October 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Zhao-Wen Zong, Zhi-Nong Wang, Si-Xu Chen, Hao Qin, Lian-Yang Zhang, Yue Shen, Lei Yang, Wen-Qiong Du, Can Chen, Xin Zhong, Lin Zhang, Jiang-Tao Huo, Li-Ping Kuai, Li-Xin Shu, Guo-Fu Du, Yu-Feng Zhao
The emergency treatment of thoracic injuries varies of general conditions and modern warfare. However, there are no unified battlefield treatment guidelines for thoracic injuries in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). An expert consensus has been reached based on the epidemiology of thoracic injuries and the concept of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. Since there are no differences in the specialized treatment for thoracic injuries between general conditions and modern warfare, first aid, emergency treatment, and early treatment of thoracic injuries are introduced separately in three levels in this consensus...
October 4, 2018: Military Medical Research
Gang Xu, Yu-Qi Gao, Yi-Xing Gao, Gang Wu, Jian-Yang Zhang, Wen-Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a primary cause of mountain sickness and a common pathological condition in patients with heart failure, shock, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus far, little advancement in countering hypoxic damage has been achieved, and one of the main reasons is the absence of an ideal algorithm or calculation method to normalize hypoxia tolerance scores when evaluating an animal model. In this study, we improved a traditional calculation formula for assessment of hypoxia tolerance...
September 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Xue-Rong Miao, Qian-Bo Chen, Kai Wei, Kun-Ming Tao, Zhi-Jie Lu
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic impairment disorder that occurs after exposure to traumatic events. This disorder can result in a disturbance to individual and family functioning, causing significant medical, financial, and social problems. This study is a selective review of literature aiming to provide a general outlook of the current understanding of PTSD. There are several diagnostic guidelines for PTSD, with the most recent editions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 being best accepted. Generally, PTSD is diagnosed according to several clusters of symptoms occurring after exposure to extreme stressors...
September 28, 2018: Military Medical Research
Ismael Flecha, Jason F Naylor, Steven G Schauer, Ryan A Curtis, Cord W Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage surpassed extremity hemorrhage as the leading cause of preventable death after the resurgence of limb tourniquets during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Junctional tourniquets (JTQs) were developed in response to this injury pattern. Published data for JTQ efficacy are limited and do not incorporate nonmedical, military first responders. We compared the time for effective placement and scores for device satisfaction between two different JTQs, stratified by combat lifesaver (CLS) and combat medics...
September 13, 2018: Military Medical Research
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