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Simon P Gregory, Megan J Barnett, Lorraine P Field, Antoni E Milodowski
Hydrogen is a key energy source for subsurface microbial processes, particularly in subsurface environments with limited alternative electron donors, and environments that are not well connected to the surface. In addition to consumption of hydrogen, microbial processes such as fermentation and nitrogen fixation produce hydrogen. Hydrogen is also produced by a number of abiotic processes including radiolysis, serpentinization, graphitization, and cataclasis of silicate minerals. Both biotic and abiotically generated hydrogen may become available for consumption by microorganisms, but biotic production and consumption are usually tightly coupled...
February 15, 2019: Microorganisms
Alexander S Reshetnikov, Natalia P Solntseva, Olga N Rozova, Ildar I Mustakhimov, Yuri A Trotsenko, Valentina N Khmelenina
The genes encoding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and polyphosphate (polyP)-dependent glucokinases (Glk) were identified in the aerobic obligate methanotroph Methylomonas sp. 12. The recombinant proteins were obtained by the heterologous expression of the glk genes in Esherichia coli . ATP-Glk behaved as a multimeric protein consisting of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexamers with a subunit molecular mass of 35.5 kDa. ATP-Glk phosphorylated glucose and glucosamine using ATP (100% activity), uridine triphosphate (UTP) (85%) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP) (71%) as a phosphoryl donor and exhibited the highest activity in the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ at pH 7...
February 14, 2019: Microorganisms
Bijun Wen, Amel Taibi, Christopher R Villa, Shin-Hann Lee, Sofia Sagaidak, Elena M Comelli
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that selected Bifidobacterium bifidum strains sustain intestinal homeostasis. This study aimed to examine whether the administration of B. bifidum MIMBb75 (BB75) attenuates Citrobacter rodentium infection, a murine model for enteric infection and inflammatory bowel disease in humans. C57Bl6/J mice were randomized to receive BB75 daily starting before or after C. rodentium infection. BB75 load and infection kinetics were monitored. On day 10 post-infection (p.i.), histological parameters of the large intestine were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Microorganisms
Daniel Garrido-Sanz, Miguel Redondo-Nieto, Elías Mongiardini, Esther Blanco-Romero, David Durán, Juan I Quelas, Marta Martin, Rafael Rivilla, Aníbal R Lodeiro, M Julia Althabegoiti
Dual flagellar systems have been described in several bacterial genera, but the extent of their prevalence has not been fully explored. Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110T possesses two flagellar systems, the subpolar and the lateral flagella. The lateral flagellum of Bradyrhizobium displays no obvious role, since its performance is explained by cooperation with the subpolar flagellum. In contrast, the lateral flagellum is the only type of flagella present in the related Rhizobiaceae family. In this work, we have analyzed the phylogeny of the Bradyrhizobium genus by means of Genome-to-Genome Blast Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) comparisons of 128 genomes and divided it into 13 phylogenomic groups...
February 13, 2019: Microorganisms
Catia Cillóniz, Cristina Dominedò, Antonello Nicolini, Antoni Torres
Worldwide, there is growing concern about the burden of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently complicated by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute cardiac events, resulting in significantly increased intensive care admission rates and mortality rates. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) remains the most common causative pathogen in CAP. However, several bacteria and respiratory viruses are responsible, and approximately 6% of cases are due to the so-called PES ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa , extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae , and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) pathogens...
February 12, 2019: Microorganisms
Mengmeng Zhao, Asuka Nanbo, Lichun Sun, Zhen Lin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are evolutionarily conserved phospholidpid membrane-bound entities secreted from most eukaryotic cell types. They carry bioactive cargos such as protein and nucleic acids derived from their cells of origin. Over the past 10 years, they have been attracting increased attention in many fields of life science, representing a new route for intercellular communication. In this review article, we will discuss the current knowledge of both normal and virally modified EVs in the regulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)'s life cycle and its associated pathogenesis...
February 11, 2019: Microorganisms
Zhen-Shan Deng, Bao-Cheng Zhang, Xiang-Ying Qi, Zhi-Hong Sun, Xiao-Long He, Yu-Zhen Liu, Jing Li, Kai-Kai Chen, Zhan-Xi Lin
Pennisetum sinese , a source of bio-energy with high biomass production, is a species that contains high crude protein and will be useful for solving the shortage of forage grass after the implementation of "Green for Grain" project in the Loess plateau of Northern Shaanxi in 1999. Plants may receive benefits from endophytic bacteria, such as the enhancement of plant growth or the reduction of plant stress. However, the composition of the endophytic bacterial community associated with the roots of P...
February 11, 2019: Microorganisms
Giovanni Pilloni, Anne Bayer, Bettina Ruth-Anneser, Lucas Fillinger, Marion Engel, Christian Griebler, Tillmann Lueders
Aquifers are typically perceived as rather stable habitats, characterized by low biogeochemical and microbial community dynamics. Upon contamination, aquifers shift to a perturbed ecological status, in which specialized populations of contaminant degraders establish and mediate aquifer restoration. However, the ecological controls of such degrader populations, and possible feedbacks between hydraulic and microbial habitat components, remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence of such couplings, via 4 years of annual sampling of groundwater and sediments across a high-resolution depth-transect of a hydrocarbon plume...
February 9, 2019: Microorganisms
Emily Schifano, Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Marianna Roselli, Sante Marcoccia, Chiara Devirgiliis, Daniela Uccelletti
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in several food fermentations and many of them provide strain-specific health benefits. Herein, the probiotic potential of the foodborne strain Lactobacillus fermentum MBC2 was investigated through in vitro and in vivo approaches. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model to analyze pro-longevity and anti-aging effects. L. fermentum MBC2 showed a high gut colonization capability compared to E. coli OP50 (OP50) or L. rhamnosus GG (LGG). Moreover, analysis of pumping rate, lipofuscin accumulation, and body bending showed anti-aging effects in L...
February 7, 2019: Microorganisms
Daniela Bulgari, Matteo Montagna, Emanuela Gobbi, Franco Faoro
The recent and massive revival of green strategies to control plant diseases, mainly as a consequence of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) rules issued in 2009 by the European Community and the increased consumer awareness of organic products, poses new challenges for human health and food security that need to be addressed in the near future. One of the most important green technologies is biocontrol. This approach is based on living organisms and how these biocontrol agents (BCAs) directly or indirectly interact as a community to control plant pathogens and pest...
February 6, 2019: Microorganisms
Agata Zdarta, Wojciech Smułek, Amanda Pacholak, Ewa Kaczorek
This paper analyzes the impact of saponins from English ivy leaves on the properties of environmental bacterial strains and hydrocarbon degradation ability. For this purpose, two bacterial strains, Raoultella ornitinolytica M03 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus M1B, have been used in toluene, 4-chlorotoluene, and α,α,α-trifluorotoluene biodegradation supported by Hedera helix extract. Moreover, theeffects of ivy exposition on cell properties and extract toxicity were investigated. The extract was found to cause minor differences in cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and Zeta potential, although it adhered to the cell surface...
February 5, 2019: Microorganisms
Lauren Auster, Morgan Sutton, Mary Chandler Gwin, Christopher Nitkin, Tracey L Bonfield
Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is a complication of lung disease in immunocompromised patients, including those with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). The most widespread, disease-causing NTM is Mycobacterium avium complex ( MAC ), which colonizes the lungs as a combination of Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium intracellulare , and other mycobacterial species. While combination drug therapy exists for MAC colonization, there is no cure...
February 1, 2019: Microorganisms
Shanthi G Parkar, Andries Kalsbeek, James F Cheeseman
This article reviews the current evidence associating gut microbiota with factors that impact host circadian-metabolic axis, such as light/dark cycles, sleep/wake cycles, diet, and eating patterns. We examine how gut bacteria possess their own daily rhythmicity in terms of composition, their localization to intestinal niches, and functions. We review evidence that gut bacteria modulate host rhythms via microbial metabolites such as butyrate, polyphenolic derivatives, vitamins, and amines. Lifestyle stressors such as altered sleep and eating patterns that may disturb the host circadian system also influence the gut microbiome...
January 31, 2019: Microorganisms
Marie Vandermies, Patrick Fickers
Recombinant protein production represents a multibillion-dollar market. Therefore, it constitutes an important research field both in academia and industry. The use of yeast as a cell factory presents several advantages such as ease of genetic manipulation, growth at high cell density, and the possibility of post-translational modifications. Yarrowia lipolytica is considered as one of the most attractive hosts due to its ability to metabolize raw substrate, to express genes at a high level, and to secrete protein in large amounts...
January 30, 2019: Microorganisms
Kundan Kumar, Fizza Askari, Mahima Sagar Sahu, Rupinder Kaur
Candida glabrata is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes superficial mucosal and life-threatening bloodstream infections in individuals with a compromised immune system. Evolutionarily, it is closer to the non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae than to the most prevalent Candida bloodstream pathogen, C. albicans . C. glabrata is a haploid budding yeast that predominantly reproduces clonally. In this review, we summarize interactions of C. glabrata with the host immune, epithelial and endothelial cells, and the ingenious strategies it deploys to acquire iron and phosphate from the external environment...
January 30, 2019: Microorganisms
Isaac Kwadwo Mpanga, Peteh Mehdi Nkebiwe, Mira Kuhlmann, Vincenza Cozzolino, Alessandro Piccolo, Jörg Geistlinger, Nils Berger, Uwe Ludewig, Günter Neumann
Phosphate-(P)-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) are important drivers of P cycling in natural and agro-ecosystems. Their use as plant inoculants to improve P acquisition of crops has been investigated for decades. However, limited reproducibility of the expected effects, particularly under field conditions, remains a major challenge. This study demonstrates that the form of nitrogen fertilization has a significant impact on the performance of various fungal and bacterial PSM inoculants in maize grown on neutral to alkaline soils with limited P availability...
January 29, 2019: Microorganisms
Bernd Wemheuer, Torsten Thomas, Franziska Wemheuer
Despite the importance of endophytic fungi for plant health, it remains unclear how these fungi are influenced by grassland management practices. Here, we investigated the effect of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on fungal endophyte communities and their life strategies in aerial tissues of three agriculturally important grass species ( Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L. and Lolium perenne L.) over two consecutive years. Our results showed that the management practices influenced fungal communities in the plant holobiont, but observed effects differed between grass species and sampling year...
January 27, 2019: Microorganisms
Joseph A Hakim, Julie B Schram, Aaron W E Galloway, Casey D Morrow, Michael R Crowley, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (order Camarodonta, family Strongylocentrotidae) can be found dominating low intertidal pool biomass on the southern coast of Oregon, USA. In this case study, three adult sea urchins were collected from their shared intertidal pool, and the bacteriome of their pharynx, gut tissue, and gut digesta, including their tide pool water and algae, was determined using targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA genes and bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut tissue demonstrated Arcobacter and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria) to be abundant, whereas the gut digesta was dominated by Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Propionigenium (Fusobacteria), and Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes)...
January 26, 2019: Microorganisms
Chuying Chen, Wenwen Qi, Xuan Peng, Jinyin Chen, Chunpeng Wan
7-demethoxytylophorine (DEM) is a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid, which is reported to be effective in inhibiting leucocytes and regulation of human immunity. However, few studies reported the inhibitory effect of DEM against plant-pathogenic fungi, particularly postharvest pathogen Penicillium italicum ( P. italicum ). Current studies have investigated the antifungal activity of DEM through membrane damage and energy deficit in P. italicum . The results showed that the DEM potentially inhibits the growth of P...
January 26, 2019: Microorganisms
Deepesh Kumar Neelam, Akhil Agrawal, Anuj Kumar Tomer, Shreetama Bandyopadhayaya, Ankit Sharma, Medicharla V Jagannadham, Chandi C Mandal, Pawan K Dadheech
Microorganisms thrive in extreme environments and are known for synthesizing valuable metabolites. Salt-loving microorganisms can flourish in saline environments which inhibit the growth of other microbial life, and they possess the potential to produce stable and novel biomolecules for the use in biotechnological applications, including anticancer compounds. Sambhar Lake is the largest inland soda lake in India and is an appropriate habitat for halophilic bacterial and archaeal strains in terms of diversity and potential production of bioactive compounds...
January 26, 2019: Microorganisms
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