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Neuroscience Journal

Emanuela Paldino, Carmela Giampà, Elena Montagna, Cecilia Angeloni, Francesca R Fusco
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease due to an expansion of a trinucleotide repeats in IT15 gene encoding for the protein huntingtin. Motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disorder are typical clinical signs of HD. In HD, mutated huntingtin causes a major loss of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), causing striatal atrophy. Moreover, a key involvement of BDNF was observed in the synaptic plasticity that controls the acquisition and/or consolidation of certain forms of memory...
2019: Neuroscience Journal
Sacha Clael, Elaine Brandão, Liana Caland, Raquel Techmeier, Tamara de Paiva, Jhonatan Rodrigues, Camila Wells, Lídia Bezerra
Background: Parkinson's disease is responsible for decrease of activities of daily living and mobility limitations. Association of strength with physical capacities and disease time can improve training methodologies and predict changes in physical fitness for this population, since the control center of movements and strength is the same. Objective: Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze if there are correlation between strength with functional tests (the sit-to-stand, the six-minute walk, and the timed-up-go) and disease time in people with Parkinson's disease...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
Gahangir Hossain, Mark H Myers, Robert Kozma
Research in last few years on neurophysiology focused on several areas across the cortex during cognitive processing to determine the dominant direction of electrical activity. However, information about the frequency and direction of episodic synchronization related to higher cognitive functions remain unclear. Our aim was to determine whether neural oscillations carry perceptual information as spatial patterns across the cortex, which could be found in the scalp EEG of human subjects while being engaged in visual sensory stimulation...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
Soichiro Nakahara, Megumi Adachi, Hiroyuki Ito, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Katsunori Tajinda, Theo G M van Erp
Accumulating evidence points to the association of epilepsy, particularly, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Among these illnesses, the hippocampus is considered the regional focal point of the brain, playing an important role in cognition, psychosis, and seizure activity and potentially suggesting common etiologies and pathophysiology of TLE and schizophrenia. In the present review, we overview abnormal network connectivity between the dentate gyrus (DG) and the Cornus Ammonis area 3 (CA3) subregions of the hippocampus relative to the induction of epilepsy and schizophrenia...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
Puneet Dheer, Ganne Chaitanya, Diana Pizarro, Rosana Esteller, Kaushik Majumdar, Sandipan Pati
Objective: Studies have demonstrated the utility of closed-loop neuromodulation in treating focal onset seizures. There is an utmost need of neurostimulation therapy for generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The study goals are to map the thalamocortical network dynamics during the generalized convulsive seizures and identify targets for reliable seizure detection. Methods: Local field potentials were recorded from bilateral cortex, hippocampi, and centromedian thalami in Sprague-Dawley rats...
2017: Neuroscience Journal
Ave Minajeva, Marju Kase, Mikk Saretok, Aidi Adamson-Raieste, Sandra Kase, Kristi Niinepuu, Markus Vardja, Toomas Asser, Jana Jaal
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most angiogenic tumor. Nevertheless, antiangiogenic therapy has not shown significant clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess blood vessel characteristics on survival of GB patients. Surgically excised GB tissues were histologically examined for overall proportion of glomeruloid microvascular proliferation (MP) and the total number of blood vessels. Also, immunohistochemical vascular staining intensities of CD133 and ICAM-1 were determined. Vessel parameters were correlated with patients' overall survival...
2017: Neuroscience Journal
José Jaime Herrera-Pérez, Venus Benítez-Coronel, Graciela Jiménez-Rubio, Olivia Tania Hernández-Hernández, Lucía Martínez-Mota
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/5317242.].
2017: Neuroscience Journal
Ashutosh Pandey, Pradeep Sahota, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christopher R Newey
Objective. Research continues to highlight variability in hospital policy and documentation of brain death. The aim of our study was to characterize how strictly new guidelines of American Academy of Neurology (AAN) for death by neurological criteria were practiced in our hospital prior to appointment of neurointensivists. Method. This is a retrospective study of adults diagnosed as brain dead from 2011 to 2015. Descriptive statistics compared five categories: preclinical testing, neurological examination, apnea tests, ancillary test, and documentation of time of death...
2017: Neuroscience Journal
Rocco Cavaleri, Siobhan M Schabrun, Lucy S Chipchase
The delivery of five stimuli to each cranial site is recommended during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) mapping. However, this time-consuming practice restricts the use of TMS mapping beyond the research environment. While reducing the number of stimuli administered to each cranial site may improve efficiency and decrease physiological demand, doing so may also compromise the procedure's validity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the minimum number of stimuli per cranial site required to obtain valid outcomes during TMS mapping...
2017: Neuroscience Journal
V Krishnan, I Khoo, P Marayong, K DeMars, J Cormack
Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months) stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Nathalie Ribeiro Artigas, Giovana Duarte Eltz, Alexandre Severo do Pinho, Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti Torman, Arlete Hilbig, Carlos R M Rieder
Background. Changes in proprioception may contribute to postural instability in individuals with neurological disorders. Objectives. Evaluate proprioception in the lower limbs of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the association between proprioception and cognitive ability, motor symptoms, postural instability, and disease severity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional, controlled study that evaluated proprioception in PD patients and healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Kinetic postural proprioception of the knee was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex® Multi-Joint System 4 Pro)...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Fatima Zahra Taoufiqi, Jamal Mounach, Amal Satte, Hamid Ouhabi, Aboubaker El Hessni
Objective. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of pathological cerebral activity responses to intermittent rhythmic photic stimulation (IPS) after a single epileptic seizure. Patients and Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven EEGs were performed at the Neurophysiology Department of Mohamed V Teaching Military Hospital in Rabat. Clinical and EEG data was collected. Results. 9.5% of our patients had photoparoxysmal discharges (PPD). Incidence was higher in males than in females, but p value was not significant (p = 0...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Ali Haghnegahdar, Mahsa Sedighi
Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Peter Novak
Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Herrera-Pérez José Jaime, Benítez-Coronel Venus, Jiménez-Rubio Graciela, Hernández-Hernández Olivia Tania, Martínez-Mota Lucía
In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Hongjie Wang, Ruizhi Wang, Shaohua Xu, Madepalli K Lakshmana
Multiple studies suggest that autophagy is strongly dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as evidenced by accumulation of numerous autophagosomes, lysosomes with discontinuous membranes, and aggregated proteins in the patients' brains. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) was recently discovered to be a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. To examine whether aberrant autophagy in AD and ALS is due to alterations in TFEB expression, we systematically quantified the levels of TFEB in these brains by immunoblotting...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Vivien Parker, Jodi Warman Chardon, Julie Mills, Claire Goldsmith, Pierre R Bourque
Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Jasem Y Al-Hashel, Samar Farouk Ahmed, Hanouf Al-Mutairi, Shahd Hassan, Nora Al-Awadhi, Mariam Al-Saraji
Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Emanuela Zagni, Lucia Simoni, Delia Colombo
There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
Sheena Sharma, Priti Gupta, C M Markan
Stereopsis or depth perception is a critical aspect of information processing in the brain and is computed from the positional shift or disparity between the images seen by the two eyes. Various algorithms and their hardware implementation that compute disparity in real time have been proposed; however, most of them compute disparity through complex mathematical calculations that are difficult to realize in hardware and are biologically unrealistic. The brain presumably uses simpler methods to extract depth information from the environment and hence newer methodologies that could perform stereopsis with brain like elegance need to be explored...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
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