Amir R Reihani, Naveen Jayakumar, Ricardo Searcy, Anderson N Vu, Anil Perumbeti, Justin Thomas
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection primarily Endemic in the Southwest United States. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis is a life-threatening variant that mainly occurs in an immunocompromised host. This report describes an unusual presentation of disseminated Coccidioidomycosis in an immunocompetent individual. The patient was admitted with a subacute cough, progressively worsening shortness of breath, significant weight loss, nodular skin lesions in upper extremities, and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Marco Ceccarelli, Manuel D'Onofrio, Vincenzo Ambrogi, Matteo Russo
This case report presents a numerical evaluation of respiration in terms of biomechanical parameters of chest motion. This experimental evaluation is performed with RESPIRholter, a wearable device specifically developed to monitor the movement in the ribcage through the motion of the sixth rib whose characteristic motion is considered as representative of the motion of the thorax. Here we present test results acquired with a RESPIRholter device in a 6-h acquisition. These results characterize respiration biomechanics for diagnostic purposes in a chest surgery patient, highlighting the diagnostic utility of RESPIRholter in the identification of post-operation respiratory problem...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Masayuki Watanabe, Ryo Okuda, Yuriko Ishida, Shinobu Sagawa, Tatsuya Muraoka, Satoshi Ikeda, Tomoe Sawazumi, Tamiko Takemura, Eri Hagiwara, Takashi Ogura
A 73-year-old man visited our hospital for persistent cough. Chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) showed infiltration shadows in lower lobes and diffuse ground glass opacities in the upper lobes. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell, C-reactive protein, surfactant protein D, and Krebs von den Lungen-6 levels. After an antigen avoidance test, his HRCT and blood test findings improved; we diagnosed him with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). A culture of the rotting interior walls within his home revealed Paecilomyces , which we believe caused his HP...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Kei Kanata, Toshihiro Shirai, Yutaro Ito, Koshiro Ichijo, Masahiro Uehara
A 70-year-old woman had been treated with methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis by a rheumatologist who opened a clinic near our hospital. In January of a certain year, she had respiratory symptoms of cough, sputum, and fever. Laboratory test results showed a white blood cell count of 8600/μL (neutrophil count of 5330/μL, lymphocyte count of 2490 μ/L), C-reactive protein (CRP) of 3.30 mg/dL. Chest radiography showed multiple infiltrative shadows in the right middle and lower lobes. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) lymphocyte count was increased (65...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Daniel Van Kalsbeek, Abedel Rahman Anani, Karim El-Kersh
Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by sclerosing fibrosis of mediastinal structures. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) may complicate the course of the disease and can contribute significantly to the morbidity of FM. Due to the rarity and complexity of the disease, evidence-based guidelines are not currently available, and the optimal treatment approach is unknown. Management approaches should be individualized, and current techniques are often unsatisfactory. Here, we present two cases of PH complicating FM that were managed using pulmonary artery vasodilator therapy with excellent hemodynamic response...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Joyce K Y Wu, Jessica Jia-Ni Xu, Anastasiia Vasileva, Cynthia Nohra, Matthew Binnie, Shane Shapera, Jolene H Fisher, Clodagh M Ryan, Micheal McInnis, Zoltán Hantos, Chung-Wai Chow
Oscillometry is an emerging pulmonary function testing tool that is conducted during tidal breaths with minimal patient effort. It is highly sensitive to changes in lung mechanics. Oscillometry was recently shown to be highly associated with disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The usefulness of oscillometry after single lung transplant in IPF patients is not well understood. Our study demonstrated that oscillometry can detect changes in the graft despite presence of a native fibrotic lung to provide useful information to complement spirometry...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Liwei Ni, Zhen Wu, Jing Huang
A 52-year-old female patient receiving olaparib maintenance treatment was admitted to hospital with a low fever and chest tightness. A CT scan of the patient's chest showed diffuse ground glass shadow or miliary nodular shadow in the bilateral lungs. Her inflammatory biomarkers were almost normal, except the slightly elevated C-reactive protein. Moreover, lymphocytes count obviously decreased. Empirical treatment did not relieve her symptoms, while traditional testing developed negative results. The results of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) revealed the presence of a potential pathogen, Actinomyces odontolyticus (A...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Ning Cui, Jingluan Wang, Yanmei Shao, Jingming Zhao, Zhaozhong Cheng
A 27-year-old female visited our hospital with a history of asthma, peripheral blood eosinophilia, increased total IgE, Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE, reversible mild bronchiectasis, sinusitis, bronchial mucus plugs and cultivation of Aspergillus from BALF. Glucocorticoids therapy is effective. These results met the diagnostic criteria for both allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPM) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Special attention should be paid to the possibility of both diseases coexisting in the disease process...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Zifang Li, Yu Sheng, Dongdong Huang
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) is rarely found in community respiratory infections, and there are currently no reports of hemorrhagic bronchitis caused by its infection. This work presents a case of bronchial bleeding in a diabetic patient who acquired a community-acquired infection of CR-AB. Treatment with levofloxacin was unsuccessful, as the patient's hemoptysis symptoms recur. The patient was treated with minocycline based on the drug sensitivity test, resulting in the disappearance of hemoptysis symptoms...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Mitsuteru Yosida, Mitsuru Tomita, Naoya Kawakita, Teruki Shimizu, Ryou Yamada, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Hisanori Uehara
Unusual lung adenocarcinoma with morule-like components is characterized by uniform, tightly packed spindle-shaped cells filling the lumens of neoplastic glandular structures. We present a case of a 78-year-old woman who presented with a part-solid ground-glass nodule in the upper lobe of the right lung. Following right upper lobectomy, histological examination revealed adenocarcinoma in-situ with multiple morule-like intra-alveolar proliferative nests of epithelial cells. Immunostaining was positive for thyroid-transcription factor 1 in the tumor cells and morule-like components...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Jia Wang, Long Tian, Bin Liu
This study presents a rare case of plastic bronchitis (PB) in a 57-year-old adult post-lung lobectomy, a condition predominantly found in post-Fontan children. The patient exhibited progressive dyspnea and complete atelectasis on the surgical side, revealing a gray rubbery bronchial cast obstructing the right main bronchus. Treatment involved repeated bronchoscopies, glucocorticoids, acetylcysteine, physiotherapy, and a low-fat diet, leading to gradual improvement. No similar cases have been reported, highlighting PB's diagnostic challenge...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Ying Ju Chao, Ping Tsun Lai, Yen Ting Lai, Che Jen Chao
The optimal treatment of acute chemical pneumonitis remains controversial. Here we report a healthy man with severe chemical pneumonitis caused by accidental inhalation of vanadium pentoxide. He presented with acute respiratory distress and received aggressive steroid therapy on arrival. Pulmonary symptoms and chest X-ray were improved dramatically the next day. The beneficial effect of steroid therapy for such a critical patient may outweigh the infection risk following inhalation of relative sterile material...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Fumihiro Kashizaki, Kenji Konishi, Chihiro Yamada, Shunsuke Okazaki, Hao Chen, Atsushi Miyasaka, Nanami Tsuchiya, Akitomo Kikuchi, Kentaro Yumoto, Yui Kojima, Hiroyuki Osawa, Harumi Koizumi, Kenichi Takahashi, Takeshi Kaneko
Inflammatory endobronchial polyps (IEPs) are rare, benign bronchial tumors posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges owing to limited data. A 55-year-old man, receiving treatment for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, presented with a one-week history of fever and purulent sputum. Diagnosed with pneumonia, he received antimicrobial treatment. However, because of persistent symptoms, an endobronchial tumor was suspected on computed tomography. IEP was confirmed through flexible bronchoscopy with forceps biopsy, and polyp removal improved symptoms, lung function, and imaging...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Piyarat Limpawittayakul, Supinda Petchjorm, Worawong Chueansuwan, Wanvisa Boonfueang
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic drug widely used in breast cancer treatment. While common side effects are possible, paclitaxel-induced pneumonitis is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1%-5% and a high mortality rate. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old Thai woman diagnosed with stage II right breast cancer. She received adjuvant chemotherapy comprising doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, followed by weekly paclitaxel. After the ninth paclitaxel cycle, she developed acute respiratory failure...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Sophie Buckley, Emily O'Reilly, Deirdre Doyle, Desmond Murphy
We describe the case of a young male, with no significant medical history, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe respiratory compromise. He suffered a respiratory arrest shortly after presentation. An initial chest x-ray performed post intubation revealed bilateral pneumothoraces with evidence of abnormal underlying lungs. Through a series of investigations, he was diagnosed with Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histocystosis. In this article, we outline the initial presentation, subsequent acute management and the clinical course pertaining to this man's presentation...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Ali Hossein Samadi Takaldani, Nima Javanshir, Amirpasha Mansour, Asma Salmani, Mohammad Negaresh
Hemoptysis is a common clinical symptom in emergency patients. It is characterized by the discharge of bloody sputum, which originates from the lower respiratory tract. In the majority of cases, this event is self-limiting, and only in less than 5% of cases, it is massive. Mitral valve stenosis is an uncommon cause of hemoptysis, with a prevalence of 4.2%. In rare cases of this condition, massive and sudden hemoptysis occurs, which is called pulmonary apoplexy. Here, a 35-year-old woman with a history of mitral valve stenosis is introduced who was referred to the hospital with a complaint of massive hemoptysis and sudden shortness of breath...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Zackary Anderson, Alex Ashkin, Noelle Messina, Carl Ruthman, David Lindner
Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM), a rare disorder that is further classified as excessive fibrous tissue that occurs within the mediastinum. Classically, presenting with manifestations dependent on where the fibrous tissue is located. In rare instances, compression of pulmonary vasculature can lead to Pulmonary Hypertension. Pulmonary Hypertension- Fibrosing Mediastinitis (PH-FM) represents a rare complication with minimal available data on incidence. In regards to all-cause mortality, no specific data regarding the prognosis of PH-FM exist...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Bimaje Akpa, Hem Desai
Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a congenital clinical abnormality that is rarely diagnosed in adulthood. Due to its rarity and heterogeneity as it pertains to its clinical presentation, it may be difficult to diagnose, often leading to misdiagnosis. We present a case of UAPA with unilateral pulmonary fibrosis which was misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). We describe the symptomology, physical examination findings, laboratory values and radiologic findings...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Zhen Huang, Tao Cheng, Guangwen Chen
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare and fatal lung disease. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is the main community-acquired pneumonia among children aged 5 and above in China. We report the following case of IPH complicated with severe mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia(SMPP). An 8-year-old boy with cough and fever was diagnosed with IPH for 3 years and his chest computed tomography showed bilateral bronchopneumonia, lobular consolidation and subpleural interstitial fibrosis. As far as we know, IPH related to SMPP is rarely reported...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Daniel J Greenberg, Sana Ali, Amit Chopra, Nagendra Madisi
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease most commonly affecting the lungs but also can rarely manifest as pleural effusions. Sarcoidosis associated pleural effusion occurs in around 1% of patients with sarcoidosis. Pleural fluid is typically exudative, lymphocyte predominant, with high pleural protein levels and normal or mildly elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Diagnosis involves excluding other etiologies of this pleural effusion and can be made clinically or definitively with pleural biopsy showing noncaseating granulomas...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
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