Anke Chen, Ning Fang, Zhifei Zhang, Yiqing Wen, Yajie Shen, Yanjie Zhang, Lu Zhang, Guoping Zhao, Jin Ding, Jixi Li
Abstract The global outbreak of Mpox, caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), has attracted international attention and become another major infectious disease event after COVID-19. The mRNA cap N7 methyltransferase (RNMT) of MPXV methylates the N7 position of the added guanosine to the 5'-cap structure of mRNAs and plays a vital role in evading host antiviral immunity. MPXV RNMT is composed of the large subunit E1 and the small subunit E12. How E1 and E12 of MPXV assembly remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of E12, the MTase domain of E1 with E12 (E1CTD -E12) complex, and the E1CTD -E12-SAM ternary complex, revealing the detailed conformations of critical residues and the structural changes upon E12 binding to E1...
June 14, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yulong Wang, Linjin Fan, Pengfei Ye, Zequn Wang, Chudan Liang, Quan Liu, Xiaofeng Yang, Zhenyu Long, Wendi Shi, Yuandong Zhou, Jingyan Lin, Huijun Yan, Hongxin Huang, Linna Liu, Jun Qian
Abstract Nipah virus (NiV), a highly pathogenic Henipavirus in humans, has been responsible for annual outbreaks in recent years. Experiments revolving live NiV are highly restricted to biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories, which impedes NiV research. In this study, we developed a transcription and replication-competent NiV-like particles (trVLP-NiV) lacking N, P, and L genes. This trVLP-NiV exhibited the ability to infect and continuously passage in cells ectopically expressing N, P, and L proteins while maintaining stable genetic characteristics...
June 12, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Joël Doté, Marie-Line Joffret, Bertille Ndombari Beta, Mohand Ait-Ahmed, Virginie Banga-Mingo, Nick J Knowles, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Marie-Noël MBaïkoua, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Maël Bessaud
Abstract To characterize enteroviruses (EVs) circulating in farm animals in Central African Republic (CAR), we screened 192 stools of animals under 12 months belonging to family farms located in or near Bangui. To assess whether EV exchanges exist between these animals and humans, we also screened 197 stools of children who lived in contact with farm animals, as well as control stools of 256 children with no contact with farm animals. EVs were typed based on their capsid sequences. In children, all EVs belonged to species A, B and C, with EV-Cs accounting for 60%...
June 12, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Qian Li, Cheng Wang, Jizhou Gou, Simo Kitanovski, XiangYi Tang, Yixuan Cai, Chenxia Zhang, Xiling Zhang, Zhenfeng Zhang, Yuanwang Qiu, Fang Zhao, Mengji Lu, Yun He, Jun Wang, Hongzhou Lu
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of mortality among individuals coinfected with HIV, characterized by progressive pulmonary inflammation. Despite TB's hallmark being focal granulomatous lung lesions, our understanding of the histopathological features and regulation of inflammation in HIV & TB coinfection remains incomplete. In this study, we aimed to elucidate these histopathological features through an immunohistochemistry analysis of HIV & TB co-infected and TB patients, revealing marked differences...
June 10, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Na Chen, Jiayu Jin, Baoge Zhang, Qi Meng, Yuanlu Lu, Bing Liang, Lulu Deng, Bingchen Qiao, Lucheng Zheng, Jihui Ping
The public's health is gravely at risk due to the current global outbreak of emerging viruses, specifically SARS-CoV-2 and MPXV. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 mutants (such as Omicron) exhibit a higher capability to antagonize the host innate immunity, increasing their human adaptability and transmissibility. Furthermore, current studies on the strategies for MPXV to antagonize the host innate immunity are still in the initial stages. These multiple threats from emerging viruses make it urgent to study emerging virus-host interactions, especially the viral antagonism of host antiviral innate immunity...
June 7, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Sang-Ik Oh, Sunirmal Sheet, Vuong Nghia Bui, Duy Tung Dao, Ngoc Anh Bui, Tae-Hun Kim, Jihye Cha, Mi-Rim Park, Tai-Young Hur, Young-Hun Jung, Bumseok Kim, Hu Suk Lee, Ara Cho, Dajeong Lim
African swine fever, caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious and fatal disease that poses a significant threat to the global pig industry. The limited information on ASFV pathogenesis and ASFV-host interactions has recently prompted numerous transcriptomic studies. However, most of these studies have focused on elucidating the transcriptome profiles of ASFV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro . Here, we analyzed dynamic transcriptional patterns in vivo in nine organ tissues (spleen, submandibular lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, inguinal lymph node, tonsils, lungs, liver, kidneys, and heart) obtained from pigs in the early stages of ASFV infection (1 and 3 d after viremia)...
June 7, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Pengfei Cui, Yichao Zhuang, Yaping Zhang, Lei Chen, Puze Chen, Jiaqi Li, Lulu Feng, Qin Chen, Fei Meng, Huanliang Yang, Yongping Jiang, Guohua Deng, Jianzhong Shi, Hualan Chen, Huihui Kong
ABSTRACT Recently, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1), which carries the clade hemagglutinin (HA) gene and has been prevalent among North American bird populations since the winter of 2021, was reported in dairy cows in the United States. As of May 24, 2024, the virus has affected 63 dairy herds across nine states and has resulted in two human infections. The virus causes unusual symptoms in dairy cows, including an unexpected drop in milk production, and thick colostrum-like milk...
June 4, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Cynthia Y Tang, Cheng Gao, Kritika Prasai, Tao Li, Shreya Dash, Jane A McElroy, Jun Hang, Xiu-Feng Wan
Individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from no symptoms to death. Using the Virus-Human Outcomes Prediction (ViHOP) algorithm, we aim to utilize the individual's clinical characteristics, the individual's location, and the infecting SARS-CoV-2 virus characteristics obtained by whole genome sequencing to determine their likelihood of admission to the hospital, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), or experiencing long COVID. This model allows clinicians to identify at-risk patients for further monitoring and/or early treatment...
June 3, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Marco Falchieri, Scott M Reid, Akbar Dastderji, Jonathan Cracknell, Caroline J Warren, Benjamin C Mollett, Jacob Peers-Dent, Audra-Lynne D Schlachter, Natalie Mcginn, Richard Hepple, Saumya Thomas, Susan Ridout, Jen Quayle, Romain Pizzi, Alejandro Núñez, Alexander M P Byrne, Joe James, Ashley C Banyard
Europe has suffered unprecedented epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) clade H5N1 since Autumn 2021. As well as impacting upon commercial and wild avian species, the virus has also infected mammalian species more than ever observed previously. Mammalian species involved in spill over events have primarily been scavenging terrestrial carnivores and farmed mammalian species although marine mammals have also been affected. Alongside reports of detections in mammalian species found dead through different surveillance schemes, several mass mortality events have been reported in farmed and wild animals...
June 3, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Liu Ying, Sun Qiang, Xiao Jinbo, Ren Binzhi, Zhao Hua, Shi Yong, Zhou Shuaifeng, Hong Mei, Zhou Kangping, Cun Jianping, Zeng Yunting, Chen Jianhua, Ge Qiong, Ju Yu, Lu Huanhuan, Li Jichen, Cong Ruyi, Yang Tingting, Wang Rui, Zong Yanjun, Sun Tiantian, Yu Liheng, Wang Xiaoyi, Zhu Shuangli, Yan Dongmei, Ji Tianjiao, Yang Qian, Zhu Zhen, Zhang Yong
Echovirus 11 (E11) has gained attention owing to its association with severe neonatal infections. From 2018 to 2023, a surge in severe neonatal cases and fatalities linked to a novel variant of genotype D5 was documented in China, France, and Italy. However, the prevention and control of E11 variants have been hampered by limited background data on the virus circulation and genetic variance. Therefore, the present study investigated the circulating dynamics of E11 and the genetic variation and molecular evolution of genotype D5 through the collection of strains from the national acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) surveillance system in China during 2000-2022 and genetic sequences published in the GenBank database...
June 3, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Cintia Fabbri, Marta Giovanetti, Victoria Luppo, Vagner Fonseca, Jorge Garcia, Cintia Barulli, Mariel Feroci, Sofia Perrone, Doraldina Casoni, Sergio Giamperetti, Maria Cristina Alvarez Lopez, Maria Delia Foussal, Mauricio Figueredo, Karina Salvatierra, Sergio Lejona, Natalia Ruiz Diaz, Gonzalo Castro, Gabriela Bravo, Noelia Jackel, Carina Sen, Tomás Poklepovich Caride, Leticia Franco, Carlos Giovachini, Jairo Mendez Rico, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara, Maria Alejandra Morales
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as a significant public health concern due to its rapid spread and potential for causing debilitating epidemics. In Argentina, the virus has garnered attention since its introduction to the Americas in 2013, due to its growing incidence and impact in neighboring countries. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of CHIKV in Argentina, focusing on the evolutionary trajectory of its genetic variants. Through a combination of active surveillance, screening of historical and recent samples, and whole-genome sequencing, we traced the evolutionary history of CHIKV lineages circulating within the country...
May 30, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ah-Ra Lee, Sang-Hyun Kim, Su-Yeon Hong, Sang-Ho Lee, Jae Sang Oh, Kyung Yong Lee, Seong-Jun Kim, Tomohiro Ishikawa, Sang-Mu Shim, Hee Il Lee, Sang-Uk Seo
Japanese encephalitis (JE), caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, continues to pose significant public health challenges worldwide despite efficient vaccines. The virus is classified into five genotypes, among which genotype V (GV) was not detected for a long period after its initial isolation in 1952, until reports emerged from China and the Republic of Korea (ROK) since 2009. The characteristics of the virus are crucial in estimating its potential epidemiological impact. However, characterization of GV JEVs has so far been limited to two strains: Muar, the original isolate, and XZ0934, isolated in China...
May 29, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Mohammad Zahidul Hasan, Maren Claus, Nadine Krüger, Sarah Reusing, Eline Gall, Christina Bade-Döding, Armin Braun, Carsten Watzl, Markus Uhrberg, Lutz Walter
ABSTRACT HLA-E expression plays a central role for modulation of NK cell function by interaction with inhibitory NKG2A and stimulatory NKG2C receptors on canonical and adaptive NK cells, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that infection of human primary lung tissue with SARS-CoV-2 leads to increased HLA-E expression and show that processing of the peptide YLQPRTFLL from the spike protein is primarily responsible for the strong, dose-dependent increase of HLA-E. Targeting the peptide site within the spike protein revealed that a single point mutation was sufficient to abrogate the increase in HLA-E expression...
May 28, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Fengjuan Tian, Jing Li, Yang Liu, Wenli Liu, Yue Liu, Shan Xu, Yigang Tong, Fumin Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 27, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Cong Shen, Li Luo, Hongyun Zhou, Yinglun Xiao, Jinxiang Zeng, Liling Zhang, Jieying Pu, Jianming Zeng, Ni Zhang, Yueting Jiang, Lingqing Xu, Dingqiang Chen, Gang Li, Kuihai Wu, Hua Yu, Min Wang, Xuemin Guo, Juan Wang, Bin Huang, Cha Chen
BACKGROUND: Surveillance systems revealed that the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has increased. We aim to investigate the epidemiological and genomic characteristics of VREfm in China. METHODS: We collected 20747 non-redundant E. faecium isolates from inpatients across 19 hospitals in six provinces between Jan 2018 and June 2023. VREfm was confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The prevalence was analyzed using changepoint package in R...
May 27, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Qingyu Shi, Siquan Shen, Chengkang Tang, Li Ding, Yan Guo, Yang Yang, Shi Wu, Renru Han, Dandan Yin, Fupin Hu
Abstract Ceftazidime-avibactam resistance attributable to the bla KPC-2 gene mutation is increasingly documented in clinical settings. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms leading to the development of ceftazidime-avibactam resistance in ST11-K47 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae that harbored the bla KPC-135 gene. This strain possessed fimbriae and biofilm, demonstrating pathogenicity. Compared with the wild-type KPC-2 carbapenemase, the novel KPC-135 enzyme exhibited a deletion of Glu168 and Leu169 and a 15-amino acid tandem repeat between Val262 and Ala276...
May 27, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hongyan Liao, Christopher J Lyon, Binwu Ying, Tony Hu
Improved sanitation, increased access to health care, and advances in preventive and clinical medicine have reduced the mortality and morbidity rates of several infectious diseases. However, recent outbreaks of several emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have caused substantial mortality and morbidity, and the frequency of these outbreaks is likely to increase due to pathogen, environmental, and population effects driven by climate change. Extreme or persistent changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity, and air pollution associated with climate change can, for example, expand the size of EID reservoirs, increase host-pathogen and cross-species host contacts to promote transmission or spillover events, and degrade the overall health of susceptible host populations leading to new EID outbreaks...
May 20, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Dapeng Li, Haiyan Wang, Liqin Sun, Jiamin Feng, Wenting Li, Lin Cheng, Xuejiao Liao, Yangzhen Zhang, Zhongxian Xu, Xiangyang Ge, Bing Zhou, Juanjuan Zhao, Bin Ju, Hongzhou Lu, Zheng Zhang
Men who have sex with men and people living with HIV are disproportionately affected in the 2022 multi-country monkeypox epidemic. The smallpox vaccine can induce cross-reactive antibodies against the monkeypox virus (MPXV) and reduce the risk of infection. Data on antibodies against MPXV induced by historic smallpox vaccination in people with HIV are scarce. In this observational study, plasma samples were collected from people living with and without HIV in Shenzhen, China. We measured antibodies binding to two representative proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV; A27L and A33R) and homologous proteins of MPXV (A29L and A35R) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
May 20, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Zhi Zhang, Lina Li, Hongsheng Wang, Xin Ran, Yuan Chen, Xinyao Liu, Yuping Ran
Mycobacterium chelonae and Sporothrix globosa , both of which are opportunistic pathogens, have been proved to be possible multidrug resistant. However, are all recurring symptoms in chronic infections related to decreasing susceptibility? Here we report a case of sporotrichosis secondary to M. chelonae infection. In addition, we find that the blackish-red spots under the dermoscopic view can be employed as a signal for the early identification and regression of sub-cutaneous fungal infection.
May 20, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Zhen Zhang, Li Zhou, Qianyun Liu, Yucheng Zheng, Xue Tan, Zhixiang Huang, Ming Guo, Xin Wang, Xianying Chen, Simeng Liang, Wenkang Li, Kun Song, Kun Yan, Jiali Li, Qiaohong Li, Yuzhen Zhang, Shimin Yang, Zeng Cai, Ming Dai, Qiaoyang Xian, Zheng-Li Shi, Ke Xu, Ke Lan, Yu Chen
Animal models of COVID-19 facilitate the development of vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. The efficacy of antivirals or vaccines may differ in different animal models with varied degrees of disease. Here, we introduce a mouse model expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this model, ACE2 with the human cytokeratin 18 promoter was knocked into the Hipp11 locus of C57BL/6J mouse by CRISPR-Cas9 (K18-hACE2 KI). Upon intranasal inoculation with high (3×105 PFU) or low (2.5×102 PFU) dose of SARS-CoV-2 wildtype (WT), Delta, Omicron BA...
May 16, 2024: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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