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Emerging Microbes & Infections

Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Jarunee Prasertsopon, Chompunuch Klinmalai, Sunchai Payungporn, Anek Mungaomklang, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Rome Buathong, Arunee Thitithanyanont, Pilaipan Puthavathana
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses remains a public health threat, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region during the past two decades. Moreover, the introduction of multiple subgenotypes and the emergence of recombinant viruses is of epidemiological importance. Based on either the full genome or VP1 sequences, 32 enteroviruses (30 from HFMD patients, 1 from an encephalitic patient, and 1 from an asymptomatic contact case) isolated in Thailand between 2006 and 2014 were identified as 25 enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolates (comprising 20 B5, 1 C2, 2 C4a, and 2 C4b subgenotypes) and 7 coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) isolates (comprising 6 B1a and 1 B1b subgenotypes)...
December 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jordi Serra-Cobo, Marc López-Roig, Rachel Lavenir, Elbia Abdelatif, Wahida Boucekkine, Mehdi Elharrak, Bachir Harif, Sehhar El Ayachi, Akram Ahmed Salama, Mohamed A Nayel, Ahmed Elsify, Sameh G El Rashedy, Paola De Benedictis, Franco Mutinelli, Barbara Zecchin, Dino Scaravelli, Chokri Balhoul, Ahmed Zaghawa, Hany Youssef Hassan, Ahmed Hamed Zaghloul, Hervé Bourhy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Naadir Ganief, Jessica Sjouerman, Claudia Albeldas, Kehilwe C Nakedi, Clemens Hermann, Bridget Calder, Jonathan M Blackburn, Nelson C Soares
Mycobacterium manages to evade the host cell immune system, partially owing to its ability to survive redox stress after macrophage engulfment. Exposure to redox stress has been linked to later replication, persistence, and latent infection. In this work, mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the cell-wide changes that occur in response to sublethal doses of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide over time, with Mycobacterium smegmatis being used as a model organism. A total of 3135 proteins were confidently assigned, of which 1713, 1674, and 1713 were identified under NO, H2 O2 , and control conditions, respectively...
December 13, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Chunhui Li, Céline Harmanus, Duolong Zhu, Xiujuan Meng, Shaohui Wang, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Chenchao Fu, Pengcheng Zhou, Ruisi Liu, Anhua Wu, Ed J Kuijper, Wiep Klaas Smits, Lei Fu, Xingmin Sun
The expression of the Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT is generally observed in the RT027 (ST1) and RT078 (ST11) C. difficile isolates, which are associated with severe C. difficile infection (CDI). However, we recently reported that the non-RT027 and non-RT078 C. difficile strain LC693 (TcdA+ TcdB+ CDT+ , ST201) caused severe diarrhea in a patient in Xiangya Hospital in China. C.difficile LC693 is a member of Clade 3, and in this study, we identified LC693 as RT871 and compared its virulence and pathogenicity to those of C...
December 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Enzhuo Yang, Rui Yang, Ming Guo, Dan Huang, Wandang Wang, Zhuoran Zhang, Crystal Chen, Feifei Wang, Wenzhe Ho, Ling Shen, Heping Xiao, Zheng W Chen, Hongbo Shen
Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most deadly infectious diseases due to epidemics of HIV/AIDS and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-/XDR-TB). Although person-to-person transmission contributes to MDR-TB, it remains unknown whether infection with MDR strains resembles infection with drug-sensitive (DS) TB strains, manipulating limited or broad immune responses. To address these questions, macaques were infected with MDR strain V791 and a drug-sensitive Erdman strain of TB. MDR bacilli burdens in the airway were significantly higher than those of the Erdman control after pulmonary exposure...
December 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jifei Yang, Zhijie Liu, Qingli Niu, Muhammad Uzair Mukhtar, Guiquan Guan, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Susanna K P Lau, Rachel Y Y Fan, Hayes K H Luk, Longchao Zhu, Joshua Fung, Kenneth S M Li, Emily Y M Wong, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Jasper F W Chan, Raven K H Kok, Kwok-Hung Chan, Ulrich Wernery, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hDPP4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of MERS-CoV. We developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including Tylonycteris pachypus, Pipistrellus abramus and Rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4, Pipistrellus-BatCoV HKU5, and SARS-related-CoV respectively), and tested their susceptibilities to MERS-CoVs, SARS-CoV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)...
December 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ashrafali M Ismail, Tiange Cui, Kalpana Dommaraju, Gurdeep Singh, Shoaleh Dehghan, Jason Seto, Susmita Shrivastava, Nadia B Fedorova, Neha Gupta, Timothy B Stockwell, Rebecca Halpin, Ramana Madupu, Albert Heim, Adriana E Kajon, Eric G Romanowski, Regis P Kowalski, Jambulingam Malathi, Kuzhanthai L Therese, Hajib Narahari Madhavan, Qiwei Zhang, Leonardo J Ferreyra, Morris S Jones, Jaya Rajaiya, David W Dyer, James Chodosh, Donald Seto
The original publication of this article [1] was missing the below author that made contributions to the research and the published article.
December 8, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Xingui Tian, Ye Fan, Zhenwei Liu, Ling Zhang, Jiayi Liao, Zhichao Zhou, Xiao Li, Tiantian Liu, Wenkuan Liu, Hongling Qiu, Rong Zhou
The re-emerging human adenovirus types HAdV7, HAdV14, and HAdV55 of species B have caused severe lower respiratory tract diseases and even deaths during recent outbreaks. However, no adenovirus vaccine or therapeutic has been approved for general use. These adenoviruses attach to host cells via the knob domain of the fiber, using human desmoglein 2 as the primary cellular receptor. In this study, a recombinant HAdV11 fiber knob trimer (HAdV11FK) expressed in E. coli was shown to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against HAdV11, -7, -14p1, and -55 in mice...
December 8, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Junping Zhu, Ning Chen, Shuya Zhou, Kai Zheng, Lin Sun, Yuxiao Zhang, Lina Cao, Xiaoyan Zhang, Qiaoyan Xiang, Zhiyun Chen, Chenfei Wang, Changfa Fan, Qiushui He
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major etiological agent of human hand, foot and mouth disease, and it can cause severe neurological complications. Although several genotypes of EV-A71 strains are prevalent in different regions of the world, the genotype C4 has circulated in mainland China for more than 20 years. The pathogenicity of different EV-A71 clinical isolates varies and needs to be explored. In this study, hSCARB2 knock-in mice (N = 181) with a wide range of ages were tested for their susceptibility to two EV-A71 strains with the subgenotypes C4 and C2, and two infection routes (intracranial and venous) were compared...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Manuel Kussmann, Matthias Karer, Markus Obermueller, Katy Schmidt, Wolfgang Barousch, Doris Moser, Marion Nehr, Michael Ramharter, Wolfgang Poeppl, Athanasios Makristathis, Stefan Winkler, Florian Thalhammer, Heinz Burgmann, Heimo Lagler
In the present study, we demonstrated the emergence of dalbavancin non-susceptible and teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants which were selected in vivo through long-term treatment with dalbavancin. A 36-year-old man presented with a cardiac device-related S. aureus endocarditis and received long-term therapy with dalbavancin. Consecutively, two glycopeptide/lipoglycopeptide susceptible and two non-susceptible S. aureus isolates were obtained from blood cultures and the explanted pacemaker wire...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Annika Graaf, Reiner Ulrich, Pavlo Maksimov, David Scheibner, Susanne Koethe, Elsayed M Abdelwhab, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer, Timm Harder
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in poultry caused devastating mortality and economic losses. HPAIV of subtypes H5 and H7 emerge from precursor viruses of low pathogenicity (LP) by spontaneous mutation associated with a shift in the susceptibility of the endoproteolytic cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin protein from trypsin- to furin-like proteases. A recently described natural pair of LP/HP H7N7 viruses derived from two spatio-temporally linked outbreaks in layer chickens was used to study how a minority of mutated HP virions after de novo generation in a single host might gain primacy...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Christina Lang, Angelika Fruth, Gudrun Holland, Michael Laue, Sabrina Mühlen, Petra Dersch, Antje Flieger
A large German outbreak in 2011 was caused by a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain of the serotype O104:H4. This strain harbors markers that are characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), including aggregative adhesion fimbriae (AAF) genes. Such rare EHEC/EAEC hybrids are highly pathogenic due to their possession of a combination of genes promoting severe toxicity and aggregative adhesion. We previously identified novel EHEC/EAEC hybrids and observed that one strain exhibited aggregative adherence but had no AAF genes...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Wendy K Jo, Jochen Kruppa, Andre Habierski, Marco van de Bildt, Sandro Mazzariol, Giovanni Di Guardo, Ursula Siebert, Thijs Kuiken, Klaus Jung, Albert Osterhaus, Martin Ludlow
Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has emerged as the pathogen that poses the greatest risk of triggering epizootics in cetacean populations worldwide, and has a high propensity for interspecies transmission, including sporadic infection of seals. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary history of CeMV by deep sequencing wild-type viruses from tissue samples representing cetacean species with different spatiotemporal origins. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis generated an estimated evolutionary rate of 2...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Busen Wang, Jianhua Li, Shipo Wu, Yi Chen, Zhe Zhang, Yanfang Zhai, Qiang Guo, Jinlong Zhang, Xiaohong Song, Zhenghao Zhao, Lihua Hou, Wei Chen
An apparent increase in the frequency of human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-4) infections among general populations has been observed over the past 10 years. However, available epidemiological data that may reflect previous viral circulation and assist in predicting potential outbreaks are sparse, particularly in mainland China and Africa. In this study, a convenient neutralization assay for use in the surveillance of historical HAdV-4 infections was established based on a recombinant luciferase-expressing virus...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yuhan Zhang, Ruxin Liu, Kaiyue Tian, Zeng Wang, Xia Yang, Dongsheng Gao, Youming Zhang, Jun Fu, Hailong Wang, Jun Zhao
Since May 2015, outbreaks of hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS) caused by fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) with a novel genotype have been reported in China, causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. A previous comparative analysis revealed that highly virulent FAdV-4 isolates contain various genomic deletions and multiple distinct mutations in the major structural genes fiber2 and hexon. To identify the genes responsible for the virulence of HHS-associated novel FAdV-4 isolates, FAdV-4 infectious clones were constructed by directly cloning the whole genome of a highly pathogenic FAdV-4 isolate (CH/HNJZ/2015) and that of a nonpathogenic strain (ON1) into a p15A-cm vector using the ExoCET method...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kyra Hermanns, Claudia Göhner, Anne Kopp, Andre Schmidt, Waltraut M Merz, Udo R Markert, Sandra Junglen, Christian Drosten
The current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak is associated with neurological malformations and disorders in neonates. Areas of increased incidence of malformations may overlap with dengue-hyperendemic areas. ZIKV infection is enhanced by antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in cell culture and inbred mice. Sufficiently powered clinical studies or primate studies addressing the enhancement of fetal ZIKV infection after previous dengue infection are not available. The human placenta is susceptible to ZIKV in vitro, but it is unknown whether antibody-dependent enhancement of ZIKV infection occurs at the placental barrier...
December 1, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hua Zhu, Yang Liu, Shengda Li, Ye Jin, Lei Zhao, Fuya Zhao, Jing Feng, Wei Yan, Yunwei Wei
Splenectomy carries a long-term risk of postoperative infection, and the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with endotoxemia may be related to the gut microbiota. In this study, to increase our understanding of the potential cause of the high rate of infection in postsplenectomy patients, we evaluated the differences in the gut microbiota and plasma lipopolysaccharide level of patients after splenectomy relative to those of healthy controls. Thirty-two patients having undergone splenectomy and 42 healthy individuals were enrolled into the splenectomy (SP) and healthy control (HC) groups, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Daniela Bender, Eberhard Hildt
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted primarily via contaminated water and food by the fecal oral route and causes epidemics in developing countries. In industrialized countries, zoonotic transmission of HEV is prevalent. In addition, HEV is the major cause of acute hepatitis in healthy adults and can cause chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients, with pregnant HEV-infected women having increased mortality rates of approximately 25%. HEV was once an understudied and neglected virus. However, in recent years, the safety of blood products with respect to HEV has increasingly been considered to be a public health problem...
November 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Zhenzhi Han, Yong Zhang, Keqiang Huang, Hui Cui, Mei Hong, Haishu Tang, Yang Song, Qian Yang, Shuangli Zhu, Dongmei Yan, Wenbo Xu
Enterovirus B80 (EV-B80) is a newly identified serotype belonging to the enterovirus B species. To date, only two full-length genomic sequences of EV-B80 are available in GenBank, and few studies on EV-B80 have been conducted in China or worldwide. More information and research on EV-B80 is needed to assess its genetic characteristics, phylogenetic relationships, and association with enteroviral diseases. In this study, we report the phylogenetic characteristics of three Xinjiang EV-B80 strains and one Tibet EV-B80 strain in China...
November 28, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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