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Journal of Biological Research

Alexandra Staikou, Evripidis Koemtzopoulos
Background: Postcopulatory sexual selection is very important in species with reproductive strategies that involve multiple mating and prolonged sperm storage. The sperm storage organ has been hypothesized to evolve in response to different levels of sperm competition in several species while population density has been considered as a factor that approximates sperm competition risk and intensity in the field. Apart from population density, local microclimatic conditions may also play a role in determining sperm competition levels in natural populations of land snails by affecting their chances of encountering mates...
December 2019: Journal of Biological Research
Christiane Schmautz, Nadine Müller, Marlene Auer, Ines Ballweg, Michael W Pfaffl, Heike Kliem
Background: New treatment options are needed to prevent relapses following failed antibiotic therapies of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans. The concomitant therapy with an anti- C. difficile IgA containing whey protein concentrate can support the sustainable recovery of CDI patients. For 31 weeks, nine dairy cows were continuously vaccinated with several anti- C. difficile vaccines by certain routes of administration to produce anti- C. difficile IgA enriched milk. The study aimed at finding decisive differences between low responder (LR) and high responder (HR) cows (> 8...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Gayatri Goswami, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Jong-In Park, Mohammad Rashed Hossain, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Hoy-Taek Kim, Hye Ran Kim, Ill-Sup Nou
Background: Anthocyanins are plant secondary metabolites with key roles in attracting insect pollinators and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. They have potential health-promoting effects as part of the human diet. Anthocyanin biosynthesis has been elucidated in many species, enabling the development of anthocyanin-enriched fruits, vegetables, and grains; however, few studies have investigated Brassica napus anthocyanin biosynthesis. Results: We developed a high-anthocyanin resynthesized B...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Christos A Ouzounis
Modern biology is experiencing a deep transformation by the expansion of molecular-level measurements at all scales, using omics technologies. A key element in this transformation is the field of bioinformatics, that has-in the meanwhile-permeated pretty much all of biological and biomedical research and is now emerging as a key inter-disciplinary area that connects the natural sciences, chemical and electrical engineering, science education and science policy, on a number of science and technology fronts. The strong tradition of open access for large volumes of raw data, collections of complex results and high-quality algorithm implementations in bioinformatics makes the field a unique, special case of open science...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Vasiliki Chondrou, Katerina Trochoutsou, Andreas Panayides, Maria Efthimiou, Georgia Stephanou, Nikos A Demopoulos
Background: Doxorubicin is a widely used anticancer drug due to its broad spectrum of antitumor activity. Various mechanisms have been proposed for its cytostatic activity, including DNA intercalation, topoisomerase II inhibition, generation of free radicals and apoptosis. The present study aims to further clarify the cytostatic activity of doxorubicin by its specific effect on (a) DNA damage, (b) micronucleation and (c) apoptosis, using a combination of different methods and cell systems such as human lymphocytes and HL-60 human leukemic cells...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Yi Li, Xiaosong Xu, Xiaopeng Tang, Xiuwu Bian, Bingbing Shen, Hongwen Zhao, Shiyuan Luo, Zhiwen Chen, Keqin Zhang
Background: Type IV lupus nephritis (LNIV) is a severe disease characterized by diffuse proliferative lesions, and its prognosis is worse with cellular crescent (LNIV-CC) involvement. Urinary exosomes have been shown to reflect the degree of kidney injury. This study was aimed to identify non-invasive diagnostic markers for LNIV-CC. We analysed the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) isolated from urinary exosomes in patients with LNIV-CC and LNIV, and healthy individuals using high-throughput sequencing...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Zachary R Gergely, Dana E Martinez, Bryon S Donohoe, Soren Mogelsvang, Rachel Herder, L Andrew Staehelin
Background: The insect-trapping leaves of Dionaea muscipula provide a model for studying the secretory pathway of an inducible plant secretory system. The leaf glands were induced with bovine serum albumin to secrete proteases that were characterized via zymogram activity gels over a 6-day period. The accompanying morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi were analyzed using 3D electron tomography of glands preserved by high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Thanasis Manousis, Constantinos Kontadakis, George Mbazios, Georgios Polyzoulis
Background: The Raphitomidae family in the Mediterranean Sea is under revision. Accordingly, new data are of taxonomic and comparative relevance. In this study, new material from the Hellenic Seas is presented. Results: The Raphitomidae fauna of Greece was collected and investigated during the period from October 2008 to February 2018. Thirty-five (35) species were identified and their status was compared with existing checklists and other collections. This effort revealed two new Raphitoma species, and one new record for the Mediterranean Sea...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Alistidia Paul Mwijage, Daniel Abel Shilla, John Ferdinand Machiwa
Background: Estuaries are primary habitats that serve as feeding and nursery grounds for most juvenile marine fish. However, estuaries have been used as fishing grounds by the artisanal fishers in Tanzania. The slow-growing predatory fish at juvenile and sub-adult stages are among the most frequently caught species that functionally enhance multiple linkages of energy pathways within the food web. Stomach contents and stable isotopes (δ13 C and δ15 N) were used to describe the nutritional sources and trophic niches between the co-existing benthic, predatory species, Carangoides chrysophrys and Epinephelus malabaricus in the Pangani estuary, Tanzania...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Paschalis Natsidis, Ilias Kappas, Wojciech M Karlowski
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that play a key role in gene regulation in both plants and animals. MicroRNA biogenesis involves the enzymatic processing of a primary RNA transcript. The final step is the production of a duplex molecule, often designated as miRNA:miRNA*, that will yield a functional miRNA by separation of the two strands. This miRNA will be incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex, which subsequently will bind to its target mRNA in order to suppress its expression...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Emmanuel Panteris, Barbara-Evelin Diannelidis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S Adamakis
Background: Transverse cortical microtubule orientation, critical for anisotropic cell expansion, is established in the meristematic root zone. Intending to elucidate the possible prerequisites for this establishment and factors that are involved, microtubule organization was studied in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana , wild-type and the p60-katanin mutants fra2 , ktn1 - 2 and lue1 . Transverse cortical microtubule orientation in the meristematic root zone has proven to persist under several regimes inhibiting root elongation...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Maria Parapouli, Athanasios Foukis, Panagiota-Yiolanda Stergiou, Maria Koukouritaki, Panagiotis Magklaras, Olga A Gkini, Emmanuel M Papamichael, Amalia-Sofia Afendra, Efstathios Hatziloukas
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40709-018-0074-6.].
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Michaella Moysi, Maria Christou, Vassilis Goutner, Nikos Kassinis, Savvas Iezekiel
Background: The barn owl, a nocturnal raptor with cosmopolitan distribution, shows a great adaptability to different environments. Regarding prey, the barn owl is a rather selective species, but if changes in the abundance of the selected prey occur, it becomes an opportunistic predator and easily incorporates other prey in its diet, using a wide range of prey species and foraging habitats. Small rodents are usually the prey mostly used. Compared to the populations of north and eastern Europe, barn owl populations in the Mediterranean area have been the least studied...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Monika Martiniakova, Anna Sarocka, Ramona Babosova, Birgit Grosskopf, Edyta Kapusta, Zofia Goc, Grzegorz Formicki, Radoslav Omelka
Background: Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed neurotoxins by humans. Its negative effect on bone health is known for a long time. However, its impact on qualitative and quantitative 2D characteristics of the compact bone is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in detail the effects of subchronic alcohol exposure on compact and trabecular bone tissues microstructure of laboratory mice using 2D and 3D imaging methods. Ten clinically healthy 12 weeks-old mice (males) were randomly divided into two groups...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Theodore J Abatzopoulos
The backbone of this endeavour consists of three major components as they appear in the title. My intention is to summarise, as explicitly as possible, both existing and novel data on the occurrence of parthenogenetic rare males assessing their role in conveying sets of genetic information between asexual strains and sexual Artemia species to and fro. Additionally, an assemblage of strong indications and evidence is quoted aiming to unravel possible scenarios of the repeated emergence of asexuality in the brine shrimp and its significance in evolutionary processes involved in speciation...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Alexios Loukas, Ilias Kappas, Theodore J Abatzopoulos
Background: Halophilic organisms may thrive in or tolerate high salt concentrations. They have been studied for decades and a considerable number of papers reporting new halophilic species are being published every year. However, an extensive collection of these salt-loving organisms does not exist nowadays. Halophilic life forms have representatives from all three life domains, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The purpose of this study was to search for all documented halophilic species in the scientific literature and accommodate this information in the form of an online database...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Thanasis Manousis, Constantinos Kontadakis, Georgios Polyzoulis, George Mbazios, Sofia Galinou-Mitsoudi
Background: The Hellenic Seas are influenced by on-going environmental changes and the introduction of alien species, which are expected to have an impact on their biodiversity. This study contributes to the knowledge of the Hellenic marine gastropod biodiversity, expanding data over the entire Greek territory, during the period from October 2008 to March 2017. Results: This work presents 45 species of gastropods not previously reported from Greece or reported only once, belonging to 19 families...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Paraskevi Malea, Theodoros Kevrekidis, Konstantina-Roxani Chatzipanagiotou, Athanasios Mogias
Background: Seagrass species have been recommended as biomonitors of environmental condition and as tools for phytoremediation, due to their ability to concentrate anthropogenic chemicals. This study aims to provide novel information on metal accumulation in seagrasses under laboratory conditions to support their use as a tool in the evaluation and abatement of contamination in the field. We investigated the kinetics of cadmium uptake into adult leaf blades, leaf sheaths, rhizomes and roots of Cymodocea nodosa in exposure concentrations within the range of cadmium levels in industrial wastewater (0...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Maria Parapouli, Athanasios Foukis, Panagiota-Yiolanda Stergiou, Maria Koukouritaki, Panagiotis Magklaras, Olga A Gkini, Emmanuel M Papamichael, Amalia-Sofia Afendra, Efstathios Hatziloukas
Background: Microbial lipases catalyze a broad spectrum of reactions and are enzymes of considerable biotechnological interest. The focus of this study was the isolation of new lipase genes, intending to discover novel lipases whose products bear interesting biochemical and structural features and may have a potential to act as valuable biocatalysts in industrial applications. Results: A novel lipase gene ( lipSm ), from a new environmental Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain, Psi-1, originating from a sludge sample from Psittaleia (Greece), was cloned and sequenced...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Umesh Chandra Halder
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) still poses enigmatic threats to human life. This virus has mastered in bypassing anti retroviral therapy leading to patients' death. Circulating viruses are phenomenal for the disease outcome. This hypothesis proposes a therapeutic strategy utilizing receptor-integrated hematopoietic, erythroid and red blood cells. Here, HIV specific receptors trap circulating viruses that enter erythrocyte cytoplasm and form inactive integration complex. This model depicts easy, effective removal of circulating HIV without any adverse effect...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
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