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Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences

Neha Thakur, Anshuman Khardenavis, Hemant J Purohit
The role of methanogenesis in the global carbon cycle is very important for recycle of renewable biomass which, has the potential for contribution to independence from fossil fuels. Anaerobic microbes comprised of fermentative and acetogenic species decompose the complex biomass to hydrogen, formate and, acetate that are further metabolized to methane by methanogens. A general review of biogenic production of methane and methanogenic diversity involved is presented. This review gives an overview of recent patents on methane production and focuses mainly on different methods, systems and, microbial methanogenic community involved in anaerobic digestion that can be used for improved understanding of the microbial community function and relationships in methanogenesis...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Aline Potiron, Philippe Gérard, Tiphaine Le Roy, Philippe Lesnik, Emmanuelle Maguin, Moez Rhimi
Worldwide, the cardiovascular diseases constitute a major cause of death with an ever growing incidence. Many medical approaches were developed against this physiopathology and patented; however up to now, no efficient treatment exists. Future developments are not only focusing on the identification of new therapeutic strategies against the cardiovascular diseases but also on a better understanding of the determinants of these multifactorial diseases. In this report, we reviewed the most recent patents that have been reported in this field of research...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Silvia Patrícia Coelho, Manuel Luis Capelas, Sandra Marlene Alves, Luis Sá, Ramon Andrade de Mello
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide. Distress symptoms related to the primary disease or in combination with disease progression have challenges faced by the patients, family, and their multidisciplinary team. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the benefits of an integrated palliative care approach for lung cancer patients at the time of diagnosis and to analyze the main symptoms and its treatment. METHODS: We performed an integrative review of the databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, CINAHL and Academic Search Complete using the keywords "lung cancer", "palliative care", "approaches" and "therapies"...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Veronica Medikare, Altaf Ali, Venkateshwari Ananthapur, Mamata Deendayal, Pratibha Nallari
BACKGROUND: Uterine Leiomyomas (UL) are non-cancerous single celled mass of uterine smooth muscles distinguished by presence of large amounts of collagen, fibronectin and proteoglycans. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), an inflammation inducing cytokine, plays a major role in various disorders of the immune system; is involved in tumor development and progression. It is proposed to study the influence of three functional promoter polymorphisms of TNF-α viz -238G/A, -308G/A and -1031T/C in the development and progression of UL...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Petter Portin
The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Martina Faraldi, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle represents one of the most plastic tissues of our body thanks to the presence of heterogeneous population of myofibers that confer to skeletal muscle the functional plasticity necessary to modulate its morpho-fuctional properties in response to a wide range of external factors. Thus, alteration in fiber type composition represents a major component in muscle wasting associated with muscle diseases. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for the alteration in the morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle under pathological conditions...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Anna Boyajyan, Roksana Zakharyan, Sofi Atshemyan, Andranik Chavushyan, Gohar Mkrtchyan
Defects in synaptic plasticity play a key role in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Pathomechanisms responsible for synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia are very complicated and not well defined. Transcription factor c-Fos plays an important role in regulation of synaptic plasticity. In the present study we evaluated the association of rs7101 and rs1063169 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of c-Fos encoding gene (FOS) with schizophrenia. A total of 604 DNA samples of schizophrenia-affected and healthy subjects of Armenian ancestry were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Elham Beiranvand, Saeid Abediankenari, Mosayeb Rostamian, Behnoush Beiranvand, Saeed Naazeri
The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression...
2015: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Kevin M Beaver, Dylan B Jackson, Dillon Flesher
During the past couple of decades, the amount of research examining the genetic underpinnings to antisocial behaviors, including crime, has exploded. Findings from this body of work have generated a great deal of information linking genetics to criminal involvement. As a partial result, there is now a considerable amount of interest in how these findings should be integrated into the criminal justice system. In the current paper, we outline the potential ways that genetic information can be used to increase the effectiveness of treatment programs designed to reduce recidivism among offenders...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Dov Greenbaum, Sharon Nakar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Matthias Wienroth, Niels Morling, Robin Williams
This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Anna Fiodorova
The article presents DNA related data exchange mechanism established within the framework of the European Union for the transnational crime investigation. First of all, it provides with the comprehensive overview of legal and practical state of play, pointing out that approved legal basis seeks to ensure legality and reliability in this area by establishing information exchange purposes and competent authorities involved, setting up technical requirements for the DNA analysis and DNA data bases, laying down provisions on accreditation of forensic service providers, foreseeing at least minimum common data protection requirements...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Sara H Katsanis, Joyce Kim, Mollie A Minear, Subhashini Chandrasekharan, Jennifer K Wagner
Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Colin Gavaghan, Amir Bastani
In 2002, Caspi and colleagues proposed that a specific gene by environment (GxE) interaction is related to antisocial tendencies. Since then, a substantial body of literature has examined the potential implications of such a correlation for the criminal justice system, and in particular, for the attribution of responsibility and blame that lies at the core of that system. It is probably accurate to say that the majority position among criminal theorists is that evidence of such a nature does not undermine or seriously challenge existing notions of responsibility, and could not constitute a full defense to a criminal charge - although it may have a role to play in sentencing...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Charles E MacLean, Adam Lamparello
Forensic DNA Phenotyping ("FDP"), estimating the externally visible characteristics ("EVCs") of the source of human DNA left at a crime scene, is evolving from science fiction toward science fact. FDP can already identify a source's gender with 100% accuracy, and likely hair color, iris color, adult height, and a number of other EVCs with accuracy rates approaching 70%. Patent applications have been filed for approaches to generating 3D likenesses of DNA sources based on the DNA alone. Nonetheless, criminal investigators, particularly in the United States, have been reticent to apply FDP in their casework...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Elizabeth E Joh
In the United States, those groups of persons eligible for compulsory DNA sampling by law enforcement authorities continue to expand. The collection of DNA samples from felony arrestees will likely be adopted by many more states after the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision in Maryland v. King, which upheld a state law permitting the compulsory and warrantless DNA sampling from those arrested of serious offenses. At the time of the decision, 28 states and the federal government already had arrestee DNA collection statutes in place...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Helena Soleto
Despite being one of the most useful and reliable identification tools, DNA profiling in criminal procedure balances on the border between the limitation and violation of Fundamental Rights that can occur beginning with the collection of the sample, its analysis, and its use; and ending with its processing. Throughout this complex process, violation of human or fundamental rights -such as the right to physical and moral integrity, the right not to be subject to degrading treatment, the right not to incriminate oneself, the right to family privacy together with that of not incriminating descendants or relatives in general, the right to personal development and the right to informative self-determination- is possible...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Lucía Feijoo-Siota, Lucía Blasco, José Luis Rodríguez-Rama, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, Trinidad de Miguel, Angeles Sánchez-Pérez, Tomás G Villa
This paper reviews the general characteristics of exo and endopeptidases of microbial origin currently used in the milk industry. It also includes recent patents developed either to potentiate the enzymatic activity or to improve the resulting milk derivatives. The main application of these proteases is in the cheese-making industry. Although this industry preferentially uses animal rennets, and in particular genetically engineered chymosins, it also utilizes milk coagulants of microbial origin. Enzymes derived from Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizomucor pusillus and Cryphonectria parasitica are currently used to replace the conventional milk-clotting enzymes...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Kazutaka Hirakawa, Shuku Nakajima
Endogenous and exogenous photosensitizers induce DNA damage, leading to carcinogenesis. Further, DNA is an important target biomacromolecule of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Since the solar-induced DNA damage and PDT reaction occur in a complex biological environment, the interaction between biomolecule and photosensitizer is important. In this study, we examined the effect of a DNA microenvironment on the photosensitized reaction by watersoluble porphyrin derivatives, tetrakis(N-methyl-p-pyridinio)porphyrin (H(2)TMPyP) and its zinc complex (ZnTMPyP)...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
Roksana Zakharyan, Sofi Atshemyan, Anna Boyajyan
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a multifactorial chronic and disabling mental disease. The specific genetic variants contributing to disease complex phenotype are largely unknown. Growing amount of evidence suggested that aberrant synaptic connectivity contributes to SCZ pathogenesis. From this point of view, complexin-2, a presynaptic regulatory protein, represents here a special interest, since it has been recently shown that genetic variants of the CPLX2 gene may affect current cognitive performance in patients with SCZ...
2014: Recent Advances in DNA & Gene Sequences
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