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Zhimin Song, Hongyan Yang, Elizabeth M Peckham, Jill B Becker
Estradiol potentiates behavioral sensitization to cocaine as well as self-administration of cocaine and other drugs of abuse in female rodents. Furthermore, stimulated dopamine (DA) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is rapidly enhanced by estradiol, and it is hypothesized that this enhanced DA release mediates the more rapid escalation of drug taking seen in females, compared with males. The mechanisms mediating the effect of estradiol to enhance stimulated DA release were investigated in this study. Using in vivo microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection, we first examined the effect of estradiol on amphetamine-induced DA increase in the DLS of ovariectomized rats...
January 2019: ENeuro
Daniel R Zamzow, Valerie Elias, Varinia A Acosta, Emily Escobedo, Kathy R Magnusson
Cognitive decline with aging is often due to altered levels of protein expression. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and the complex of proteins surrounding the receptor are susceptible to age-related changes in expression. In the frontal cortex of aged mice, there is a significant loss of expression of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR, an increase in Fyn expression, and no change in PSD-95. Studies have also found that, in the frontal cortex, phosphorylation of GluN2B subunits and palmitoylation of GluN2 subunits and NMDAR complex proteins are affected by age...
January 2019: ENeuro
Estelle E In 't Zandt, Hillary L Cansler, Heather B Denson, Daniel W Wesson
The inter-regional connectivity of sensory structures in the brain allows for the modulation of sensory processing in manners important for perception. In the olfactory system, odor representations in the olfactory bulb (OB) are modulated by feedback centrifugal innervation from several olfactory cortices, including the piriform cortex (PCX) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). Previous studies reported that an additional olfactory cortex, the olfactory tubercle (OT), also centrifugally innervates the OB and may even shape the activity of OB output neurons...
January 2019: ENeuro
Nicole Rigney, Jack Whylings, Michihiro Mieda, Geert de Vries, Aras Petrulis
The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) has long been implicated in the regulation of social behavior and communication, but precisely which AVP cell groups are involved is largely unknown. To address whether the sexually dimorphic AVP cell group in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important for social communication, we deleted BNST AVP cells by viral delivery of a Cre-dependent caspase-3 cell-death construct in AVP-iCre-positive mice using AVP-iCre negative littermate as controls, and assessed social, sexual, aggressive and anxiety-related behaviors...
January 2019: ENeuro
Satoshi Fujita, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Masayuki Kobayashi
The primary sensory cortex processes competitive sensory inputs. Ablation of these competitive inputs induces neuroplastic changes in local cortical circuits. However, information concerning cortical plasticity induced by a disturbance of competitive nociceptive inputs is limited. Nociceptive information from the maxillary and mandibular molar pulps converges at the border between the ventral secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and insular oral region (IOR); therefore, S2/IOR is a suitable target for examining the cortical changes induced by a disturbance of noxious inputs, which often causes neuropathic pain and allodynia...
January 2019: ENeuro
Reilly Hannapel, Janavi Ramesh, Amy Ross, Ryan T LaLumiere, Aaron G Roseberry, Marise B Parent
Memory of a recently eaten meal can serve as a powerful mechanism for controlling future eating behavior because it provides a record of intake that likely outlasts most physiological signals generated by the meal. In support, impairing the encoding of a meal in humans increases the amount ingested at the next eating episode. However, the brain regions that mediate the inhibitory effects of memory on future intake are unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) and ventral hippocampal (vHC) glutamatergic pyramidal neurons play a critical role in the inhibition of energy intake during the postprandial period by optogenetically inhibiting these neurons at specific times relative to a meal...
January 2019: ENeuro
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1523/ENEURO.0295-18.2018.].
January 2019: ENeuro
Jose Ignacio Pena-Bravo, Rachel Penrod, Carmela M Reichel, Antonieta Lavin
Preclinical and clinical research has shown that females are more vulnerable to the rewarding effects of stimulants, and it has been proposed that estrogens may play a role in this enhanced sensitivity; however sex differences in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neuroplasticity have not been explored. To address this gap in knowledge, we recorded from the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of male and female rats following long access METH self-administration (SA) and investigated the resulting long-term synaptic neuroadaptations...
January 2019: ENeuro
Rosalind Se Carney
Highlighted Research Paper: As Soon as You Taste It: Evidence for Sequential and Parallel Processing of Gustatory Information by, Raphael Wallroth and Kathrin Ohla.
January 2019: ENeuro
Christina L Torturo, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Timothy A Ryan, Hugh C Hemmings
Volatile anesthetics affect neuronal signaling by poorly understood mechanisms. Activation of central dopaminergic pathways has been implicated in emergence from general anesthesia. The volatile anesthetic isoflurane differentially inhibits glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis by reducing presynaptic Ca2+ influx without affecting the Ca2+ -exocytosis relationship, but its effects on dopaminergic exocytosis are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that isoflurane inhibits exocytosis in dopaminergic neurons...
January 2019: ENeuro
Praveen Chander, Matthew J Kennedy, Bettina Winckler, Jason P Weick
Neurons have evolved a number of unique protein-coding genes that regulate trafficking of protein complexes within small organelles throughout dendrites and axons. Neuron-specific gene 2 (NSG2) encodes for one of the most abundant proteins in the nervous system during perinatal development. NSG2 belongs to a family of small neuronal endosomal proteins but its function has remained uncharacterized to date. Here, we show that NSG2 is found in discrete punctae restricted to the somatodendritic arbors of developing mouse and human neurons, and a significant proportion of NSG2 punctae colocalize with postsynaptic HOMER1 and surface-expressed AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) at excitatory synapses...
January 2019: ENeuro
Mariska van Lier, Laura Smit-Rigter, Roos Krimpenfort, M Hadi Saiepour, Emma Ruimschotel, Willem Kamphuis, J Alexander Heimel, Christiaan N Levelt
Many brain regions go through critical periods of development during which plasticity is enhanced. These critical periods are associated with extensive growth and retraction of thalamocortical and intracortical axons. Here, we investigated whether a signaling pathway that is central in Wallerian axon degeneration also regulates critical period plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1). Wallerian degeneration is characterized by rapid disintegration of axons once they are separated from the cell body. This degenerative process is initiated by reduced presence of cytoplasmic nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferases (NMNATs) and is strongly delayed in mice overexpressing cytoplasmic NMNAT proteins, such as WldS mutant mice producing a UBE4b-NMNAT1 fusion protein or NMNAT3 transgenic mice...
January 2019: ENeuro
Rotem Rehani, Yara Atamna, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, José de Jesús Aceves Buendía, Gabriela J Martins, Gilad A Jacobson, Joshua A Goldberg
Cholinergic interneurons (CINs) are believed to form synchronous cell assemblies that modulate the striatal microcircuitry and possibly orchestrate local dopamine release. We expressed GCaMP6s, a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECIs), selectively in CINs, and used microendoscopes to visualize the putative CIN assemblies in the dorsal striatum of freely moving mice. The GECI fluorescence signal from the dorsal striatum was composed of signals from individual CIN somata that were engulfed by a widespread fluorescent neuropil...
January 2019: ENeuro
Rebecca Ouwenga, Allison M Lake, Shivani Aryal, Tomas Lagunas, Joseph D Dougherty
Local translation in neurites is a phenomenon that enhances the spatial segregation of proteins and their functions away from the cell body, yet it is unclear how local translation varies across neuronal cell types. Further, it is unclear whether differences in local translation across cell types simply reflect differences in transcription or whether there is also a cell type-specific post-transcriptional regulation of the location and translation of specific mRNAs. Most of the mRNAs discovered as being locally translated have been identified from hippocampal neurons because their laminar organization facilitates neurite-specific dissection and microscopy methods...
November 2018: ENeuro
Justin Jarovi, Julien Volle, Xiaotian Yu, Lisa Guan, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
The ability to capture the most relevant information from everyday experiences without constantly learning unimportant details is vital to survival and mental health. While decreased activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is associated with failed or inflexible encoding of relevant events in the hippocampus, mechanisms used by the mPFC to discern behavioral relevance of events are not clear. To address this question, we chemogenetically activated excitatory neurons in the mPFC of male rats and examined its impact on local network activity and differential associative learning dependent on the hippocampus...
November 2018: ENeuro
Chih-Hsu Huang, Chou-Ching K Lin
When incorporating more realistic synaptic dynamics, the computational efficiency of population density methods (PDMs) declines sharply due to the increase in the dimension of master equations. To avoid such a decline, we develop an efficient PDM, termed colored-synapse PDM (csPDM), in which the dimension of the master equations does not depend on the number of synapse-associated state variables in the underlying network model. Our goal is to allow the PDM to incorporate realistic synaptic dynamics that possesses not only finite relaxation time but also short-term plasticity (STP)...
November 2018: ENeuro
Ignacio Leguey, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Concepción Rojo, Pedro Larrañaga, Concha Bielza, Javier DeFelipe
The study of neuronal dendritic orientation is of interest because it is related to how neurons grow dendrites to establish the synaptic input that neurons receive. The dendritic orientations of neurons in the nervous system vary, ranging from rather heterogeneously distributed (asymmetric) to homogeneously distributed (symmetric) dendritic arbors. Here, we analyze the dendritic orientation of the basal dendrites of intracellularly labeled pyramidal neurons from horizontal sections of Layers II-VI of the hindlimb somatosensory (S1HL) cortex of 14-d-old (P14) rats...
November 2018: ENeuro
I De Toma, I E Grabowicz, M Fructuoso, D Trujillano, B Wilczyński, M Dierssen
Obesogenic diets lead to overeating and obesity by inducing the expression of genes involved in hedonic and homeostatic responses in specific brain regions. However, how the effects on gene expression are coordinated in the brain so far remains largely unknown. In our study, we provided mice with access to energy-dense diet, which induced overeating and overweight, and we explored the transcriptome changes across the main regions involved in feeding and energy balance: hypothalamus, frontal cortex, and striatum...
November 2018: ENeuro
Marielle Greber, Lars Rogenmoser, Stefan Elmer, Lutz Jäncke
Humans with absolute pitch (AP) are able to effortlessly name the pitch class of a sound without an external reference. The association of labels with pitches cannot be entirely suppressed even if it interferes with task demands. This suggests a high level of automaticity of pitch labeling in AP. The automatic nature of AP was further investigated in a study by Rogenmoser et al. (2015). Using a passive auditory oddball paradigm in combination with electroencephalography, they observed electrophysiological differences between musicians with and without AP in response to piano tones...
November 2018: ENeuro
Tristan A Chaplin, Maureen A Hagan, Benjamin J Allitt, Leo L Lui
The study of neuronal responses to random-dot motion patterns has provided some of the most valuable insights into how the activity of neurons is related to perception. In the opposite directions of motion paradigm, the motion signal strength is decreased by manipulating the coherence of random dot patterns to examine how well the activity of single neurons represents the direction of motion. To extend this paradigm to populations of neurons, studies have used modelling based on data from pairs of neurons, but several important questions require further investigation with larger neuronal datasets...
November 2018: ENeuro
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