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Bone Reports

Sarah M Bristow, Greg D Gamble, Anne M Horne, Ian R Reid
Longitudinal studies often report that spine bone mineral density (BMD), measured by DXA, is stable in older adults, which has been attributed to osteophyte development and the presence of aortic calcification. A decline in projected spine area as a result of loss of intervertebral disc height might also contribute to higher BMD. We utilised data from 297 postmenopausal women (mean 73 years) who had DXA measurements of the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck 5 years apart, and abdominal aortic calcification scoring from vertebral morphometry...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Alycia G Berman, Madicyn J Hinton, Joseph M Wallace
Treadmill running and tibial loading are two common modalities used to assess the role of mechanical stimulation on the skeleton preclinically. The primary advantage of treadmill running is its physiological relevance. However, the applied load is complex and multiaxial, with observed results influenced by cardiovascular and musculoskeletal effects. In contrast, with tibial loading, a direct uniaxial load is applied to a single bone, providing the advantage of greater control but with less physiological relevance...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Seungyong Lee, Rhonda D Prisby
Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration augments bone and progressive bone marrow blood vessel (BMBV) ossification occurs with advancing age. Since intermittent PTH administration augments bone, it may also serve to increase BMBV ossification. We assessed the influence of 5- and 10-days of intermittent PTH 1-34 administration on trabecular and cortical bone and BMBV ossification in mature (6-8 mon; n = 30) and middle-aged (10-12 mon; n = 30) male and female C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided accordingly: control (CON) and 5-days (5dPTH) and 10-days (10dPTH) of PTH...
June 2019: Bone Reports
C Brent Wakefield, Jenalyn L Yumol, Sandra M Sacco, Philip J Sullivan, Elena M Comelli, Wendy E Ward
Background: Calcium (Ca) and vitamin D (vit D) in the AIN-93G diet may be higher than required for healthy bone development, and mask the potential benefit of a dietary intervention. Objective: The objective was to determine if lower levels of Ca and vit D than is present in the AIN-93G diet supports bone development in growing male CD-1 mice. Methods: Weanling male CD-1 mice were randomized to modified AIN-93G diets containing either 100 (Trial 1) or 400 (Trial 2) IU vit D/kg diet within one of two or three Ca levels (0...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Stephanie J Kim, Michael J Peluso, Yongmei Wang, Daniel Bikle, Dolores Shoback, Sarah Kim
Hypercalcemia in HIV patients has been previously reported, but 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, due to increased activity of extrarenal 1-alpha hydroxylase, is rarely described with HIV-related infections or malignancies. We describe a case of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia in a patient presenting with progressive cognitive decline and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed a new diagnosis of HIV, for which he was started on antiretroviral therapy (ART). He was also noted to have mild asymptomatic hypocalcemia, likely from his acute illness and malnutrition, which was not further investigated at the time...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Yuka Kinoshita, Yuichi Takashi, Nobuaki Ito, Shiro Ikegawa, Hiroyuki Mano, Tetsuo Ushiku, Masashi Fukayama, Masaomi Nangaku, Seiji Fukumoto
Tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumors that ectopically express fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that regulates serum phosphate concentrations. Patients with TIO develop hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia due to FGF23 excess and suffer from symptoms such as leg deformities, bone pain, skeletal muscle myopathy, and multiple fractures/pseudofractures. Usually, successful surgical removal of the causative tumors normalizes serum FGF23 and phosphate concentrations in patients with TIO...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Li Feng Xie, Nathalie Alos, Anik Cloutier, Chanel Béland, Josée Dubois, Anne Monique Nuyt, Thuy Mai Luu
Introduction: Preterm infants are at increased risk of osteopenia of prematurity due to insufficient bone mineral accretion. Data on long term effects of prematurity on bone health are conflicting. This study aimed to compare bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults born very preterm and full-term controls and to examine factors associated with long-term bone health. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 101 young adults (18-29 years) born <29 weeks of gestation and 95 sex- and age-matched full-term controls...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Naoya Toriu, Toshiharu Ueno, Hiroki Mizuno, Akinari Sekine, Noriko Hayami, Rikako Hiramatsu, Keiichi Sumida, Masayuki Yamanouchi, Eiko Hasegawa, Tatsuya Suwabe, Junichi Hoshino, Naoki Sawa, Kenmei Takaichi, Takeshi Fujii, Tomoka Hasegawa, Norio Amizuka, Motoko Yanagita, Yoshifumi Ubara
We report a 48-year-old Japanese man with a brown tumor of the right distal tibia. At the age of 25 years, hemodialysis was initiated due to nail-patella syndrome. Severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis progressed over time, so parathyroidectomy was performed at age 45. Spontaneous fracture of the right distal tibia occurred suddenly at age 48. Imaging studies revealed a bone tumor-like lesion and surgery was performed. The resected specimen was a brown mass consisting of multinucleated giant cells on a fibrous tissue background, and these findings were consistent with a diagnosis of brown tumor...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Walter Bialkowski, Robert D Blank, Cheng Zheng, Jerome L Gottschall, Paula E Papanek
Background: Blood for transfusion is lifesaving and essential to many elements of modern medical practice. The global blood supply relies on volunteer blood donors. Apheresis is increasingly used to collect blood and requires anticoagulant to prevent extracorporeal coagulation. Citrate, the standard apheresis anticoagulant, chelates ionized calcium with consequent perturbations of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and markers of bone remodeling in donors. Cross-sectional studies of bone mineral density (BMD) among apheresis donors exhibit conflicting results...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Daniel D Bikle, Roger Bouillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Bone Reports
Donald L Trump
The vitamin D receptor is expressed in most tissues of the body - and the cancers that arise from those tissues. The vitamin D signaling pathway is active in those tissues and cancers. This is at least consistent with the hypothesis that perturbing this signaling may have a favorable effect on the genesis and growth of cancers. Epidemiologic data indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the initiation and outcome of a number of types of cancer. Many studies have shown that calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) and other vitamin D compounds have antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-cell migration and antiangiogenic activity in a number of preclinical studies in many different cancer types...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Lisa Keung, Farzana Perwad
Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals required for many critical biologic functions including cell signaling, energy metabolism, skeletal growth and integrity. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis are maintained primarily by regulation of epithelial calcium and phosphate cotransport in the kidney and intestine, processes that are tightly regulated by hormones including 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as renal function declines, disruption of feedback loops between these hormones have adverse consequences on several organ systems, including the skeleton, heart and vascular system...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Karl P Schlingmann, Walburga Cassar, Martin Konrad
The term Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH) was first introduced almost 70 years ago when symptomatic hypercalcemia developed in children after receiving high doses of vitamin D for the prevention of rickets. The underlying pathophysiology remained unknown until recessive mutations in CYP24A1 encoding Vitamin D3 -24-hydroxylase were discovered. The defect in vitamin D degradation leads to an accumulation of active 1,25(OH)2 D3 with subsequent hypercalcemia. Enhanced renal calcium excretions lead to hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Paul Lips, Renate T de Jongh
Vitamin D deficiency and rickets are more common in non-western immigrants and refugees than in the native population. Severe vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25 nmol/l) may occur in up to 50% of children and adults of non-western origin. They are not used to sunshine exposure due to the often excessive sunshine in the country of origin. They usually have a more pigmented skin. Non-western immigrants and refugees often wear skin-covering clothes due to religious or cultural tradition. The food contains little vitamin D with the exception of fatty fish...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Yuantee Zhu, Yun Ma, Florent Elefteriou
The sympathetic nervous system is a major efferent pathway through which the central nervous system controls the function of peripheral organs. Genetic and pharmacologic evidence in mice indicated that stimulation of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in osteoblasts promotes bone loss, leading to the paradigm that high sympathetic nervous activity is deleterious to bone mass. However, considerably less data exist to understand the putative impact of endogenous norepinephrine (NE), released by sympathetic nerves, on bone homeostasis...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Nancy E Lane, Geetha Mohan, Wei Yao, Kie Shidara, Yu-An Evan Lay, Jia Junjing, Alanna Dubrovsky, Donald B Kimmel
Objective: Determine if LLP2A-Ale or PTH (1-34) affects the prevalence of glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) in a mouse model. Methods: Eight-week-old young adult male BALB/cJ mice were weight-randomized into Control (Con), glucocorticoid (GC)-only, or concurrent treatments with GC and LLP2A-Ale (250 μg/kg or 500 μg/kg, IV, Days 1, 14, 28) or parathyroid hormone hPTH (1-34) (40 μg/kg, 5×/week). Mice were necropsied after 45 days for qualitative evaluation of prevalent ON and quantitative evaluation of vascularity in the distal femoral epiphysis (DFE); and quantitative evaluation of bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength in the distal femoral metaphysis and lumbar vertebral body...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Diana Cabrera, Frances M Wolber, Keren Dittmer, Chris Rogers, Anne Ridler, Danielle Aberdein, Tim Parkinson, Paul Chambers, Karl Fraser, Nicole C Roy, Marlena Kruger
The aim of this study was to validate the combination of ovariectomy and glucocorticoid treatment in sheep as a large animal model for osteoporosis by measuring the concentration of specific biomarkers in the blood of the sheep and measuring bone loss over five months. Aged Merino ewes were randomly allocated into four groups: control, ovariectomy (OVX), and two OVX groups receiving glucocorticoids-one group once-monthly for five months (OVXG), and the other for two months followed by no treatment for three months (OVXG2)...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Megan M Pendleton, Saghi Sadoughi, Alfred Li, Grace D O'Connell, Joshua S Alwood, Tony M Keaveny
One potentially important bone quality characteristic is the response of bone to cyclic (repetitive) mechanical loading. In small animals, such as in rats and mice, cyclic loading experiments are particularly challenging to perform in a precise manner due to the small size of the bones and difficult-to-eliminate machine compliance. Addressing this issue, we developed a precise method for ex vivo cyclic compressive loading of isolated mouse vertebral bodies. The method has three key characteristics: 3D-printed support jigs for machining plano-parallel surfaces of the tiny vertebrae; pivotable loading platens to ensure uniform contact and loading of specimen surfaces; and specimen-specific micro-CT-based finite element analysis to measure stiffness to prescribe force levels that produce the same specified level of strain for all test specimens...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Isabel D Colón-Bernal, Le T Duong, Brenda Pennypacker, James Henderson, Kenneth M Kozloff, Mark M Banaszak Holl
Anti-resorptive drugs treat bone loss by blocking osteoclast activity through a variety of mechanisms of action. Once significant bone loss has occurred, the ability to restore biomechanical function may differ based on the drug chosen. To assess this question, bisphosphonate (alendronate, ALN) and cathepsin K inhibitor (MK-0674, CatKi) were employed in treatment mode to compare the relative changes to cancellous bone microstructure and mechanical properties in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Lumbar vertebrae (LV) bone mineral density (BMD) values taken two years post-surgery prior to drug treatment show a 10-15% decrease (p < 0...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Kathleen Ang, Elizabeth Sanchez Rangel, Qianying Yuan, Dianqing Wu, Thomas O Carpenter, Karl Insogna
Context: Most heritable causes of low bone mass in children occur due to mutations affecting type 1 collagen. We describe two related patients with low bone mass and fracture without mutations in the type 1 collagen genes. Case description: We describe the index case of a 10-year-old girl with low-impact fractures in childhood and her 59-year-old father with traumatic fractures in adulthood, both with low bone mineral density. They were found to have the same heterozygous missense mutation in the WNT1 gene (p...
December 2018: Bone Reports
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