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Preventive Medicine Reports

Erika R Cheng, Candace C Nelson, Peggy Leung-Strle, Rachel Colchamiro, Elsie M Taveras, Jennifer A Woo Baidal
Objective: The multi-sector, multi-level Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) study resulted in improvements in obesity risk factors among children age 2-4 years enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The goal of this study was to examine whether the MA-CORD intervention increased WIC provider confidence in their ability to identify childhood obesity and obesity-related behaviors. Methods: As part of the MA-CORD intervention conducted from 2012 to 2015, we implemented WIC practice changes focused on childhood obesity prevention within two Massachusetts communities...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jennifer Zink, Britni R Belcher, Afton Kechter, Matthew D Stone, Adam M Leventhal
Screen-based sedentary behaviors and emotional disorders are associated with one another in youth. Yet, the direction of the association is unclear, as is whether specific types of screen-based sedentary behaviors and emotional disorder symptoms are more closely linked. This study estimated the bi-directional associations between two types of screen-based sedentary behaviors and four types of self-reported emotional disorder symptoms, and tested whether physical activity buffered these associations in a Los Angeles high school student cohort ( N  = 2525, baseline M age = 14...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Nirjhar Dutta, Thomas Walton, Mark A Pereira
Background: Prolonged sedentary time is associated with adverse health outcomes, after controlling for the role of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. We previously reported on a four-week randomized trial using a sit-stand desk (SSD) intervention that decreased sedentary time at work without changing activity level during non-work hours. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the SSD on sitting time and activity level one year after the original intervention...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Christi Patten, Xin-Qun Wang, Jon O Ebbert, Melissa A Little, Gerald W Talcott, Ann S Hryshko-Mullen, Robert C Klesges
This study examined gender, prior tobacco use, and social-environmental factors as predictors of intentions to use tobacco (cigarette smoking and/or smokeless tobacco [ST]) after a forced period of abstinence among U.S. Air Force (USAF) trainees. Trainees completed 8½ weeks of basic military training (BMT), then 4 weeks of Technical Training; both required abstinence from tobacco. A cross-sectional survey of 13,514 USAF trainees (73% male, 90% age 18-24, 43% prior tobacco use) was conducted at the beginning of the 4-week Technical Training period...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
H Nicole Tran, Arthur L Klatsky
Lower risk of venous thromboembolism in Asians compared to Whites has been suggested. Despite the biological and cultural diversity of Asian Americans, data are sparse for specific ethnic groups. In our prior study of lower Asian American risk, the small number of subjects (337 in all races) precluded accurate study of specific Asian American groups. We present here a new study with 4674 venous thromboembolism subjects diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. Our study population was derived from 61,459 voluntary health examinees in a comprehensive northern California health plan with self-classified ethnicity: 53...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Bárbara Piñeiro, David W Wetter, Damon J Vidrine, Diana S Hoover, Summer G Frank-Pearce, Nga Nguyen, Susan M Zbikowski, Mary B Williams, Jennifer I Vidrine
The efficacy of tobacco treatment delivered by state quitlines in diverse populations is well-supported, yet little is known about associations between treatment dose and cessation outcomes following the implementation of Ask-Advise-Connect (AAC), an electronic health record-based systematic referral process that generates a high volume of proactive calls from the state quitline to smokers. The current study is a secondary analysis of a 34-month implementation trial evaluating ACC in 13 safety-net clinics in Houston, TX...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Deanna Teoh, Rida Shaikh, Abigail Schnaith, Emil Lou, Annie-Laurie McRee, Rebekah H Nagler, Rachel I Vogel
Young adults in the United States 18-26 years of age are eligible for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, yet they rarely attend preventive healthcare visits. In contrast, they have a high prevalence of social media use, which could be leveraged to provide healthcare recommendations. Since graphics attract users, the study's primary objective was to determine the most appealing graphic to promote HPV vaccination to young adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants 18-26 years of age completed a 36-item survey including information on demographics, HPV vaccination status, eHealth literacy, and assessed the appeal of 8 Instagram graphic mock-ups promoting HPV vaccination to prevent cancer...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Nancy L Schoenborn, Qian-Li Xue, Craig E Pollack, Ellen M Janssen, John F P Bridges, Antonio C Wolff, Cynthia M Boyd
Many older adults receive routine cancer screening even when it is no longer recommended. We sought to identify demographic, health-related, and attitudinal factors that are most predictive of continued breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer screening decisions in older adults under various scenarios. A sample of adults age 65+ (n = 1272) were recruited from a nationally representative panel in November 2016, of which 881 (69.3%) completed our survey. Participants were presented vignettes in which we experimentally varied a hypothetical patient's life expectancy, age, quality of life, and physician screening recommendation...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Tirza Wouters, Jenny Soomers, Marieke Smink, Rixt A Smit, Margreet Plaisier, Saskia Houterman, Ruud L Bekkers, Angélique A Schiffer, Victor J Pop, Jurgen M J Piek
The objective was to assess whether supplementing hospital-dependent standard information with a hospital-independent animation video might reduce consultation time, pre-colposcopy anxiety levels and increase post-colposcopy satisfaction. Between November 2016 and May 2018, women were included if they were referred to the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in one of the three participating hospitals in the Netherlands due to an abnormal cervical smear. Exclusion criteria were colposcopy in the medical history or inability to understand, speak or read Dutch...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Christine C Whitmore, Mary N White, Melinda B Buntin, Carrie E Fry, Kevin Calamari, Stephen W Patrick
As the magnitude of the opioid epidemic grew in recent years, individual states across the United States of America enacted myriad policies to address its complications. We conducted a qualitative examination of the structure, successes, and challenges of enacted state laws and policies aimed at the opioid epidemic, with an in-depth focus on prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) and naloxone access efforts. A set of 10 states (Florida, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, Washington, and West Virginia) was chosen a priori to achieve a varied sample of state policies and timing, as well as population opioid complications...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
William Chi-Wai Wong, Winnie Wing-Yan Yuen, Catherine So-Kum Tang, Eleanor Holroyd, Daniel Yee-Tak Fong
Background: Evidence shows traditional sexual harm reduction for female sex workers (FSW) based on health behaviour theories is effective but short-lived. This study aimed to evaluate and understand the effectiveness of a resilience-promoting programme in improving psychological health and, ultimately, safe sex practice. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was conducted at three Hong Kong-based non-governmental organisations. 127 sex workers were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Tiffany Rounds, Josh Bongard, Paul Hines, Jean Harvey
•Crowdsourcing can be used to detect unexpected barriers to male weight loss.•Some unique behaviors related to high BMI were revealed including watching others play video games.•Novel behaviors to target: less watching video games and more organized physical activity.
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Karen K Lee, Lawrence Loh, Johnny Adamic, Ashley Perry, Rachel Sacks, Kevin Lam, Steven Tong, Sarah Wolf
Stair climbing is a readily available form of vigorous-intensity physical activity. Evidence indicates that placing stair prompt signs at points-of-decision (e.g. near elevators and stairways) is an inexpensive, effective strategy for increasing physical activity through stair use. This article aims to share the experience of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) in the outreach and implementation of a population-scale stair prompt initiative, including lessons learned from process evaluations, with other public health authorities conducting a similar program...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jessica A Hoffman, Ellyn M Schmidt, Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa, Charles H Hillman
This article describes the Wellness Enhancing Physical Activity in Young Children (WE PLAY) teacher training, which was designed to assist early childhood educators to promote physical activity among preschoolers in child care. We describe the WE PLAY intervention and its grounding in constructs from theories of health behavior and an implementation science framework. Fidelity, feasibility, and acceptability data from the WE PLAY pilot study, a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with six Head Start programs in Massachusetts...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Karine Trudeau, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Ilona Csizmadi, Marie-Élise Parent
The purpose of this study was to describe dietary patterns among 1636 French-speaking men residing in Montreal, Canada and to assess sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of men adhering to the dietary patterns identified. Participants were population controls from the Prostate Cancer and Environment Study, a case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2011 in Montreal. Information on diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and principal component analysis, a data-driven method and a posteriori method, was used to identify dietary patterns...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Sara Long, Michelle L Rogers, Annie Gjelsvik
Exercise has been found to be an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between depression status and weekly exercise in children ages 6 to 17 years stratifying by age and sex using a large nationally representative sample. The study data ( n  = 65,059) came from the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health. Depression categories were current, former, and no history of diagnosed depression. Exercise categories were exercising ≤6 days a week and 7 days a week...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Becca R Levy, Martin D Slade
The obesity epidemic among older adults is expected to continue increasing unless public-health efforts address this age group. Yet, little is known about psychosocial determinants of obesity that relate specifically to older persons. In this study, we investigated for the first time whether self-perceptions of aging (SPA), defined as beliefs about oneself as an older person that are assimilated from society, relate to new cases of obesity. This seemed plausible because older persons who report more-positive SPA tend to engage in more health-promoting behaviors...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Sian Williamson, Jacoby Patterson, Rebecca Crosby, Rebecca Johnson, Harbinder Sandhu, Samantha Johnson, Jacquie Jenkins, Margaret Casey, Olive Kearins, Sian Taylor-Phillips
Attending and receiving a result from screening can be an anxious process. Using an appropriate method to deliver screening results could improve communication and reduce negative outcomes for screening attendees. Screening programmes are increasingly communicating results by letter or telephone rather than in-person. We investigated the impact of communication methods on attendees. We systematically reviewed the literature on the communication methods used to deliver results in cancer screening programmes for women, focusing on screening attendee anxiety, understanding of results and preferences for results communication...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mojgan Karbakhsh, Emilie Beaulieu, Jennifer Smith, Alex Zheng, Kate Turcotte, Ian Pike
Substantial efforts devoted to decreasing the burden of transport-related injuries (TRIs) in Canada, including public awareness campaigns aiming to influence attitudes and behaviors, may lead the public to perceive other types of injuries differently. This study examined the relationship between public perception of the preventability of injuries and the type of injury (TRIs vs. non-transport unintentional injuries (NTUIs)); and assessed whether exposure to a social marketing campaign ( Preventable ) influenced this association...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
Per Helge Seljebotn, Ingrid Skage, Anette Riskedal, Marta Olsen, Silje Eikanger Kvalø, Sindre M Dyrstad
The Active School program was designed to positively impact health and academic-related outcomes in school. The core intervention component was physically active academic lessons, a teaching activity that combines physical activity and educational content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 10-month, cluster-randomized controlled trial on physical activity level and aerobic fitness conducted in the city of Stavanger, Norway, in 2014-15. The physical activity level during physically active academic lessons was also studied...
March 2019: Preventive Medicine Reports
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