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Frontiers in Nutrition

Rosa Anna Siciliano, Rosa Lippolis, Maria Fiorella Mazzeo
Probiotics are commensal microorganisms that are present in the intestinal tract and in many fermented foods and positively affect human health, promoting digestion and uptake of dietary nutrients, strengthening intestinal barrier function, modulating immune response, and enhancing antagonism toward pathogens. The proteosurfaceome, i.e., the complex set of proteins present on the bacterial surface, is directly involved as leading actor in the dynamic communication between bacteria and host. In the last decade, the biological relevance of surface-exposed proteins prompted research activities exploiting the potentiality of proteomics to define the complex network of proteins that are involved in the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the adaptation to gastrointestinal environment and the probiotic effects...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Randall C Robinson
Among the many bioactive components in human milk, the free oligosaccharides (OS) have been intensely studied in recent decades due to their unique ability to selectively modulate the infant gut microbiota, in addition to providing numerous other health benefits. In light of the demonstrated value of these compounds, recent studies have set out to characterize the structures and properties of the similar and more widely-available OS in the dairy industry. This mini review gives a brief overview of the common analytical techniques used to characterize bovine milk OS and highlights several recent, key studies that have identified valuable physiological and metabolic effects of these molecules in vivo ...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Caterina Tinelli, Antonella Di Pino, Elena Ficulle, Serena Marcelli, Marco Feligioni
Hyperhomocysteinemia is recognized as a risk factor for several diseases, including cardiovascular and neurological conditions. Homocysteine (HCys) is a key metabolite involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of methionine (Met), which plays a pivotal role in the physiological cell's life cycle. The biochemistry of Met is finely regulated by several enzymes that control HCys concentration. Indeed, balanced activity among the enzymes is essential for the cell's well-being, while its malfunction could raise HCys concentration which can lead to the onset of several pathological conditions...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ken Yoshii, Koji Hosomi, Kento Sawane, Jun Kunisawa
Vitamins are micronutrients that have physiological effects on various biological responses, including host immunity. Therefore, vitamin deficiency leads to increased risk of developing infectious, allergic, and inflammatory diseases. Since B vitamins are synthesized by plants, yeasts, and bacteria, but not by mammals, mammals must acquire B vitamins from dietary or microbial sources, such as the intestinal microbiota. Similarly, some intestinal bacteria are unable to synthesize B vitamins and must acquire them from the host diet or from other intestinal bacteria for their growth and survival...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Aleksandra Tomova, Igor Bukovsky, Emilie Rembert, Willy Yonas, Jihad Alwarith, Neal D Barnard, Hana Kahleova
The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. A plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting the development of more diverse and stable microbial systems. Additionally, vegans and vegetarians have significantly higher counts of certain Bacteroidetes -related operational taxonomic units compared to omnivores. Fibers (that is, non-digestible carbohydrates, found exclusively in plants) most consistently increase lactic acid bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, E...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Valérie St-Pierre, Camille Vandenberghe, Carolyne-Mary Lowry, Mélanie Fortier, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Richard Wagner, Stephen C Cunnane
Background: Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are ketogenic but the relationship between the change in plasma ketones and the change plasma medium chain fatty acids (MCFA)-octanoate, decanoate, or dodecanoate-after an oral dose of MCT is not well-known. An 8 h metabolic study day is a suitable model to assess the acute effects on plasma ketones and MCFA after a dose of tricaprylin (C8), tricaprin (C10), trilaurin (C12) or mixed MCT (C8C10). Objective: To assess in healthy humans the relationship between the change in plasma ketones, and octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate in plasma total lipids during an 8 h metabolic study day in which a first 20 ml dose of the homogenized test oil is taken with breakfast and a second 20 ml dose is taken 4 h later without an accompanying meal...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Kimberly A Lackey, Janet E Williams, Courtney L Meehan, Jessica A Zachek, Elizabeth D Benda, William J Price, James A Foster, Daniel W Sellen, Elizabeth W Kamau-Mbuthia, Egidioh W Kamundia, Samwel Mbugua, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, Debela Gindola K, Linda J Kvist, Gloria E Otoo, Cristina García-Carral, Esther Jiménez, Lorena Ruiz, Juan M Rodríguez, Rossina G Pareja, Lars Bode, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
Background: Microbial communities in human milk and those in feces from breastfed infants vary within and across populations. However, few researchers have conducted cross-cultural comparisons between populations, and little is known about whether certain "core" taxa occur normally within or between populations and whether variation in milk microbiome is related to variation in infant fecal microbiome. The purpose of this study was to describe microbiomes of milk produced by relatively healthy women living at diverse international sites and compare these to the fecal microbiomes of their relatively healthy infants...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Michela Verni, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Rossana Coda
Cereals are one of the major food sources in human diet and a large quantity of by-products is generated throughout their processing chain. These by-products mostly consist of the germ and outer layers (bran), deriving from dry and wet milling of grains, brewers' spent grain originating from brewing industry, or others originating during bread-making and starch production. Cereal industry by-products are rich in nutrients, but still they end up as feed, fuel, substrates for biorefinery, or waste. The above uses, however, only provide a partial recycle...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Kirsten E Bell, Matthew S Brook, Tim Snijders, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise, Ken Smith, Philip J Atherton, Stuart M Phillips
Background: We previously showed that daily consumption of a multi-ingredient nutritional supplement increased lean mass in older men, but did not enhance lean tissue gains during a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) plus resistance exercise training (RET) program. Here, we aimed to determine whether these divergent observations aligned with the myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) response to acute unaccustomed and accustomed resistance exercise. Methods: A sub-sample of our participants were randomly allocated ( n = 15; age: 72 ± 7 years; BMI: 26...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sergiy M Smetana, Sabine Bornkessel, Volker Heinz
Integration of nutritional and sustainable aspects is a complex task tackled by a few scientific concepts. They include multiple dimensions and functions of food systems trying to provide solutions for harmonic co-evolution of humanity and planet Earth. "Nutritional Sustainability" is differentiated from other concepts which combine nutrition and sustainability as it not only sets environmental sustaining capacity as a baseline level for balanced nutrition, but also aims for the search of food system driving nodes...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Abdellah Tebani, Soumeya Bekri
Nutrition is an interdisciplinary science that studies the interactions of nutrients with the body in relation to maintenance of health and well-being. Nutrition is highly complex due to the underlying various internal and external factors that could model it. Thus, hacking this complexity requires more holistic and network-based strategies that could unveil these dynamic system interactions at both time and space scales. The ongoing omics era with its high-throughput molecular data generation is paving the way to embrace this complexity and is deeply reshaping the whole field of nutrition...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Niroshan Siva, Pushparajah Thavarajah, Shiv Kumar, Dil Thavarajah
Pulse crops such as lentil, common bean, and chickpea are rich in protein, low digestible carbohydrates, and range of micronutrients. The detailed information of low digestible carbohydrates also known as "prebiotic carbohydrate" profiles of commonly consumed pulse market classes and their impact on human health are yet to be studied. The objective of this study was to determine the profiles of prebiotic carbohydrates in two commonly consumed lentil market classes, seven common bean market classes, and two chickpea market classes...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Azusa Saika, Takahiro Nagatake, Jun Kunisawa
The intestine is the largest immune organ in the body, provides the first line of defense against pathogens, and prevents excessive immune reactions to harmless or beneficial non-self-materials, such as food and intestinal bacteria. Allergic and inflammatory diseases in the intestine occur as a result of dysregulation of immunological homeostasis mediated by intestinal immunity. Several lines of evidence suggest that gut environmental factors, including nutrition and intestinal bacteria, play important roles in controlling host immune responses and maintaining homeostasis...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Hernando Salcedo Fidalgo, Juan Carlos Morales
The structural isolation of nutrition from the human right to food has resulted in the technicalization and medicalization of the meaning and practice of nutrition, including in the field of nutritional assessments, which has led to the construction of public policies that lack a holistic perspective with a rights-based approach. Two main categories of nutritional assessments have been anthropometric measurements and nutritional profiles evident in the WHO and PAHO proposals related to the nutrition of children...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Pramil N Singh, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Wendy Shih, Nancy Collado, Lap T Le, Krystal Silguero, Dennys Estevez, Michael Jordan, Hector Flores, David E Hayes-Bautista, William J McCarthy
Background: The Hispanic/Latino population in the US is experiencing high rates of obesity and cardio-metabolic disease that may be attributable to a nutrition transition away from traditional diets emphasizing whole plant foods. In the US, plant-based diets have been shown to be effective in preventing and controlling obesity and cardio-metabolic disease in large samples of primarily non-Hispanic subjects. Studying this association in US Hispanic/Latinos could inform culturally tailored interventions. Objective: To examine whether the plant-based diet pattern that is frequently followed by Hispanic/Latino Seventh-day Adventists is associated with lower levels of adiposity and adiposity-related biomarkers...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Victor Fulgoni, Adam Drewnowski
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has identified three Healthy Food Patterns as ways to implement the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We estimated the daily cost of the Healthy Vegetarian, US-Style, and Mediterranean Food Patterns (at 2,000 kcal/d) using national food prices adjusted for inflation. We also estimated the cost of existing dietary intakes in $/2,000 kcal/d for persons ≥2 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2014) using the same national food prices...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Phaik Ling Quah, Jing Chun Ng, Lisa R Fries, Mei Jun Chan, Izzuddin M Aris, Yung Seng Lee, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Yap-Seng Chong, Lynette P Shek, Kok Hian Tan, Ciaran G Forde, Mary F F Chong
Bidirectional studies between maternal feeding practices with subsequent child weight are limited, with no studies in Asian populations. In longitudinal analyses, we assessed the directionality of the associations between maternal feeding practices and body mass index (BMI) in preschoolers. Participants were 428 mother child dyads from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort. Feeding practices were assessed using the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) at age 5 y...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A Rosentrater
Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Angie Jefferson, Katie Adolphus
The human microbiota is increasingly recognized as a major factor influencing health and well-being, with potential benefits as diverse as improved immunity, reduced risk of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and improved cognition and mood. Bacteria inhabiting the gut are dependent on the provision of fermentable dietary substrates making diet a major factor driving the composition of the human gut microbiota. Dietary fiber may modify microbiota abundance, diversity, and metabolism including short-chain fatty acid production...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sabine Kuntz, Silvia Rudloff, Clemens Kunz
Oligosaccharides are present in human milk (HMO) in large amounts and in a high variety: Among other functions they are considered to influence the gut microbiota and gut maturation in infants. Due to the large volume of milk available bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) may be an alternative source of functional ingredients to potentially mimic HMO functions. Thus, we investigated direct effects of bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) from different cattle breeds on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in transformed (HT-29 and Caco-2) and non-transformed human intestinal cells (HIE cells)...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
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