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Georgios Feretzakis, Evangelos Loupelis, Aikaterini Sakagianni, Nikoletta Skarmoutsou, Sophia Michelidou, Aikaterini Velentza, Maria Martsoukou, Konstantinos Valakis, Stavroula Petropoulou, Emmanouil Koutalas
Hospital-acquired infections, particularly in the critical care setting, are becoming increasingly common during the last decade, with Gram-negative bacterial infections presenting the highest incidence among them. Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, with significant direct and indirect costs resulting from long hospitalization due to antibiotic failure. As treatment options become limited, antimicrobial stewardship programs aim to optimize the appropriate use of currently available antimicrobial agents and decrease hospital costs...
May 15, 2019: Antibiotics
Leanna L Foster, Shin-Ichi Yusa, Kenichi Kuroda
Bacterial biofilms and their associated infections are a continuing problem in the healthcare community. Previous approaches utilizing anti-biofilm coatings suffer from short lifetimes, and their applications are limited to surfaces. In this research, we explored a new approach to biofilm prevention based on the hypothesis that changing planktonic bacteria behavior to result in sub-optimal biofilm formation. The behavior of planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to a cationic polymer was characterized for changes in growth behavior and aggregation behavior, and linked to resulting P...
May 10, 2019: Antibiotics
Franziska Kampshoff, Mark D P Willcox, Debarun Dutta
BACKGROUND: Frequent and unrestricted use of antibiotics has been associated with the development of antibiotic resistance by microorganisms. Thus, there is a need to find novel antibacterial agents or a combination of agents as the first line of treatment for various infections. This study aimed to investigate the synergy between antimicrobial peptide (AMP) combinations or between AMP-antibiotics combinations using two common pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus ...
May 9, 2019: Antibiotics
Rosa Elvira Gavilán, Carolina Nebot, Ewelina Patyra, Beatriz Vazquez, Jose Manuel Miranda, Alberto Cepeda
Administration of florfenicol and thiamfenicol through medicated feed is permitted within the European Union, always following veterinary prescription and respecting the withdrawal periods. However, the presence of low levels of florfenicol, thiamfenicol, and chloramfenicol in non-target feed is prohibited. Since cross-contamination can occur during the production of medicated feed and according to Annex II of the European Regulation 2019/4/EC, the control of residue levels of florfenicol and thiamfenicol in non-target feed should be monitored and avoided...
May 7, 2019: Antibiotics
João Cabral, Rodrigues Ag
Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are a serious problem that potentially affects millions of patients whenever in contact with hospital settings. Worsening the panorama is the emergence of antimicrobial resistance by most microorganisms implicated in HAIs. Therefore, the improvement of the actual surveillance methods and the discovery of alternative approaches with novel modes of action is vital to overcome the threats created by the emergence of such resistances. Light therapy modalities represent a viable and effective alternative to the conventional antimicrobial treatment and can be preponderant in the control of HAIs, even against multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs)...
May 7, 2019: Antibiotics
Filip Jansåker, Marianne Bollestad, Ingvild Vik, Morten Lindbæk, Lars Bjerrum, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Jenny Dahl Knudsen
Objectives : To investigate pivmecillinam´s efficacy in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus- considered non-susceptible to mecillinam. Methods : Participants with confirmed UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus from four randomized controlled trials, where pivmecillinam was empirically given to females with symptoms of UTIs. The primary outcome was defined as a cumulative clinical effect-symptom resolution during the first eight days of therapy, without a recurrence of UTI symptoms in the long-term follow-up (approximately four weeks)...
May 7, 2019: Antibiotics
Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Skender Topi, Francesca Castellaneta, Donato D'Agostino
In the area of Emergency Room (ER), many patients present criteria compatible with a SIRS, but only some of them have an associated infection. The new definition of sepsis by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (2016), revolutionizes precedent criteria, overcoming the concept of SIRS and clearly distinguishing the infection with the patient's physiological response from the symptoms of sepsis. Another fundamental change concerns the recognition method: The use of SOFA (Sequential-Sepsis Related-Organ Failure Assessment Score) as reference score for organ damage assessment...
May 7, 2019: Antibiotics
Eunice Ego Mgbeahuruike, Milla Stålnacke, Heikki Vuorela, Yvonne Holm
Microbial resistance to currently available antibiotics is a public health problem in the fight against infectious diseases. Most antibiotics are characterized by numerous side effects that may be harmful to normal body cells. To improve the efficacy of these antibiotics and to find an alternative way to minimize the adverse effects associated with most conventional antibiotics, piperine and piperlongumine were screened in combination with conventional rifampicin, tetracycline, and itraconazole to evaluate their synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans ...
May 4, 2019: Antibiotics
Suzanne Bongers, Pien Hellebrekers, Luke P H Leenen, Leo Koenderman, Falco Hietbrink
Neutrophils are important assets in defense against invading bacteria like staphylococci. However, (dysfunctioning) neutrophils can also serve as reservoir for pathogens that are able to survive inside the cellular environment. Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious facultative intracellular pathogen. Most vulnerable for neutrophil dysfunction and intracellular infection are immune-deficient patients or, as has recently been described, severely injured patients. These dysfunctional neutrophils can become hide-out spots or "Trojan horses" for S...
May 4, 2019: Antibiotics
Gabriele Cervino, Marco Cicciù, Antonio Biondi, Salvatore Bocchieri, Alan Scott Herford, Luigi Laino, Luca Fiorillo
The aim of this paper was to highlight the most widely antibiotic protocols applied to the dental field, especially in the surgical treatment of impacted wisdom teeth. Once these protocols were screened, all the possible advantages or disadvantages for each drug and each posology were recorded in this review. In recent years, the need to use these protocols has been debated in the literature. The data obtained by this review underlined how antibiotic protocols applied to oral surgery treatments only included surgeries performed on patients who did not present other systemic pathologies...
May 2, 2019: Antibiotics
Márió Gajdács
Staphylococcus aureus has been an exceptionally successful pathogen, which is still relevant in modern age-medicine due to its adaptability and tenacity. This bacterium may be a causative agent in a plethora of infections, owing to its abundance (in the environment and in the normal flora) and the variety of virulence factors that it possesses. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains-first described in 1961-are characterized by an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a/c) and resistance to all penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, which makes the β-lactam armamentarium clinically ineffective...
May 2, 2019: Antibiotics
Natalie Gugala, Dennis Vu, Michael D Parkins, Raymond J Turner
In response to the occurrence of antibiotic resistance, there has been rapid developments in the field of metal-based antimicrobials. Although it is largely assumed that metals provide broad-spectrum microbial efficacy, studies have shown that this is not always the case. Therefore, in this study, we compared the susceptibilities of 93 clinical isolates belonging to the species Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus against six metals, namely aluminum, copper, gallium, nickel, silver and zinc...
May 1, 2019: Antibiotics
Tingting Li, Jie Feng, Shuzhen Xiao, Wanliang Shi, David Sullivan, Ying Zhang
Bartonella henselae can cause various infections in humans, ranging from benign and self-limiting diseases to severe and life-threatening diseases as well as persistent infections that are difficult to treat. To develop more effective treatments for persistent Bartonella infections, in this study, we performed a high-throughput screen of an FDA-approved drug library against stationary phase B. henselae using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) viability assay. We identified 110 drug candidates that had better activity against stationary phase B...
April 29, 2019: Antibiotics
Graeme Hood, Kieran S Hand, Emma Cramp, Philip Howard, Susan Hopkins, Diane Ashiru-Oredope
This study developed a patient-level audit tool to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK. A modified Delphi process was used to evaluate variables identified from published literature that could be used to support an assessment of appropriateness of antibiotic use. At a national workshop, 22 infection experts reached a consensus to define appropriate prescribing and agree upon an initial draft audit tool. Following this, a national multidisciplinary panel of 19 infection experts, of whom only one was part of the workshop, was convened to evaluate and validate variables using questionnaires to confirm the relevance of each variable in assessing appropriate prescribing...
April 29, 2019: Antibiotics
Jennifer M Colquhoun, Lisha Ha, Andrew Beckley, Brinkley Meyers, Daniel P Flaherty, Paul M Dunman
Staphylococcus aureus RnpA is thought to be a unique dual functional antimicrobial target that is required for two essential cellular processes, precursor tRNA processing and messenger RNA degradation. Herein, we used a previously described whole cell-based mupirocin synergy assay to screen members of a 53,000 compound small molecule diversity library and simultaneously enrich for agents with cellular RnpA inhibitory activity. A medicinal chemistry-based campaign was launched to generate a preliminary structure activity relationship and guide early optimization of two novel chemical classes of RnpA inhibitors identified, phenylcarbamoyl cyclic thiophene and piperidinecarboxamide...
April 28, 2019: Antibiotics
Verajit Chotmongkol, Sittichai Khamsai, Patravoot Vatanasapt, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
Otosyphilis is one contributing cause of hearing loss in adult patients. There are limited studies on the treatment regimens of otosyphilis. Penicillin G sodium (PGS) plus additional medications, such as benzathine penicillin and probenecid, is an effective regimen. This study investigated the efficacy of PGS alone for the treatment of otosyphilis. We conducted a retrospective study and included all consecutive patients diagnosed with otosyphilis who received only PGS treatment. The study period was from 2009 to 2013...
April 28, 2019: Antibiotics
María Cebriá-Mendoza, Rafael Sanjuán, Pilar Domingo-Calap
Bacteriophages represent an alternative strategy to combat pathogenic bacteria. Currently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections constitute a major public health problem due to extensive antibiotic resistance in some strains. Using a non-pathogenic species of the same genus as an experimental model, Mycobacterium smegmatis , here we have set up a basic methodology for mycobacteriophage growth and we have explored directed evolution as a tool for increasing phage infectivity and lytic activity. We demonstrate mycobacteriophage adaptation to its host under different conditions...
April 25, 2019: Antibiotics
Bernardo Ribeiro da Cunha, Luís P Fonseca, Cecília R C Calado
Given the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alongside the alarmingly low rate of newly approved antibiotics for clinical usage, we are on the verge of not having effective treatments for many common infectious diseases. Historically, antibiotic discovery has been crucial in outpacing resistance and success is closely related to systematic procedures-platforms-that have catalyzed the antibiotic golden age, namely the Waksman platform, followed by the platforms of semi-synthesis and fully synthetic antibiotics...
April 24, 2019: Antibiotics
Rajesh Kuppusamy, Mark Willcox, David StC Black, Naresh Kumar
The rapid growth of antimicrobial resistance against several frontline antibiotics has encouraged scientists worldwide to develop new alternatives with unique mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted considerable interest due to their rapid killing and broad-spectrum activity. Peptidomimetics overcome some of the obstacles of AMPs such as high cost of synthesis, short half-life in vivo due to their susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and issues with toxicity. This review will examine the development of short cationic peptidomimetics as antimicrobials...
April 18, 2019: Antibiotics
Rangel-Castañeda Itzia Azucena, Cruz-Lozano José Roberto, Zermeño-Ruiz Martin, Cortes-Zarate Rafael, Hernández-Hernández Leonardo, Tapia-Pastrana Gabriela, Castillo-Romero Araceli
Aim: This study investigated the susceptibility of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to curcumin, as well as its synergistic effect with 12 antimicrobial drugs. Methods and Results: Our study shows that curcumin did not affect bacterial growth. The antimicrobial susceptibility of curcumin and antibiotic synergy were identified using disc diffusion on Mueller-Hinton agar. The strain of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli used was resistant to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Ciprofloxacin, and Cefazolin...
April 18, 2019: Antibiotics
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