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Diseases (Basel)

Yumin Zhao, Weifeng Gui, Yishu Zhang, Gang Mo, Dayu Li, Shigui Chong
BACKGROUND: Heavy ion radiation has more advantages than traditional radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer, mainly because of its superior biological effects. However, there is currently no reliable evidence that heavy ion radiation can induce cell death in hydatid cysts at the cellular and molecular level. In addition, we believe heavy ion therapy could be a potential alternative approach for the treatment of hydatid cysts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The hydatid cysts and protoscolices were obtained from an experimentally infected KunMing mice...
February 18, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Satoru Matsuda, Yuka Ikeda, Mutsumi Murakami, Yukie Nakagawa, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi
Psychiatric illnesses may be qualified to the cellular impairments of the function for survival or death in neurons, which may consequently appear as abnormalities in the neuroplasticity. The molecular mechanism has not been well understood, however, it seems that PI3K, AKT, GSK3, and their downstream molecules have crucial roles in the pathogenesis. Through transducing cell surviving signal, the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathway may organize an intracellular central network for the action of the synaptic neuroplasticity...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Nima H Jazani, Javad Savoj, Michael Lustgarten, Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide major health problem. Traditional risk factors for CKD are hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have identified gut dysbiosis as a novel risk factor for the progression CKD and its complications. Dysbiosis can worsen systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the progression of CKD and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of the normal gut microbiota, and then elaborate on how alterations in the biochemical environment of the gastrointestinal tract in CKD can affect gut microbiota...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Julia Oppenheimer, Oluwafemi Ojo, Annalee Antonetty, Madeline Chiujdea, Stephanie Garcia, Sarah Weas, Tobias Loddenkemper, Eric Fleegler, Eugenia Chan
The aim of this study was to evaluate an automated trigger algorithm designed to detect potentially adverse events in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), who were monitored remotely between visits. We embedded a trigger algorithm derived from parent-reported ADHD rating scales within an electronic patient monitoring system. We categorized clinicians' alert resolution outcomes and compared Vanderbilt ADHD rating scale scores between patients who did or did not have triggered alerts...
February 7, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Luma Akil, H Anwar Ahmad
(1) Background: Salmonella infections are a major cause of illnesses in the United States. Each year around 450 people die from the disease and more than 23,000 people are hospitalized. Salmonella outbreaks are commonly associated with eggs, meat and poultry. In this study, a quantitative risk assessment model (QRAM) was developed to determine Salmonella infections in broiler chicken. (2) Methods: Data of positive Salmonella infections were obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System, in addition to published literature...
February 7, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Lorenzo Brognara, Pierpaolo Palumbo, Bernd Grimm, Luca Palmerini
: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Gait impairments are common among people with PD. Wearable sensor systems can be used for gait analysis by providing spatio-temporal parameters useful to investigate the progression of gait problems in Parkinson disease. However, various methods and tools with very high variability have been developed. The aim of this study is to review published articles of the last 10 years (from 2008 to 2018) concerning the application of wearable sensors to assess spatio-temporal parameters of gait in patients with PD...
February 5, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Yuji Morio, Kazuhiro P Izawa, Yoshitsugu Omori, Hironobu Katata, Daisuke Ishiyama, Shingo Koyama, Yoshihisa Yamano
Compared with elderly people who have not experienced falls, those who have were reported to have a shortened step length, large fluctuations in their pace, and a slow walking speed. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the step length required to maintain a walking speed of 1.0 m/s in patients aged 75 years or older. We measured the 10 m maximum walking speed in patients aged 75 years or older and divided them into the following two groups: Those who could walk 1.0 m/s or faster (fast group) and those who could not (slow group)...
February 2, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Ramón Gómez-Moreno, María González-Pons, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, Marcia Cruz-Correa, Abel Baerga-Ortiz
Gut bacterial toxins are thought to contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study examines the presence of specific gut bacterial toxin genes in stool samples from individuals with colorectal neoplasia (adenomas and/or CRC). The presence of bacterial genes encoding genotoxic or pro-inflammatory factors ( pks , tcpC , gelE , cnf-1 , AMmurB , and usp ) was established by PCR of stool samples from individuals from mainland US ( n = 30; controls = 10, adenoma = 10, CRC = 10) and from Puerto Rico (PR) ( n = 33; controls = 13; adenomas = 8; CRC = 12)...
February 1, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Janani Ramesh, Larance Ronsard, Anthony Gao, Bhuvarahamurthy Venugopal
Autophagy is a regular and substantial "clear-out process" that occurs within the cell and that gets rid of debris that accumulates in membrane-enclosed vacuoles by using enzyme-rich lysosomes, which are filled with acids that degrade the contents of the vacuoles. This machinery is well-connected with many prevalent diseases, including cancer, HIV, and Parkinson's disease. Considering that autophagy is well-known for its significant connections with a number of well-known fatal diseases, a thorough knowledge of the current findings in the field is essential in developing therapies to control the progression rate of diseases...
February 1, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Pilar Pérez-Ros, Francisco Miguel Martínez-Arnau
Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome often manifesting in acute disease conditions, and with a greater prevalence in the older generation. Delirium in the Emergency Department (ED) is a highly prevalent problem that typically goes unnoticed by healthcare providers. The onset of a delirium episode in the ED is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Because delirium is a preventable syndrome, these statistics are unacceptable. Emergency Department staff therefore should strive to perform systematic screening in order to detect delirium...
January 30, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Y O Adesiji, F B Omolade, I A Aderibigbe, O Ogungbe, O A Adefioye, S A Adedokun, M A Adekanle, R Ojedele
Tinea capitis is a fungi infection of the scalp that disproportionately affects children in rural and underserved communities in Nigeria. A case-control study was conducted to identify the causative agents and factors that predispose school pupils to tinea capitis in two selected government-owned public primary schools in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 230 participants were included in the study: 115 cases and 115 controls. Head scrapings were collected from pupils with suspected T. capitis lesions, viewed under Potassium Hydroxide smear microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) for characteristic fungal elements...
January 27, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Paloma Fernández-Sanz, Daniel Ruiz-Gabarre, Vega García-Escudero
As life expectancy is growing, neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, are increasing. This disease is characterised by the accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein, senile plaques composed of an extracellular deposit of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), and neuronal loss. This is accompanied by deficient mitochondrial function, increased oxidative stress, altered inflammatory response, and autophagy process impairment. The present study gathers scientific evidence that demonstrates that specific nutrients exert a direct effect on both Aβ production and Tau processing and their elimination by autophagy activation...
January 26, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Pablo Gómez-Rubio, Isabel Trapero
Exercise plays an important role in brain plasticity, leading to improvements in cognitive function and delaying the cognitive deterioration of healthy people. These effects can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia through improvements in their performance in cognitive tasks and a decrease in the symptomology of the disease. In this review we examine the current evidence for the roles that exercise and the immune system play in patients with schizophrenia, and specifically analyze the interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway as a potential mechanism resulting in these positive effects...
January 22, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Joël Pincemail, Mouna-Messaouda Kaci, Claire Kevers, Jessica Tabart, Raymond Ebabe Elle, Smail Meziane
Polyphenol compounds present in high quantity in wines are well-known to have potent cardio-protective properties through several biological mechanisms including antioxidant activity [1]. A large number of methods have been developed for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food matrices. Most of them have, however, the disadvantage of being time consuming and require specific analytical protocols and devices. In the present study, we present the electrochemical PAOT (Pouvoir Antioxydant Total)-Liquid® Technology which can be easily used by winemakers for evaluating antioxidant activity of wine during all steps of making process...
January 21, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Yumin Zhao, Weifeng Gui, Fuqiu Niu, Shigui Chong
Few major advances in fighting parasitic diseases have been made in China since the development of new methods for prevention, control, and elimination. However, the proportion of immunocompromised individuals has increased due to the growth of chronic diseases, population aging, and more frequent cases of patients with AIDS and cancer. All these problems can promote development of parasitic infections, which is commonly associated with manipulation of host signaling pathways and the innate immune system. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved in metazoan organisms, which play critical roles in the cell cycle, gene expression, growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and parasite⁻host interactions...
January 17, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Toshio Tanaka, Atsuhiko Iuchi, Hiroshi Harada, Shoji Hashimoto
Wine, a widely consumed beverage, comprises several biophenols that promote health. Flavonoids, majorly present in red wine, have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activities. Regular consumption of red wine (100 mL/day) is estimated to provide an average of 88 mg of flavonoids, whereas recent epidemiological studies indicate that wine is one of the major sources of flavonoid intake amongst wine lovers in European countries (providing an average intake of 291⁻374 mg/day of flavonoids)...
January 15, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Olivier Garraud, Fabrice Cognasse, Pierre Moncharmont
Alloimmunisation to platelet antigens is not uncommon; a large number of females, having had pregnancies, developed antibodies to Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) moieties harboured on their foetuses' cells (inherited from the father(s)) that may conflict with further pregnancies and transfused Platelet Components occasionally. This is possible since platelets constitutionally express HLA class I molecules (though in copy numbers that consistently differ among individuals). Platelets also express HPA moieties that are variants of naturally expressed adhesion and aggregation molecules; HPA differences between mothers and foetuses and between donors and recipients explain alloimmune conflicts and consequences...
January 14, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Eugenia Vlachou, Dimitra Anna Owens, Maria Lavdaniti, John Kalemikerakis, Eleni Evagelou, Nikoletta Margari, Georgia Fasoi, Eftychia Evangelidou, Ourania Govina, Athanasios N Tsartsalis
Dysmenorrhea (pain during menstruation) is one of the most common medical conditions among women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea has been studied around the world but not yet in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of dysmenorrhea on the wellbeing (exercising, and social and academic functioning) among nursing students in Greece. A cross-sectional study of 637 nursing students was conducted by administering a questionnaire at a university in Athens...
January 8, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Mohanad F Abdulhameed, Ian D Robertson, Suzan A Al-Azizz, Ihab Habib
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is recognized as a neglected disease of public health significance throughout the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and practices of some Basrah province residents diagnosed with CE. Using a questionnaire survey, we interviewed 50 surgically operated cases of CE from Basrah, south Iraq. The cases comprised of 31 females and 19 males, of which 74% originated from rural areas...
January 7, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Chong Yau Ong, Farhad Fakhrudin Vasanwala
Scabies is a significant public health condition in long-term care facilities, plaguing even developed countries. Although treatments are available, eradication and control of scabies cases still remain a challenge due to delays in diagnosis and difficulties in maintaining preventive and surveillance measures. Prompt treatment of patients and their contacts that are affected, along with concomitant education of health staff and family members, are paramount. Environmental disinfestation is also a concern.
December 29, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
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