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Cell Regeneration | Page 2

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/26500761/vascularization-mediated-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-a-comparison
#21
Karoline Pill, Sandra Hofmann, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Tissue-engineered constructs are promising to overcome shortage of organ donors and to reconstruct at least parts of injured or diseased tissues or organs. However, oxygen and nutrient supply are limiting factors in many tissues, especially after implantation into the host. Therefore, the development of a vascular system prior to implantation appears crucial. To develop a functional vascular system, different cell types that interact with each other need to be co-cultured to simulate a physiological environment in vitro...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26435835/enzymatic-and-non-enzymatic-isolation-systems-for-adipose-tissue-derived-cells-current-state-of-the-art
#22
Eleni Oberbauer, Carolin Steffenhagen, Christoph Wurzer, Christian Gabriel, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank
In the past decade, adipose tissue became a highly interesting source of adult stem cells for plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous cell population including the adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC), which showed regenerative potential in several clinical studies and trials. SVF should be provided in a safe and reproducible manner in accordance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP). To ensure highest possible safety for patients, a precisely defined procedure with a high-quality control is required...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26435834/stem-cell-aging-in-adult-progeria
#23
Hoi-Hung Cheung, Duanqing Pei, Wai-Yee Chan
Aging is considered an irreversible biological process and also a major risk factor for a spectrum of geriatric diseases. Advanced age-related decline in physiological functions, such as neurodegeneration, development of cardiovascular disease, endocrine and metabolic dysfunction, and neoplastic transformation, has become the focus in aging research. Natural aging is not regarded as a programmed process. However, accelerated aging due to inherited genetic defects in patients of progeria is programmed and resembles many aspects of natural aging...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26322226/the-interplay-between-metabolic-homeostasis-and-neurodegeneration-insights-into-the-neurometabolic-nature-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#24
S T Ngo, F J Steyn
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the selective degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower spinal motor neurons, resulting in the progressive paralysis of all voluntary muscles. Approximately 10 % of ALS cases are linked to known genetic mutations, with the remaining 90 % of cases being sporadic. While the primary pathology in ALS is the selective death of upper and lower motor neurons, numerous studies indicate that an imbalance in whole body and/or cellular metabolism influences the rate of progression of disease...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26246892/gata2-human-escs-undergo-attenuated-endothelial-to-hematopoietic-transition-and-thereafter-granulocyte-commitment
#25
Ke Huang, Juan Du, Ning Ma, Jiajun Liu, Pengfei Wu, Xiaoya Dong, Minghui Meng, Wenqian Wang, Xin Chen, Xi Shi, Qianyu Chen, Zhongzhou Yang, Shubin Chen, Jian Zhang, Yuhang Li, Wei Li, Yi Zheng, Jinglei Cai, Peng Li, Xiaofang Sun, Jinyong Wang, Duanqing Pei, Guangjin Pan
BACKGROUND: Hematopoiesis is a progressive process collectively controlled by an elaborate network of transcription factors (TFs). Among these TFs, GATA2 has been implicated to be critical for regulating multiple steps of hematopoiesis in mouse models. However, whether similar function of GATA2 is conserved in human hematopoiesis, especially during early embryonic development stage, is largely unknown. RESULTS: To examine the role of GATA2 in human background, we generated homozygous GATA2 knockout human embryonic stem cells (GATA2 (-/-) hESCs) and analyzed their blood differentiation potential...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26157574/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-heart-regeneration
#26
Gunes Ozhan, Gilbert Weidinger
The ability to repair damaged or lost tissues varies significantly among vertebrates. The regenerative ability of the heart is clinically very relevant, because adult teleost fish and amphibians can regenerate heart tissue, but we mammals cannot. Interestingly, heart regeneration is possible in neonatal mice, but this ability is lost within 7 days after birth. In zebrafish and neonatal mice, lost cardiomyocytes are regenerated via proliferation of spared, differentiated cardiomyocytes. While some cardiomyocyte turnover occurs in adult mammals, the cardiomyocyte production rate is too low in response to injury to regenerate the heart...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25848531/pharmacological-manipulation-of-transcription-factor-protein-protein-interactions-opportunities-and-obstacles
#27
Frank Fontaine, Jeroen Overman, Mathias François
Much research on transcription factor biology and their genetic pathways has been undertaken over the last 30 years, especially in the field of developmental biology and cancer. Yet, very little is known about the molecular modalities of highly dynamic interactions between transcription factors, genomic DNA, and protein partners. Methodological breakthroughs such as RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing), ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing), RIME (rapid immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry of endogenous proteins), and single-molecule imaging will dramatically accelerate the discovery rate of their molecular mode of action in the next few years...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25780560/etv2-expression-increases-the-efficiency-of-primitive-endothelial-cell-derivation-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#28
Anne G Lindgren, Matthew B Veldman, Shuo Lin
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells line the luminal surface of blood vessels and form a barrier between the blood and other tissues of the body. Ets variant 2 (ETV2) is transiently expressed in both zebrafish and mice and is necessary and sufficient for vascular endothelial cell specification. Overexpression of this gene in early zebrafish and mouse embryos results in ectopic appearance of endothelial cells. Ectopic expression of ETV2 in later development results in only a subset of cells responding to the signal...
2015: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25789158/combined-influence-of-basal-media-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-on-the-expansion-and-differentiation-capabilities-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#29
Mark Ahearne, Joanne Lysaght, Amy P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has increased in recent years due to their multi-linage differentiation capabilities. While much work has been done to optimize the differentiation media, few studies have focused on examining the influence of different expansion media on cell behavior. In this study, three basal media (low glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), high glucose DMEM and DMEM-F12) supplemented with or without fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF) were examined to assess their suitability for expanding ASCs...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25678957/exploring-the-utility-of-organo-polyoxometalate-hybrids-to-inhibit-sox-transcription-factors
#30
Kamesh Narasimhan, Kevin Micoine, Emmanuel Lacôte, Serge Thorimbert, Edwin Cheung, Bernold Hasenknopf, Ralf Jauch
BACKGROUND: SOX transcription factors constitute an attractive target class for intervention with small molecules as they play a prominent role in the field of regenerative biomedicine and cancer biology. However, rationally engineering specific inhibitors that interfere with transcription factor DNA interfaces continues to be a monumental challenge in the field of transcription factor chemical biology. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic compounds that were previously shown to target the high-mobility group (HMG) of SOX proteins at nanomolar concentrations...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408890/generation-of-multi-gene-knockout-rabbits-using-the-cas9-grna-system
#31
Quanmei Yan, Quanjun Zhang, Huaqiang Yang, Qingjian Zou, Chengcheng Tang, Nana Fan, Liangxue Lai
The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated system (Cas) is a simple, robust and efficient technique for gene targeting in model organisms such as zebrafish, mice and rats. In this report, we applied CRISPR technology to rabbits by microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and guided RNA (gRNA) into the cytoplasm of pronuclear-stage embryos. We achieved biallelic gene knockout (KO) rabbits by injection of 1 gene (IL2rg) or 2 gene (IL2rg and RAG1) Cas9 mRNA and gRNA with an efficiency of 100%...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408889/production-of-transgenic-pigs-over-expressing-the-antiviral-gene-mx1
#32
Quanmei Yan, Huaqiang Yang, Dongshan Yang, Bentian Zhao, Zhen Ouyang, Zhaoming Liu, Nana Fan, Hongsheng Ouyang, Weiwang Gu, Liangxue Lai
The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1) has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15-25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV)...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408888/genetic-reporter-analysis-reveals-an-expandable-reservoir-of-oct4-cells-in-adult-skin
#33
Anne Limbourg, Sabine Schnabel, Vladimir J Lozanovski, L Christian Napp, Teng-Cheong Ha, Tobias Maetzig, Johann Bauersachs, Hassan Y Naim, Axel Schambach, Florian P Limbourg
The transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1) is a critical regulator of pluripotency in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, Oct4 expression might identify somatic stem cell populations with inherent multipotent potential or a propensity for facilitated reprogramming. However, analysis of Oct4 expression is confounded by Oct4 pseudogenes or non-pluripotency-related isoforms. Systematic analysis of a transgenic Oct4-EGFP reporter mouse identified testis and skin as two principle sources of Oct4 (+) cells in postnatal mice...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408887/bioengineering-of-a-human-whole-tooth-progress-and-challenge
#34
Yanding Zhang, YiPing Chen
A major challenge in stem cell-based bioengineering of an implantable human tooth is to identify appropriate sources of postnatal stem cells that are odontogenic competent as the epithelial component due to the lack of enamel epithelial cells in adult teeth. In a recent issue (2013, 2:6) of Cell Regeneration, Cai and colleagues reported that epithelial sheets derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can functionally substitute for tooth germ epithelium to regenerate tooth-like structures, providing an appealing stem cell source for future human tooth regeneration...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408886/role-of-oct4-in-the-early-embryo-development
#35
REVIEW
Guangming Wu, Hans R Schöler
Oct4 is a key component of the pluripotency regulatory network, and its reciprocal interaction with Cdx2 has been shown to be a determinant of either the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or their differentiation into trophoblast. Oct4 of maternal origin is postulated to play critical role in defining totipotency and inducing pluripotency during embryonic development. However, the genetic elimination of maternal Oct4 using a Cre-lox approach in mouse revealed that the establishment of totipotency in maternal Oct4-depleted embryos was not affected, and that these embryos could complete full-term development without any obvious defect...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408885/oct4-a-penetrant-pluripotency-inducer
#36
Xuecong Wang, Ralf Jauch
Native OCT4 protein has the intrinsic ability of crossing cellular membranes to enter cells. This finding could revive efforts to induce pluripotency with proteins replacing nucleic acid-based approaches, and raises the intriguing question as to whether OCT4 can act non-cell-autonomously.
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408884/a-mitochondrial-strategy-for-safeguarding-the-reprogrammed-genome
#37
Alessandro Prigione, James Adjaye
Genomic aberrations induced by somatic cell reprogramming are a major drawback for future applications of this technology in regenerative medicine. A new study by Ji et al. published in Stem Cell Reports suggests a counteracting strategy based on balancing the mitochondrial/oxidative stress pathway through antioxidant supplementation.
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408883/aberrant-dna-methylation-reprogramming-during-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-generation-is-dependent-on-the-choice-of-reprogramming-factors
#38
Aline C Planello, Junfeng Ji, Vivek Sharma, Rajat Singhania, Faridah Mbabaali, Fabian Müller, Javier A Alfaro, Christoph Bock, Daniel D De Carvalho, Nizar N Batada
The conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells via overexpression of reprogramming factors involves epigenetic remodeling. DNA methylation at a significant proportion of CpG sites in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differs from that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Whether different sets of reprogramming factors influence the type and extent of aberrant DNA methylation in iPSCs differently remains unknown. In order to help resolve this critical question, we generated human iPSCs from a common fibroblast cell source using either the Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and cMYC) or the Thomson factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and LIN28), and determined their genome-wide DNA methylation profiles...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408882/generation-of-knockout-rabbits-using-transcription-activator-like-effector-nucleases
#39
Yu Wang, Nana Fan, Jun Song, Juan Zhong, Xiaogang Guo, Weihua Tian, Quanjun Zhang, Fenggong Cui, Li Li, Philip N Newsome, Jon Frampton, Miguel A Esteban, Liangxue Lai
Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively...
2014: Cell Regeneration
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25408881/characterization-of-a-novel-cell-penetrating-peptide-derived-from-human-oct4
#40
Eva Harreither, Hanna A Rydberg, Helene L Amand, Vaibhav Jadhav, Lukas Fliedl, Christina Benda, Miguel A Esteban, Duanqing Pei, Nicole Borth, Regina Grillari-Voglauer, Oliver Hommerding, Frank Edenhofer, Bengt Nordén, Johannes Grillari
BACKGROUND: Oct4 is a transcription factor that plays a major role for the preservation of the pluripotent state in embryonic stem cells as well as for efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) or other progenitors. Protein-based reprogramming methods mainly rely on the addition of a fused cell penetrating peptide. This study describes that Oct4 inherently carries a protein transduction domain, which can translocate into human and mouse cells. RESULTS: A 16 amino acid peptide representing the third helix of the human Oct4 homeodomain, referred to as Oct4 protein transduction domain (Oct4-PTD), can internalize in mammalian cells upon conjugation to a fluorescence moiety thereby acting as a cell penetrating peptide (CPP)...
2014: Cell Regeneration
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