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Cell Regeneration

Shuming Sun, Yuanliang Peng, Jing Liu
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) facilitate gas exchange in the lungs and transport oxygen to the tissues. The human body must maintain erythrocyte regeneration to support metabolically active cells and tissues. In many hematological diseases, erythrocyte regeneration is impaired. Researchers have studied erythrocyte regeneration for many years both in vivo and in vitro . In this review, we summarize the sources and main culture methods for generating mature and functional red blood cells in vitro . Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are classic sources for erythrocyte regeneration...
December 2018: Cell Regeneration
Zhenyi Jin, Ling Xu, Yangqiu Li
As three decades ago, it was reported that adoptive T cell immunotherapy by infusion of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) mediated objective cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma. A new era of T cell immunotherapy arose since the improvement and clinical use of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) for the treatment of refractory and relapsed B lymphocyte leukemia. However, several challenges and difficulties remain on the way to reach generic and effective T cell immunotherapy, including lacking a generic method for generating anti-leukemia-specific T cells from every patient...
December 2018: Cell Regeneration
Mingrui Xu, Jingjing Wang, Xize Guo, Tingting Li, Xia Kuang, Qing-Feng Wu
Single embryonic and adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Lineage tracing via clonal analysis allows for specific labeling of a single NSC and tracking of its progeny throughout development. Over the past five decades, a plethora of clonal analysis methods have been developed in tandem with integration of chemical, genetic, imaging and sequencing techniques. Applications of these approaches have gained diverse insights into the heterogeneous behavior of NSCs, lineage relationships between cells, molecular regulation of fate specification and ontogeny of complex neural tissues...
December 2018: Cell Regeneration
Weiqian Li, Yue Ren, Yanmin Si, Fang Wang, Jia Yu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial roles via tethering with DNA, RNA or protein in diverse biological processes. These lncRNA-mediated interactions enhance gene regulatory networks and modulate a wide range of downstream genes. It has been demonstrated that several lncRNAs act as key regulators in hematopoiesis. This review highlights the roles of lncRNAs in normal hematopoietic development and discusses how lncRNA dysregulation correlates with disease prognoses and phenotypes.
December 2018: Cell Regeneration
Hui Cheng, Guohuan Sun, Tao Cheng
Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors (HPCs) reside in the bone marrow, a highly orchestrated architecture. In the bone marrow, the process of how HSCs exert self-renewal and differentiation is tightly regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche. Recent advances in imaging technologies and numerous knockout or knockin mouse models have greatly improved our understanding of the organization of the bone marrow niche. This niche compartment includes a complex network of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), osteolineage cells, endothelial cells (arterioles and sinusoids), sympathetic nerves, nonmyelinating Schwann cells and megakaryocytes...
September 2018: Cell Regeneration
Bo Wang, Dongwei Li, Jiekai Chen, Jing Liu, Duanqing Pei
The oncogene c-Jun plays a key role in development and cancer. Yet, its role in cell fate decision remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report that c-Jun confers different fate decisions upon mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in adhesion vs suspension culture. We developed a Tet-on system for temporal induction of c-Jun expression by Doxycycline treatment in mESCs. We show that mESCs carrying the inducible c-Jun TetOn remain pluripotent and grow slowly in suspension when c-Jun expression is induced, whilst when the cells adhere they undergo differentiation and show normal proliferative potential upon c-Jun induction...
September 2018: Cell Regeneration
Qitong Weng, Fangxiao Hu, Mengyun Zhang, Yong Dong, Cui Lv, Ying Wang, Xiaofei Liu, Jinyong Wang
Obtaining T cells by reprogramming is one of the major goals in regenerative medicine. Here, we describe a protocol for generating functional T cells from Hoxb5-expressing pro/pre-B cells in vivo . This protocol includes the construction of Hoxb5 recombinant plasmids, retroviral packaging, isolation and viral transduction of pro/pre-B cells, cell transplantation, and phenotypic analysis of induced T cells. The procedure is reproducible and straightforward, providing an approach for generating induced T cells for translational research...
September 2018: Cell Regeneration
Behnam Ebrahimi
Myocardial infarction leads to the loss of a huge number of cardiomyocytes and the reparatory response to this phenomenon is scar tissue formation, which impairs heart function. Direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative strategy for the generation of functional cardiomyocytes not only in vitro , but also in vivo in the site of injury. Results have demonstrated cardiac tissue regeneration and improvement in heart function after myocardial infarction following local injection of vectors encoding reprogramming transcription factors or miRNAs...
September 2018: Cell Regeneration
Xiuling Fu, Fangfang He, Yuhao Li, Allahverdi Shahveranov, Andrew Paul Hutchins
Organisms are made of a limited number of cell types that combine to form higher order tissues and organs. Cell types have traditionally been defined by their morphologies or biological activity, yet the underlying molecular controls of cell type remain unclear. The onset of single cell technologies, and more recently genomics (particularly single cell genomics), has substantially increased the understanding of the concept of cell type, but has also increased the complexity of this understanding. These new technologies have added a new genome wide molecular dimension to the description of cell type, with genome-wide expression and epigenetic data acting as a cell type 'fingerprint' to describe the cell state...
December 2017: Cell Regeneration
Wuhong Pei, Sunny C Huang, Lisha Xu, Kade Pettie, María Laura Ceci, Mario Sánchez, Miguel L Allende, Shawn M Burgess
BACKGROUND: We are using genetics to identify genes specifically involved in hearing regeneration. In a large-scale genetic screening, we identified mgat5a , a gene in the N -glycosylation biosynthesis pathway whose activity negatively impacts hair cell regeneration. METHODS: We used a combination of mutant analysis in zebrafish and a hair cell regeneration assay to phenotype the loss of Mgat5a activity in zebrafish. We used pharmacological inhibition of N -glycosylation by swansonine...
2016: Cell Regeneration
Young Jin Lee, Suresh Ramakrishna, Himanshu Chauhan, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Kye-Seong Kim
Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous short non-coding RNAs 19-24 nucleotides in length, play key regulatory roles in various biological events at the post-transcriptional level. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a valuable tool for disease modeling, drug discovery, developmental studies, and potential cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine due to their unlimited self-renewal and pluripotency. Therefore, remarkable progress has been made in recent decades toward understanding the expression and functions of specific miRNAs in the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency...
2016: Cell Regeneration
Huayu Qi
Adult stem cells that reside in particular types of tissues are responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Cellular functions of adult stem cells are intricately related to the gene expression programs in those cells. Past research has demonstrated that regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level can decisively alter cell fate of stem cells. However, cellular contents of mRNAs are sometimes not equivalent to proteins, the functional units of cells. It is increasingly realized that post-transcriptional and translational regulation of gene expression are also fundamental for stem cell functions...
2016: Cell Regeneration
Songwei He, Yiping Guo, Yixin Zhang, Yuan Li, Chengqian Feng, Xiang Li, Lilong Lin, Lin Guo, Haitao Wang, Chunhua Liu, Yi Zheng, Chuanming Luo, Qiang Liu, Fuhui Wang, Hao Sun, Lining Liang, Lingyu Li, Huanxing Su, Jiekai Chen, Duanqing Pei, Hui Zheng
BACKGROUND: Currently, direct conversion from somatic cells to neurons requires virus-mediated delivery of at least one transcriptional factor or a combination of several small-molecule compounds. Delivery of transcriptional factors may affect genome stability, while small-molecule compounds may require more evaluations when applied in vivo. Thus, a defined medium with only conventional growth factors or additives for cell culture is desirable for inducing neuronal trans-differentiation...
2015: Cell Regeneration
Zhijuan Mao, Suming Zhang, Hong Chen
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of motor neurons. Currently, no effective therapy is available to treat ALS, except for Riluzole, which has only limited clinical benefits. Stem-cell-based therapy has been intensively and extensively studied as a potential novel treatment strategy for ALS and has been shown to be effective, at least to some extent. In this article, we will review the current state of research on the use of stem cell therapy in the treatment of ALS and discuss the most promising stem cells for the treatment of ALS...
2015: Cell Regeneration
Behnam Ebrahimi
Induced pluripotent stem cells are powerful tools for disease modeling, drug screening, and cell transplantation therapies. These cells can be generated directly from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined factors through a reprogramming process. However, pluripotent reprogramming is an inefficient process because of various defined and unidentified barriers. Recent studies dissecting the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming have methodically improved the quality, ease, and efficiency of reprogramming...
2015: Cell Regeneration
Heather McGowan, Zhiping P Pang
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), encoded by the gene MECP2, is a transcriptional regulator and chromatin-remodeling protein, which is ubiquitously expressed and plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS). Highly enriched in post-migratory neurons, MeCP2 is needed for neuronal maturation, including dendritic arborization and the development of synapses. Loss-of-function mutations in MECP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a phase of normal development, followed by the progressive loss of milestones and cognitive disability...
2015: Cell Regeneration
Karoline Pill, Sandra Hofmann, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Tissue-engineered constructs are promising to overcome shortage of organ donors and to reconstruct at least parts of injured or diseased tissues or organs. However, oxygen and nutrient supply are limiting factors in many tissues, especially after implantation into the host. Therefore, the development of a vascular system prior to implantation appears crucial. To develop a functional vascular system, different cell types that interact with each other need to be co-cultured to simulate a physiological environment in vitro...
2015: Cell Regeneration
Eleni Oberbauer, Carolin Steffenhagen, Christoph Wurzer, Christian Gabriel, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank
In the past decade, adipose tissue became a highly interesting source of adult stem cells for plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous cell population including the adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC), which showed regenerative potential in several clinical studies and trials. SVF should be provided in a safe and reproducible manner in accordance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP). To ensure highest possible safety for patients, a precisely defined procedure with a high-quality control is required...
2015: Cell Regeneration
Hoi-Hung Cheung, Duanqing Pei, Wai-Yee Chan
Aging is considered an irreversible biological process and also a major risk factor for a spectrum of geriatric diseases. Advanced age-related decline in physiological functions, such as neurodegeneration, development of cardiovascular disease, endocrine and metabolic dysfunction, and neoplastic transformation, has become the focus in aging research. Natural aging is not regarded as a programmed process. However, accelerated aging due to inherited genetic defects in patients of progeria is programmed and resembles many aspects of natural aging...
2015: Cell Regeneration
S T Ngo, F J Steyn
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the selective degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower spinal motor neurons, resulting in the progressive paralysis of all voluntary muscles. Approximately 10 % of ALS cases are linked to known genetic mutations, with the remaining 90 % of cases being sporadic. While the primary pathology in ALS is the selective death of upper and lower motor neurons, numerous studies indicate that an imbalance in whole body and/or cellular metabolism influences the rate of progression of disease...
2015: Cell Regeneration
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