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Annual Review of Virology

Kimberly A Dowd, Theodore C Pierson
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne RNA viruses that are a significant threat to global health due to their widespread distribution, ability to cause severe disease in humans, and capacity for explosive spread following introduction into new regions. Members of this genus include dengue, tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Vaccination has been a highly successful means to control flaviviruses, and neutralizing antibodies are an important component of a protective immune response. High-resolution structures of flavivirus structural proteins and virions, alone and in complex with antibodies, provide a detailed understanding of viral fusion mechanisms and virus-antibody interactions...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Zhe Ma, Guoxin Ni, Blossom Damania
DNA viruses are linked to many infectious diseases and contribute significantly to human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Moreover, DNA viral infections are usually lifelong and hard to eradicate. Under certain circumstances, these viruses can cause fatal disease, especially in children and immunocompromised patients. An efficient innate immune response against these viruses is critical, not only as the first line of host defense against viral infection but also for mounting more specific and robust adaptive immunity against the virus...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Lynn W Enquist, Terence S Dermody, Daniel DiMaio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Said A Ghabrial
My long career in virology has been a continuous learning exercise with a very modest start. Virology and related pertinent fields have changed significantly during my lifetime. Sometimes I wish that my career had just started and I could apply all available and state of the art technology to solving problems and explaining intriguing observations. I was always convinced that visiting growers' fields is essential for researchers to get firsthand observations and knowledge of virus disease problems under field conditions...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Daniel DiMaio, Terence S Dermody, Lynn W Enquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Claudia Firrito, Cinzia Bertelli, Teresa Vanzo, Ajit Chande, Massimo Pizzato
SERINC genes encode for homologous multipass transmembrane proteins with unknown cellular function, despite being highly conserved across eukaryotes. Among the five SERINC genes found in humans, SERINC5 was shown to act as a powerful inhibitor of retroviruses. It is efficiently incorporated into virions and blocks the penetration of the viral core into target cells, by impairing the fusion process with a yet unclear mechanism. SERINC5 was also found to promote human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) virion neutralization by antibodies, indicating a pleiotropic activity, which remains mostly unexplored...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Olga A Maximova, Alexander G Pletnev
Flaviviruses are major emerging human pathogens on a global scale. Some flaviviruses can infect the central nervous system of the host and therefore are regarded as neurotropic. The most clinically relevant classical neurotropic flaviviruses include Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. In this review, we focus on these flaviviruses and revisit the concepts of flaviviral neurotropism, neuropathogenicity, neuroinvasion, and resultant neuropathogenesis. We attempt to synthesize the current knowledge about interactions between the central nervous system and flaviviruses from the neuroanatomical and neuropathological perspectives and address some misconceptions and controversies...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Phuong T Ho, Daniel J Montiel-Garcia, Jonathan J Wong, Mauricio Carrillo-Tripp, Charles L Brooks, John E Johnson, Vijay S Reddy
The VIrus Particle ExploreR database (VIPERdb) ( ) is a database and web portal for primarily icosahedral virus capsid structures that integrates structure-derived information with visualization and analysis tools accessed through a set of web interfaces. Our aim in developing VIPERdb is to provide comprehensive structure-derived information on viruses comprising simple to detailed attributes such as size (diameter), architecture ( T number), genome type, taxonomy, intersubunit association energies, and surface-accessible residues...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Claudette L Poole, David W Kimberlin
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in newborns are associated with severe disease and death. Trials conducted by the Collaborative Antiviral Study Group have established the standard of care for the treatment of neonatal HSV disease with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. We review the studies that have contributed to our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical course of neonatal HSV disease and discuss the landmark trials that have resulted in safe and effective treatment together with improved diagnostics...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Margaret G Redinbaugh, Lucy R Stewart
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. The coinfecting viruses act synergistically to result in frequent plant death or severely reduce or negligible yield. Over the past eight years, MLN has emerged in sub-Saharan East Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, with large impacts on smallholder farmers...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Leo C James, David A Jacques
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most studied of all human pathogens. One strain-HIV-1 group M-is responsible for a global pandemic that has infected >60 million people and killed >20 million. Understanding the stages of HIV infection has led to highly effective therapeutics in the form of antiviral drugs that target the viral enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease as well as biotechnological developments in the form of retroviral and lentiviral vectors for the transduction of cells in tissue culture and, potentially, gene therapy...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Meredith C Rogers, John V Williams
Viral lung infections are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Effective immune responses to these infections require precise immune regulation to preserve lung function after viral clearance. One component of airway pathophysiology and lung injury associated with acute respiratory virus infection is effector T cells, yet these are the primary cells required for viral clearance. Accordingly, multiple immune mechanisms exist to regulate effector T cells, limiting immunopathology while permitting clearance of infection...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Walid Azab, Anisha Dayaram, Alex D Greenwood, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Herpesviruses are ubiquitous and can cause disease in all classes of vertebrates but also in animals of lower taxa, including molluscs. It is generally accepted that herpesviruses are primarily species specific, although a species can be infected by different herpesviruses. Species specificity is thought to result from host-virus coevolutionary processes over the long term. Even with this general concept in mind, investigators have recognized interspecies transmission of several members of the Herpesviridae family, often with fatal outcomes in non-definitive hosts-that is, animals that have no or only a limited role in virus transmission...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
James E Schoelz, Lucy R Stewart
Viruses are an important but sequence-diverse and often understudied component of the phytobiome. We succinctly review current information on how plant viruses directly affect plant health and physiology and consequently have the capacity to modulate plant interactions with their biotic and abiotic environments. Virus interactions with other biota in the phytobiome, including arthropods, fungi, and nematodes, may also impact plant health. For example, viruses interact with and modulate the interface between plants and insects...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Patrick T Dolan, Zachary J Whitfield, Raul Andino
RNA viruses are unique in their evolutionary capacity, exhibiting high mutation rates and frequent recombination. They rapidly adapt to environmental changes, such as shifts in immune pressure or pharmacological challenge. The evolution of RNA viruses has been brought into new focus with the recent developments of genetic and experimental tools to explore and manipulate the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations. These studies have uncovered new mechanisms that enable viruses to overcome evolutionary challenges in the environment and have emphasized the intimate relationship of viral populations with evolution...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Paul Bieniasz, Alice Telesnitsky
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle assembly requires several protein:RNA interactions that vary widely in their character, from specific recognition of highly conserved and structured viral RNA elements to less specific interactions with variable RNA sequences. Genetic, biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies have illuminated how virion morphogenesis is accompanied by dramatic changes in the interactions among the protein and RNA virion components. The 5' leader RNA element drives RNA recognition by Gag upon initiation of HIV-1 assembly and can assume variable conformations that influence translation, dimerization, and Gag recognition...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Lenore Pereira
Why certain viruses cross the physical barrier of the human placenta but others do not is incompletely understood. Over the past 20 years, we have gained deeper knowledge of intrauterine infection and routes of viral transmission. This review focuses on human viruses that replicate in the placenta, infect the fetus, and cause birth defects, including rubella virus, varicella-zoster virus, parvovirus B19, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and hepatitis E virus type 1. Detailed discussions include ( a) the architecture of the uterine-placental interface, ( b) studies of placental explants ex vivo that provide insights into the infection and spread of CMV and ZIKV to the fetal compartment and how these viruses undermine early development, and ( c) novel treatments and vaccines that limit viral replication and have the potential to reduce dissemination, vertical transmission and the occurrence of congenital disease...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Dustin R Glasner, Henry Puerta-Guardo, P Robert Beatty, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent medically important mosquito-borne virus in the world. Upon DENV infection of a host cell, DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) can be found intracellularly as a monomer, associated with the cell surface as a dimer, and secreted as a hexamer into the bloodstream. NS1 plays a variety of roles in the viral life cycle, particularly in RNA replication and immune evasion of the complement pathway. Over the past several years, key roles for NS1 in the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease have emerged, including direct action of the protein on the vascular endothelium and triggering release of vasoactive cytokines from immune cells, both of which result in endothelial hyperpermeability and vascular leak...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Gary W Blissard, David A Theilmann
Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses of insects that are highly pathogenic in many hosts. In the infection cycle, baculoviruses produce two types of virions. These virion phenotypes are physically and functionally distinct, and each serves a critical role in the biology of the virus. One phenotype, the occlusion-derived virus (ODV), is occluded within a crystallized protein that facilitates oral infection of the host. A large complex of at least nine ODV envelope proteins called per os infectivity factors are critically important for ODV infection of insect midgut epithelial cells...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
Olen Kew, Mark Pallansch
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), paralytic cases associated with wild poliovirus (WPV) have fallen from ∼350,000 in 1988 to 22 in 2017. WPV type 2 (WPV2) was last detected in 1999, WPV3 in 2012, and WPV1 appeared to be localized to Pakistan and Afghanistan in 2017. Through continuous refinement, the GPEI has overcome operational and biological challenges far more complex and daunting than originally envisioned. Operational challenges had led to sustained WPV endemicity in core reservoirs and widespread dissemination to polio-free countries...
September 29, 2018: Annual Review of Virology
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