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New Microbes and New Infections

V Girardi, M Demoliner, J S Gularte, F R Spilki
Like in many other countries, virologic analyses are not routinely performed in Brazil in monitoring water quality for recreational purposes. We surveyed current research regarding viral contamination of recreational water environments in Brazil. Among the enteric viruses studied in Brazilian recreational waters, we highlight adenoviruses, rotaviruses, enteroviruses and noroviruses. Although there has been relatively little research on outbreaks related to bathing in recreational water environments in Brazil, noroviruses and adenoviruses are the viruses that are most often related to outbreaks...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
N Bouscaren, C Benoit de Coignac, S Lastère, D Musso, Y Teissier, J Formont, F Chaix, M Giard
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis with higher incidence in tropical areas and is a neglected disease in the Pacific region. French Polynesia (FP) is a French overseas territory located in the South Pacific. Data on the epidemiology in FP are scarce. In this study, we describe our understanding of leptospirosis epidemiology in FP and discuss the prospects concerning this disease and its surveillance to better address preventive actions. We report 11 years of surveillance data between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2017...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
K Tsilipounidaki, A Gerontopoulos, C Papagiannitsis, E Petinaki
Until now, in Greece, the resistance of enterococci to linezolid was associated with mutations of domain V of 23S ribosomal RNA (G2576T). Here we report the first linezolid-resistant optrA -positive Enterococcus faecalis sequence type (ST) 16 isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection (UTI). No travels overseas, contact with food-producing animals or previous treatment with linezolid were reported. Plasmid analysis suggested the chromosomal location of optrA gene. Additionally, whole genome sequencing data revealed the association of optrA with transposon Tn 554 and the coexistence with fexA, spc and ermA -like resistance genes...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
M Aubry, V-M Cao-Lormeau
In French Polynesia, arthropod-borne diseases are major public health problems. From the mid-1940s, the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) have caused 15 epidemics of variable severity. In 2013, for the first time, a sustained co-circulation of two different DENV serotypes (DENV-1 and -3) was reported. The same year, Zika virus (ZIKV) caused the largest outbreak ever recorded at that time. Severe neurologic complications in adults, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and central nervous system malformations in newborns and foeteuses, such as microcephaly, were reported, and a causal link with ZIKV infection was established...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
P Xaplanteri, A Chondroleou, F Kolonitsiou, A Skintzi, E D Anastassiou, M Marangos, I Spiliopoulou
We report an outbreak Bacillus cereus causing postpartum bacteraemia in the maternity ward and delivery room. Spores transferred by the hands and gloves of the staff in the maternity ward contaminated equipment in these two areas.
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
K Patas, K Douros, K N Priftis, A Ioannidis, C Nikolaou, S Chatzipanagiotou
We report a rare case of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis accompanied by protracted infection with Aggregatibacter aphrophilus in a 12-year-old boy with haemoptysis.
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
A H Togo, A Diop, G Dubourg, S Khelaifia, M Richez, N Armstrong, M Maraninchi, P-E Fournier, D Raoult, M Million
A new bacterium, strain AT3T , was isolated by microbial culturomics from a faecal sample from a Frenchman after bariatric surgery. The isolate exhibited 96.6% 16S ribosomal RNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity with Anaerotruncus colihominis strain WAL 14565T  = CCUG 45055T  = CIP 107754T . Phenotypic and genomic characteristics showed that the new strain represents a novel species, for which the name Anaerotruncus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain AT3T  = CSUR P2007T  = DSM 100567T ...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
A E Taha, M F Badr, F E El-Morsy, E Hammad
We report a case of hospital-acquired pneumonia that to our knowledge is the first description in Egypt of the emergence of vancomycin (VA)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus due to the concomitant use of β-lactams. The combination of β-lactam antibiotics and VA in the treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus must be avoided to refrain from inducing VA resistance; further, if there is coinfection with Gram-negative bacilli, β-lactams must be avoided. If β-lactam antibiotic-induced VA-resistant methicillin-resistant S...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
E A Salvador, G A Pires de Souza, L C Cotta Malaquias, T Wang, L F Leomil Coelho
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family and the genus Flavivirus. Infection with ZIKV causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called Zika fever. However, ZIKV infection has been recently associated with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Vaccines for the disease are a high priority of World Health Organization. Several studies are currently being conducted to develop a vaccine against ZIKV, but until now there is no licensed ZIKV vaccine. This study used a novel immunoinformatics approach to identify potential T-cell immunogenic epitopes present in the structural and nonstructural proteins of ZIKV...
May 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
Moustafa Kardjadj, Meriem Hind Ben-Mahdi
Globally, human-dog interactions cause significant social, economic and human health costs. Public health problems linked with dogs include mainly zoonotic diseases. Recently the concept of a global and integrative approach to improve the health and well-being of people, animals and the environment has been strongly endorsed. This concept, often referred to as One Health, also reflects the collaboration in the field of surveillance and monitoring. Because humans and animals often suffer from the same pathogens and share the same environment, a cross-sector approach integrating human and animal disease surveillance information is required...
March 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
Z Khan, S Ahmad, A Jeragh, W Alfouzan, H Al Foudri, N Hassan, M Asadzadeh, L Joseph, S Varghese
Ascotricha chartarum is a rare human pathogen. We describe the isolation and characterization of A. chartarum from bronchoalveolar lavage samples of two patients with underlying pulmonary infections. The identity of both isolates was established by typical phenotypic characteristics and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domains of recombinant DNA and β-tubulin gene fragment. The demonstration of branched, septate hyphae in direct microscopic examination of both the specimens and isolation of the fungus in pure cultures suggest its aetiologic role in the disease process...
March 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
M Hosny, R Abou Abdallah, J Bou Khalil, A Fontanini, E Baptiste, N Armstrong, B La Scola
Using the strategy of taxonogenomics, we described Clostridium pacaense sp. nov. strain Marseille-P3100T , a Gram-variable, nonmotile, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus. This strain was isolated from a 3.3-month-old Senegalese girl with clinical aspects of marasmus. The closest species based on 16S ribosomal RNA was Clostridium aldenense, with a similarity of 98.4%. The genome length was 2 672 129 bp, with a 50% GC content; 2360 proteins were predicted. Finally, predominant fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid and 9-hexadecenoic acid...
March 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
E Malli, N K Gatselis, G N Dalekos, E Petinaki
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is often difficult to diagnose because bacteria in ascites cannot be detected accurately by conventional culture. In this study, we evaluated the use of broad-range 16S rRNA PCR, applied either directly to a total of 32 ascitic fluids (AFs) or to the AF vial cultures, after a long incubation of 14 days; the results were compared with those of AF vial cultures. Escherichia coli was isolated in four of 32 AF vial cultures (12.5%). The application of 16S rRNA PCR directly to AF detected only one of the four positive samples (sensitivity 25%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) 100%, negative predictive value (NPV) 90...
March 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
M Shafiei, A Ghasemian, M Eslami, F Nojoomi, H Rajabi-Vardanjani
Silicotuberculosis is critical in community settings among workers and employees exposed to silica dust. Older age of entry (>30 years), male sex, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), exposure duration, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, migration, the severity of the silicosis and the intensity of the exposure are potential risk factors. Lack of timely diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis (TB) may also raise the rate of infection; previous treatment of TB is possibly associated with the development of silicotuberculosis in more than half of patients, increasing with age (>40 years)...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
S Lahiani, M E Dumez, I Bitam, M Galleni
Der p 5 is one of the important house dust mite allergens in Algeria; this allergen is frequently recognized by patients with allergic asthma. However, there is no information on its IgG-binding epitopes. In the present study, rabbits were immunized with recombinant Der p 5 allergen, and serum samples were obtained. Recognition of linear IgG epitopes of Der p 5 was determined using synthesized peptides derived from the allergen sequence. The results showed that serum from immunized rabbits recognized three linear epitopes from Der p 5 (28 EDKKHDYQNEFDFLLMERIHEQIK43 ), (37 IHEQIKKGELALFYLQEQ55 ) and (92 LMQRKDLDIFEQYNLEMAKKS112 )...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
E Edalati, B Saneei, M Alizadeh, S S Hosseini, A Zahedi Bialvaei, K Taheri
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the main classes of acid-producing organisms in the food industry, and they play a vital part in many food and feed fermentations. We isolated and performed molecular identification of LAB from raw camel's milk and assessed their protective effects against pathogenicity induced by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Fourteen samples of camel's milk were obtained from several districts under aseptic conditions. Bacteria isolation was performed by plating the samples on selective media...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
E Vajana, I Widmer, E Rochat, S Duruz, O Selmoni, S Vuilleumier, S Aeby, G Greub, S Joost
Occurrence of bacteria belonging to the order Chlamydiales was investigated for the first time in common toad ( Bufo bufo ) tadpole populations collected from 41 ponds in the Geneva metropolitan area, Switzerland. A Chlamydiales -specific real-time PCR was used to detect and amplify the Chlamydiales 16S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene from the tails of 375 tadpoles. We found the studied amphibian populations to host Chlamydia -like organisms (CLOs) attributable to the genera Similichlamydia, Neochlamydia, Protochlamydia and Parachlamydia (all belonging to the family Parachlamydiaceae ), Simkania (family Simkaniaceae ) and Estrella (family Criblamydiaceae ); additionally, DNA from the genus Thermoanaerobacter (family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae ) was detected...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
H Ghaoui, I Bitam, K Ait-Oudhia, N Achour, A Saad-Djaballah, F Z Saadnia, S Kedjour, P-E Fournier
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.nmni.2018.08.003.].
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
L Dib, I Lafri, M Boucheikhchoukh, Z Dendani, I Bitam, A Benakhla
This article discusses research conducted on the sampling of two tick species: Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus bursa . Ticks were collected in northern Algeria (El Tarf) in 2014 and studied for differences in abundance and seasonal distribution of population dynamics, as well as tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia spp. By molecular tools, four Rickettsia pathogens agents were detected: R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. raoultii and R. massiliae.
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
E Angelakis, D Bachar, M Yasir, D Musso, F Djossou, C Melenotte, C Robert, B Davoust, B Gaborit, E I Azhar, F Bibi, A Dutour, D Raoult
Few studies have examined the interaction of human geography, microbial community structure and obesity. We tested obese adult volunteers from France, Saudi Arabia, French Polynesia and from a traditional population in the village of Trois-Sauts in French Guiana by sequencing the V3-V4 region. We also sequenced homemade fermented cachiri beers that were obtained from the traditional Amazonian population and are highly consumed by this population. We found that French and Saudis had significantly less richness and biodiversity in their gut microbiota than Amazonians and Polynesians (p <0...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
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