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Intestinal Research

Stephanie J King, Declan F McCole
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract-the main site of host-microbial interaction in the body. Development of IBD is not due to a single event but rather is a multifactorial process where a patient's genetic background, behavioral habits, and environmental exposures contribute to disease pathogenesis. IBD patients exhibit alterations to gut bacterial populations "dysbiosis" due to the inflammatory microenvironment, however whether this alteration of the gut microbiota precedes inflammation has not been confirmed...
March 7, 2019: Intestinal Research
Wolfgang J Schnedl, Sonja Lackner, Dietmar Enko, Michael Schenk, Sandra J Holasek, Harald Mangge
Background/Aims: Food intolerance/malabsorption, particularly histamine intolerance (HIT), may cause nonspecific functional gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. We evaluated gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with HIT. Methods: In an analysis of outpatients' charts we identified 133 patients, who presented with recurring nonspecific functional gastrointestinal, extraintestinal symptoms, and a diamine oxidase value <10 U/mL, indicative of HIT...
March 7, 2019: Intestinal Research
Yuji Maehata, Yutaka Nagata, Tomohiko Moriyama, Yuichi Matsuno, Atsushi Hirano, Junji Umeno, Takehiro Torisu, Tatsuya Manabe, Takanari Kitazono, Motohiro Esaki
Background/Aims: It remains uncertain which patients with stricturing-type Crohn's disease (CD) require early small bowel surgery after the initial diagnosis. We aimed to clarify clinical characteristics associated with the intervention in such condition of CD. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course of 53 patients with CD and small bowel strictures who were initially treated with medications after the initial diagnosis. We investigated possible associations between small bowel surgery and the following: clinical factors and radiologic findings at initial diagnosis and the types of medications administered during follow-up...
February 21, 2019: Intestinal Research
Huei-Wen Lim, Isaiah P Schuster, Ramona Rajapakse, Farah Monzur, Sundas Khan, Keith Sultan
Background/Aims: : Optimal management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with concomitant Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is controversial, especially when CDI diagnosis is made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, which may reflect colonization without infection. Methods: We performed a multicenter review of all inpatients with IBD and PCR diagnosed CDI. Outcomes included length of stay, 30- and 90-day readmission, colectomy during admission and within 3 months, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, CDI relapse and death for patients who received CS after CDI diagnosis versus those that did not...
February 12, 2019: Intestinal Research
Yong-Sung Choi, Jong Kyu Kim, Wan Jung Kim, Mi-Jung Kim
Although ulcerative colitis (UC) is confined to colonic and rectal mucosa in a continuous fashion, recent studies have also demonstrated the involvement of upper gastrointestinal tract as diagnostic endoscopy becomes more available and technically advanced. The pathogenesis of UC is not well established yet. It might be associated with an inappropriate response of host mucosal immune system to gut microflora. Although continuous and symmetric distribution of mucosal inflammation from rectum to colon is a typical pattern of UC, clinical feature and course of atypically distributed lesions in UC might also help us understand the pathogenesis of UC...
February 12, 2019: Intestinal Research
Toshifumi Hibi, Satoshi Motoya, Toshifumi Ashida, Souken Sai, Yukinori Sameshima, Shiro Nakamura, Atsuo Maemoto, Masahiro Nii, Barbara A Sullivan, Robert A Gasser, Yasuo Suzuki
Background/Aims: : Inhibition of α4β7 integrin has been shown to be effective for induction and maintenance therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the effects of varying doses of the α4β7 inhibitor abrilumab in Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe UC despite conventional treatments. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study, 45 UC patients were randomized to abrilumab 21 mg (n=11), 70 mg (n=12), 210 mg (n=9), or placebo (n=13) via subcutaneous (SC) injection for 12 weeks...
February 12, 2019: Intestinal Research
Akira Hokama, Shusaku Haranaga, Takanobu Sasaki, Hirofumi Matsumoto, Tetsuya Ohira, Atsushi Iraha, Tetsu Kinjo, Saifun Nahar, Jiro Fujita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Intestinal Research
Soo-Kyung Park, Sang Hyun Park, Chang Soo Eun, Geom Seog Seo, Jong Pil Im, Tae Oh Kim, Dong-Il Park
Background/Aims: A once-daily (OD) regimen of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was easier to comply with than a divided daily (DD) regimen, and that treatment efficacy for ulcerative colitis (UC) was not affected by the dosing regimen. This study evaluated treatment adherence of OD and DD dosing in the Korean UC patients. Methods: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial. UC patients were enrolled who have been in remission for more than 3 months...
February 8, 2019: Intestinal Research
Ko Eun Lee, Sung-Ae Jung, Sang Hyoung Park, Chang Mo Moon, So Yeon Shim, Eun Soo Kim, Su Jin Cho, Seong-Eun Kim, Kwang Bum Cho, Suk-Kyun Yang
Background/Aims: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occurs at young age, and therefore, women IBD patients experience pregnancy during their disease progression. Recently, the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) has been rapidly increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy related outcomes in women with IBD who were treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy and immunity of their children. Methods: Korean women with IBD who had been treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy had been enrolled...
February 8, 2019: Intestinal Research
Hye Jung Kwon, Jong Hyun Lim, Dongmin Kang, Sanghyun Lim, Seun Ja Park, Jae Hyun Kim
Background/Aims: Recently, a number of studies have reported that the gut microbiota could contribute to human conditions, including obesity, inflammation, cancer development, and behavior. We hypothesized that the composition and distribution of gut microbiota are different according to stool frequency, and attempted to identify the association between gut microbiota and stool frequency. Methods: We collected fecal samples from healthy individuals divided into 3 groups according to stool frequency: group 1, a small number of defecation (≤2 times/wk); group 2, normal defecation (1 time/day or 1 time/2 day); and group 3, a large number of defecation (≥2-3 times/day)...
February 7, 2019: Intestinal Research
Ebby George Simon, Richard Wardle, Aye Aye Thi, Jeanette Eldridge, Sunil Samuel, Gordon William Moran
Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a highly sensitive disease activity biomarker in inflammatory bowel disease. However, there are conflicting reports on whether the diagnostic accuracy in Crohn's disease is influenced by disease location. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the published literature. Relevant databases were searched from inception to November 8, 2016 for cohort and case control studies which had data on FC in patients with isolated small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) Crohn's disease...
February 7, 2019: Intestinal Research
Jae Hyun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Intestinal Research
Shinji Okabayashi, Taku Kobayashi, Eiko Saito, Takahiko Toyonaga, Ryo Ozaki, Shintaro Sagami, Masaru Nakano, Junichi Tanaka, Keiji Yagisawa, Satoshi Kuronuma, Osamu Takeuchi, Toshifumi Hibi
Background/Aims: The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus (TAC) is known to be largely influenced by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A5. Patients starting TAC require careful dose adjustment, owing to the wide range of optimal dosages, depending on their CYP3A5 expression status. Here, we evaluated whether individualization of TAC dosages based on CYP3A5 SNPs would improve its therapeutic efficacy in ulcerative colitis. Methods: Twenty-one patients were prospectively treated, with their initial dosage adjusted according to their CYP3A5 status (0...
February 7, 2019: Intestinal Research
Jin Soo Moon
The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing countries. It differs from adult disease in clinical manifestations, especially with regard to genetic predisposition in monogenic IBD. Pediatric disease also have a tendency to show more aggressive inflammation and greater extent of lesion. Newer drugs such as antitumor necrosis factor α have been known to make a difference in treating pediatric IBD. Recent studies suggested that the patients with high risk factors might have some benefits from earlier use of biologics...
January 9, 2019: Intestinal Research
Marcello Rabello Imbrizi, Daniela Oliveira Magro, Tirzah de Mendonça Lopes Secundo, Marlone Cunha-Silva, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Ciro Garcia Montes, Jazon Romilson de Souza Almeida, Virgínia Lúcia Ribeiro Cabral
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic entities characterized by local and systemic inflammation and may be associated with thrombosis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of thromboembolic events (TEE) in hospitalized IBD patients and identify risk factors for their occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included patients treated at a Brazilian IBD referral unit between 2004 and 2014. Patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours due to active IBD and who did not receive prophylaxis for TEE during hospitalization were included...
January 2019: Intestinal Research
Tomohiro Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Takanori Kanai
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the cause of UC is postulated to be multifactorial in nature, including genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulation of immune responses, and environmental factors, the specific pathogenesis of UC is still incompletely understood. In the treatment of UC so far, a method of suppressing immunity and treating it has been mainstream. Immunosuppressant drugs, including thiopurines (azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine), anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) antibody (infliximab and adalimumab), and calcineurin inhibitor, can be used in treat patients with corticosteroid-dependent and/or corticosteroid-refractory moderateto- severe UC...
January 2019: Intestinal Research
Young-Seok Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Intestinal Research
Chang Kyun Lee, Kang-Moon Lee, Dong Il Park, Sung-Ae Jung, Yoon Tae Jeen, Young Sook Park, Hyo Jong Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Intestinal Research
Ana Luiza Biancardi, Leandro Lopes Troncoso, Haroldo Vieira de Moraes, Cyrla Zaltman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Intestinal Research
Sakiko Hiraoka, Shiho Takashima, Toshihiro Inokuchi, Asuka Nakarai, Masahiro Takahara, Keita Harada, Yasuhiro Seki, Katsunori Watanabe, Jun Kato, Hiroyuki Okada
Background/Aims: Fecal calprotectin (Fcal) as well as the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are useful biomarkers for detecting activity and mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel diseases. Here, we report the performance of simultaneous measurements of Fcal and FIT for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients using the newly-developed latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay (LATIA) system. Methods: Fcal and hemoglobin were measured by the LATIA system in 152 UC patients who underwent colonoscopy...
December 14, 2018: Intestinal Research
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