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Plant Pathology Journal

Da Jeong Shin, Sung-Je Yoo, Jeum Kyu Hong, Hang-Yeon Weon, Jaekyeong Song, Mee Kyung Sang
Plants are exposed to biotic stresses caused by pathogen attack and complex abiotic stresses including heat and drought by dynamic climate changes. To alleviate these stresses, we investigated two bacterial stains, H26-2 and H30-3 in two cultivars ('Ryeokkwang' and 'Buram-3-ho') of Chinese cabbage in plastic pots in a greenhouse. We evaluated effects of bacterial strains on plant growth-promotion and mitigation of heat and drought stresses; the role of exopolysaccharides as one of bacterial determinants on alleviating stresses; biocontrol activity against soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Na Liu, Shijun Jiang, Songli Feng, Wenyan Shang, Guozhen Xing, Rui Qiu, Chengjun Li, Shujun Li, Wenming Zheng
A duplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of tobacco root rot pathogens Phytophthora nicotianae and Thielaviopsis basicola . The specific primers for P. nicotianae were developed based on its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal gene, ras gene and hgd gene, while the specific primers for T. basicola were designed based on its ITS regions and β- tubulin gene. The specificity of the primers was determined using isolates of P. nicotianae , T. basicola and control samples...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Seong Heo, Hyun Ran Kim, Hee Jae Lee
An assay for detecting Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) was developed based on nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) in combination with real-time detection during the amplification process using molecular beacon. The ASSVd specific primers for amplification of the viroid RNA and molecular beacon for detecting the viroid were designed based on highly conserved regions of several ASSVd sequences including Korean isolate. The assay had a detection range of 1 × 104 to 1 × 1012 ASSVd RNA copies/μl with reproducibility and precision...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Sung-Hee Lee, Hyunman Shin, Ju-Hyoung Kim, Kyoung-Yul Ryu, Heung Tae Kim, Byeongjin Cha, Jae-Soon Cha
Our study investigated the available chlorine content, contact time and difference among strains of each pathogen for sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to control chemically against soil-borne fungal pathogens, such as Phytophthora rot by Phytophthora cactorum , violet root rot by Helicobasidium mompa , and white root rot by Rosellinia necatrix , causing die-back symptom on apple trees. As a result, the colony growth of Phytophthora cactorum was inhibited completely by soaking over 5 s in 31.25 ml/l available chlorine content of NaOCl...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Dong Sub Kim, Yurina Kwack, Jung Heon Lee, Changhoo Chun
The antimicrobial activity of acetone, hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from leaves, stems, immature green fruits, and red fruits of tomato plants was examined against six phytopathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the acetonic extracts from these four plant parts was lower than that of the other solvents. Among the acetonic extracts, tomato leaves had a lower MIC than the other tomato parts. The acetonic extract from tomato leaves was therefore selected as a source of antimicrobial substances...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Amanul Islam, Md Shahinur Kabir, Abul Khair
In search of an effective biological control agent against the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp . lycopersici , rhizospheric soil samples were collected from eight agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh. Among the bacteria isolated from soil, 24 isolates were randomly selected and evaluated for their antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici . The two promising antagonistic isolates were identified as Brevundimonas olei and Bacillus methylotrophicus based on morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Susana Boso, Pilar Gago, José-Luis Santiago, María de la Fuente, María-Carmen Martínez
Vitis vinifera is very susceptible to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) . A number of authors have suggested different genetic populations of this fungus exist in Europe, each showing a different degree of virulence. Work performed to date indicates this diversity to be the result of different factors. In areas where gene flow is greater and recombination more frequent, the diversity of P. viticola appears to be wider. In vineyards isolated by geographic barriers, a race may become dominant and produce clonal epidemics driven by asexual reproduction...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Tomasz Warzecha, Edyta Skrzypek, Tadeusz Adamski, Maria Surma, Zygmunt Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Sutkowska
Barley worldwide is affected seriously by Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) diseases caused by the Fusarium species . The objective of this study was to facilitate the resistance of hulled and hull-less barley at different growth stages to F. culmorum according to direct parameters: disease rating (DR), fresh weight of leaves and roots, kernel weight per spike, kernel number per spike, plump kernels, and indirect parameters - chlorophyll a fluorescence (CF). Plate assay, greenhouse and field tests were performed on 30 spring barley doubled haploid (DH) lines and their parents infected with Fusarium culmorum ...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Sandra Alaniz, Vanessa Cuozzo, Valentina Martínez, Marciel J Stadnik, Pedro Mondino
Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a destructive disease of apple restricted to a few regions worldwide. The distribution and evolution of GLS symptoms were observed for two years in Uruguay. The recurrent ascopore production on leaves and the widespread randomized distribution of symptoms throughout trees and orchard, suggest that ascospores play an important role in the disease dispersion. The ability of ascospores to produce typical GLS symptom was demonstrated by artificial inoculation...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Kai Lu, Min Zhang, Ran Yang, Min Zhang, Qinjun Guo, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Houjuan Xu
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades in fungi are ubiquitously conserved signaling pathways that regulate stress responses, vegetative growth, pathogenicity, and many other developmental processes. Previously, we reported that the AbSte7 gene, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) in Alternaria brassicicola , plays a central role in pathogenicity against host cabbage plants. In this research, we further characterized the role of AbSte7 in the pathogenicity of this fungus using ΔAbSte7 mutants...
April 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Abraham Okki Mwamula, Hyoung-Rai Ko, Youngjoon Kim, Young Ho Kim, Jae-Kook Lee, Dong Woon Lee
[This corrects the article on p. 297 in vol. 34, PMID: 30140183.].
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Sang-Wook Han, Mi-Ae Lee, Youngchul Yoo, Man-Ho Cho, Sang-Won Lee
Two-component systems (TCSs) are critical to the pathogenesis of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo ). We mutated 55 of 62 genes annotated as responsive regulators (RRs) of TCSs in the genome of Xoo strain PXO99A and identified 9 genes involved in Xoo virulence. Four ( rpfG , hrpG , stoS , and detR ) of the 9 genes were previously reported as key regulators of Xoo virulence and the other 5 have not been characterized. Lesion lengths on rice leaves inoculated with the mutants were shorter than those of the wild type and were significantly restored with gene complementation...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Ye Ji Lee, Jin-Ju Jeong, Hyunjung Jin, Wook Kim, Gyeong-Dan Yu, Ki Deok Kim
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) can be used as an alternative disinfectant for controlling fungal contamination during postharvest storage. In this study, we tested the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of gaseous ClO2 against Diaporthe batatas SP-d1, the causal agent of sweetpotato dry rot. In in vitro tests, spore suspensions of SP-d1 spread on acidified potato dextrose agar were treated with various ClO2 concentrations (1-20 ppm) for 0-60 min. Fungal growth was significantly inhibited at 1 ppm of ClO2 treatment for 30 min, and completely inhibited at 20 ppm...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Xin Liu, Rong Zeng, Shigang Gao, Lihui Xu, Fuming Dai
SdhB P225F and SdhB H272R mutations have been found associated with boscalid resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in Shanghai, China. For rapid detection of two mutations, tetra-primers were designed and optimized to gain the relatively high accuracy and specificity based on the ARMS-PCR technique, by which resistance can be identified with different lengths of products on agarose gels. The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR systems for SdhB P225F and SdhB H272R were validated by 9 SdhB -squenced strains repeatedly...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Emmanuel Byamukama, Shaukat Ali, Jonathan Kleinjan, Dalitso N Yabwalo, Christopher Graham, Melanie Caffe-Treml, Nathan D Mueller, John Rickertsen, William A Berzonsky
Winter wheat is susceptible to several fungal pathogens throughout the growing season and foliar fungicide application is one of the strategies used in the management of fungal diseases in winter wheat. However, for fungicides to be profitable, weather conditions conducive to fungal disease development should be present. To determine if winter wheat yield response to fungicide application at the flowering growth stage (Feekes 10.5.1) was related to the growing season precipitation, grain yield from fungicide treated plots was compared to non-treated plots for 19 to 30 hard red winter wheat cultivars planted at 8 site years from 2011 through 2015...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Muhammad Kamran, Nazir Javed, Ihsan Ullah, Shahid Nazir, Shakra Jamil, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Huma Abbas, Sajid Aleem Khan, Muhammad Ehetisham Ul Haq
A great variable response was observed when PP-3 and PP-J encumbered with 116 populations of root knot nematode (RKN) at two different temperatures (25 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C) and concentrations (104 and 105 spores/ml). The PCR reaction amplified intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and large subunit of rRNA gene (lrRNA) of the mitochondrial genome of different RKN species. The primer C2F3 and 1108 identified M. incognita with the highest frequency (52.6%) followed by M. javanica (36...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Kashif Ahmad, Sheng-Ren Sun, Jun-Lü Chen, Mei-Ting Huang, Hua-Ying Fu, San-Ji Gao
Sugarcane bacilliform viruses (SCBV), which belong to the genus Badnavirus , family Caulimoviridae , are an important DNA virus complex that infects sugarcane. To explore the genetic diversity of the sugarcane-infecting badnavirus complex in China, we tested 392 sugarcane leaf samples collected from Fujian, Yunnan, and Hainan provinces for the occurrence of SCBV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using published primers SCBV-F and SCBV-R that target the reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT/RNase H) regions of the viral genome...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Jelena Latinović, Sebastjan Radišek, Milija Bajčeta, Jernej Jakše, Nedeljko Latinović
Symptoms of fig mosaic disease have been noticed on leaves of fig ( Ficus carica ) for several decades, in Montenegro. In 2014, leaf samples were collected from trees of six fig cultivars in a plantation located in the main fig-producing area of Montenegro, to study the disease. After RNA isolation, samples were tested by RT-PCR for detection of nine fig viruses and three viroids. Four viruses were detected: fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1), fig mosaic virus (FMV), fig mild mottle-associated-virus (FMMaV) and fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1)...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Juan C Ochoa, Mariana Herrera, Mónica Navia, Hernán Mauricio Romero
Bud rot (BR) is the most devastating disease affecting oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) crops in Colombia. Its causal agent, Phytophthora palmivora , initiates the infection in immature oil palm leaflets producing necrotic lesions, followed by colonization of opportunistic necrotrophs, which increases disease damage. To improve the characterization of the disease, we transformed P. palmivora using Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT) to include the fluorescent proteins CFP-SKL (peroxisomal localization), eGFP and mRFP1 (cytoplasmic localization)...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
Li-Hua Xie, Xin Quan, Jie Zhang, Yan-Yan Yang, Run-Hong Sun, Ming-Cong Xia, Bao-Guo Xue, Chao Wu, Xiao-Yun Han, Ya-Nan Xue, Li-Rong Yang
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is a soil borne pathogenic fungus associated with wheat roots. The accurate quantification of gene expression during the process of infection might be helpful to understand the pathogenic molecular mechanism. However, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were chosen, and the specificity of the primers were investigated by melting curves of PCR products. The expression stability of these nine candidates was determined with three programs-geNorm, Norm Finder, and Best Keeper...
February 2019: Plant Pathology Journal
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