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Shigeru Takaoka, Tadashi Fujino, Yoshinobu Kawakami, Shin-Ichi Shigeoka, Takashi Yorifuji
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...].
April 11, 2019: Toxics
Yu Wang, Hongkai Zhu, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Phthalates (diesters of phthalic acid) are widely used as plasticizers and additives in many consumer products. Laboratory animal studies have reported the endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects of phthalates, and human exposure to this class of chemicals is a concern. Several phthalates have been recognized as substances of high concern. Human exposure to phthalates occurs mainly via dietary sources, dermal absorption, and air inhalation. Phthalates are excreted as conjugated monoesters in urine, and some phthalates, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), undergo secondary metabolism, including oxidative transformation, prior to urinary excretion...
April 5, 2019: Toxics
Hing Man Chan
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems [...].
April 1, 2019: Toxics
Samaila Musa Chiroma, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Che Norma Mat Taib, Zulkhairi Amom, Saravanan Jagadeesan, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Onesimus Mahdi, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with cholinergic dysfunctions and impaired redox homeostasis. The plant Centella asiatica (CA) is renowned for its nutritional benefits and herbal formulas for promoting health, enhancing cognition, and its neuroprotective effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective role of CA on D-gal/AlCl₃-induced cognitive deficits in rats. The rats were divided into six groups and administered with donepezil 1 mg/kg/day, CA (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and D-gal 60 mg/kg/day + AlCl₃ 200 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks...
March 30, 2019: Toxics
Sabrina M Huber, Andrea Leonardi, Peter C Dedon, Thomas J Begley
Living organisms respond to environmental changes and xenobiotic exposures by regulating gene expression. While heat shock, unfolded protein, and DNA damage stress responses are well-studied at the levels of the transcriptome and proteome, tRNA-mediated mechanisms are only recently emerging as important modulators of cellular stress responses. Regulation of the stress response by tRNA shows a high functional diversity, ranging from the control of tRNA maturation and translation initiation, to translational enhancement through modification-mediated codon-biased translation of mRNAs encoding stress response proteins, and translational repression by stress-induced tRNA fragments...
March 25, 2019: Toxics
John Baptist Nzukizi Mudumbi, Adegbenro Peter Daso, Okechukwu Jonathan Okonkwo, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Tandi E Matsha, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Elie Fereche Itoba-Tombo, Adewole T Adetunji, Linda L Sibali
It has been extensively demonstrated that plants accumulate organic substances emanating from various sources, including soil and water. This fact suggests the potentiality of contamination of certain vital bioresources, such as medicinal plants, by persistent contaminants, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). Hence, in this study, the propensity of Tagetes erecta L. (a commonly used medicinal plant) to accumulate PFOA, PFOS, and PFBS was determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC⁻MS/MS-8030)...
March 25, 2019: Toxics
Bin Ma, Irina Stepanov, Stephen S Hecht
DNA adducts are believed to play a central role in the induction of cancer in cigarette smokers and are proposed as being potential biomarkers of cancer risk. We have summarized research conducted since 2012 on DNA adduct formation in smokers. A variety of DNA adducts derived from various classes of carcinogens, including aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, alkylating agents, aldehydes, volatile carcinogens, as well as oxidative damage have been reported. The results are discussed with particular attention to the analytical methods used in those studies...
March 19, 2019: Toxics
Supratik Kar, Jerzy Leszczynski
Industrial advances have led to generation of multi-component chemicals, materials and pharmaceuticals which are directly or indirectly affecting the environment. Although toxicity data are available for individual chemicals, generally there is no toxicity data of chemical mixtures. Most importantly, the nature of toxicity of these studied mixtures is completely different to the single components, which makes the toxicity evaluation of mixtures more critical and challenging. Interactions of individual chemicals in a mixture can result in multifaceted and considerable deviations in the apparent properties of its ingredients...
March 19, 2019: Toxics
Chi-Kong Chan, Yushuo Liu, Nikola M Pavlović, Wan Chan
Aristolochic acids (AAs) are nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids naturally produced by Aristolochia plants. These plants were widely used to prepare herbal remedies until AAs were observed to be highly nephrotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. Although the use of AA-containing Aristolochia plants in herbal medicine is prohibited in countries worldwide, emerging evidence nevertheless has indicated that AAs are the causative agents of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an environmentally derived disease threatening numerous residents of rural farming villages along the Danube River in countries of the Balkan Peninsula...
March 19, 2019: Toxics
Zhuqing Xue, Chunrong Jia
Environmental research has widely utilized the ambient concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) modeled by the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) program; however, limited studies have evaluated the model's performance. This study aims to evaluate the model-to-monitor agreement of the 2011 NATA data with the monitoring data reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS). Concentrations of 27 representative HAPs measured at 274 sites in the U.S. in 2011 were merged with NATA data by census tract...
March 10, 2019: Toxics
Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho, Daphne Heloísa de Freitas Muniz, Esther Lima de Carvalho, Paolin Rocio Cáceres-Velez, Maria Luiza Fascineli, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, Cesar Koppe Grisolia
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used intensively in medical and industrial applications. Environmental concerns have arisen from the potential release of this material into aquatic ecosystems. The aims of this research were to evaluate the potential accumulation of silver in the whole body of organisms and analyze the effects of AgNPs on the survival and reproduction of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata . Results show slow acute toxicity with a 10-day LC50 of 18.57 mg/L and an effective decrease in the eggs and egg clutches per organism exposed to tested concentrations...
March 1, 2019: Toxics
Maria Grazia Porpora, Ilaria Piacenti, Sara Scaramuzzino, Luisa Masciullo, Francesco Rech, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Preterm birth is an obstetric condition associated with a high risk of infant mortality and morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, which has also a significant public health impact because it carries an important societal economic burden. As in many cases the etiology is unknown, it is important to identify environmental factors that may be involved in the occurrence of this condition. In this review, we report all the studies published in PubMed and Scopus databases from January 1992 to January 2019, accessible as full-text articles, written in English, including clinical studies, original studies, and reviews...
March 1, 2019: Toxics
Hamed Al-Busaidi, Md Emranul Karim, Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Kyi Kyi Tha, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of chemotherapy is undermined by adverse side effects and chemoresistance of target tissues. Developing a drug delivery system can reduce off-target side effects and increase the efficacy of drugs by increasing their accumulation in target tissues. Inorganic salts have several advantages over other drug delivery vectors in that they are non-carcinogenic and less immunogenic than viral vectors and have a higher loading capacity and better controlled release than lipid and polymer vectors...
February 22, 2019: Toxics
Fábio Martins, David Oppolzer, Catarina Santos, Mário Barroso, Eugenia Gallardo
Opiate use during pregnancy has been an increasing problem over the last two decades, making it an important social and health concern. The use of such substances may have serious negative outcomes in the newborn, and clinical and cognitive conditions have been reported, including neonatal abstinence syndrome, developmental problems, and lower cognitive performance. These conditions are common when opiates are used during pregnancy, making the prescription of these kinds of drugs problematic. Moreover, the mother may develop opiate addiction, thus, increasing the likelihood of the infant being born with any of those conditions...
February 16, 2019: Toxics
Jitlada Vichapong, Yanawath Santaladchaiyakit, Rodjana Burakham, Supalax Srijaranai
A simple microextraction method, magnetic stirring assisted demulsification dispersive liquid⁻liquid microextraction, for preconcentration of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthrene, and pyrene) was investigated prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. In this method, a mixture of extraction solvent and disperser solvent was rapidly injected into sample solution. The magnetic stirrer agitator aided the dispersion of the extraction solvent into the sample solution...
February 13, 2019: Toxics
Jenny Aasa, Efstathios Vryonidis, Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg, Margareta Törnqvist
The general population is exposed to the genotoxic carcinogen glycidol via food containing refined edible oils where glycidol is present in the form of fatty acid esters. In this study, internal (in vivo) doses of glycidol were determined in a cohort of 50 children and in a reference group of 12 adults (non-smokers and smokers). The lifetime in vivo doses and intakes of glycidol were calculated from the levels of the hemoglobin (Hb) adduct N -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in blood samples from the subjects, demonstrating a fivefold variation between the children...
February 1, 2019: Toxics
Emily A Clementi, Angela Talusan, Sandhya Vaidyanathan, Arul Veerappan, Mena Mikhail, Dean Ostrofsky, George Crowley, James S Kim, Sophia Kwon, Anna Nolan
Particulate matter (PM) exposure and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) are both significant global health burdens. PM exposure has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MetSyn and cardiopulmonary diseases. Individuals with pre-existing MetSyn may be more susceptible to the detrimental effects of PM exposure. Our aim was to provide a narrative review of MetSyn/PM-induced systemic inflammation in cardiopulmonary disease, with a focus on prior studies of the World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed Fire Department of New York (FDNY)...
January 30, 2019: Toxics
Yves Combarnous, Thi Mong Diep Nguyen
Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural molecules in the environment that promote adverse modifications of endogenous hormone regulation in humans and/or in wildlife animals. In the present paper, we review the potential mechanisms of EDCs and point out the similarities and differences between EDCs and hormones. There was only one mechanism, out of nine identified, in which EDCs acted like hormones (i.e. binding and stimulated hormone receptor activity). In the other eight identified mechanisms of action, EDCs exerted their effects either by affecting endogenous hormone concentration, or its availability, or by modifying hormone receptor turn over...
January 24, 2019: Toxics
Wen-Tien Tsai
In Taiwan and other countries, glyphosate has been used widely as a non-selective herbicide over 40 years in crop lands and non-crop lands. However, public concerns about its environmental and health risks have increased rapidly because the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reclassified it as Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) in 2015. From the viewpoints of environmental quality, food security and human health, it is necessary to regulate the release of glyphosate into the environment due to its massive use...
January 22, 2019: Toxics
Obinna Elijah Nworie, Junhao Qin, Chuxia Lin
The uptake of trace elements by wild herbaceous plants in a multiple trace element-contaminated site was investigated. The bioaccumulation factor (BF) of trace elements was markedly variable among the different plant species. On average, the BF for various trace elements was in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni > As > Pb > Cr. The translocation factor among the investigated plant species was also considerably variable and showed the following decreasing order: Mn > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Pb...
January 17, 2019: Toxics
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