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Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI

María Gallardo, Luis Arias-Darraz, Juan Cárcamo
This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of breed on mRNA and protein expression levels of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) plus sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c) in the subcutaneous fat (SCF) from the back of the animal, and tail fat (TF) of both Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal. Eight Chilota and six Suffolk Down 2-month-old male lambs were allocated to graze a "Calafatal", a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago, Chile...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Faegheh Zaefarian, Mohammad Reza Abdollahi, Aaron Cowieson, Velmurugu Ravindran
Despite having huge responsibilities in avian species, published reports on the influence of dietary factors and other possible constraints on the size, development and function of liver are limited. Consideration of the factors that could influence and alter liver function is therefore of critical relevance. In the current review, aspects of liver structure and function, and the influence of feed restriction, anti-nutritional factors, structural components and feed additives on liver are discussed. Effects of feed technology techniques such as thermal treatment and pelleting, feed particle size and whole grain feeding on the liver are also reviewed...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jessica R Craig, Frank R Dunshea, Jeremy J Cottrell, Erin M Ford, Udani A Wijesiriwardana, John R Pluske
Feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to dams has been shown to improve progeny growth and survival, and hence may be particularly advantageous to gilt progeny. Primiparous ( n = 129) and multiparous sows ( n = 123; parities 3 and 4) were fed one of four diets from day 107 of gestation (107.3 ± 0.1 days) until weaning (day 27.2 ± 0.1 of lactation): (i) control diet; (ii) 0.5% CLA diet; (iii) 0.1% MCFA diet; and (iv) equal parts of (ii) and (iii). Progeny performance data were collected and, from a subset of sows ( n = 78) and their piglets ( n = 144), a colostrum (day 0), milk (day 21), and piglet serum sample (day 3) were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and several selected metabolites...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jiang Hu, Bingang Shi, Jianpeng Xie, Huitong Zhou, Jiqing Wang, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Zhidong Zhao, Yuzhu Luo
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 ( DGAT2 ) plays a key role in the synthesis of animal triglycerides (TGs). This study investigated the relative expression of the DGAT2 gene in tissues, variation in the gene, and its association with carcass and meat quality traits in yaks ( Bos grunniens ). DGAT2 was found to be expressed in twelve tissues investigated, but the highest expression was detected in subcutaneous fat, and moderate levels were observed in the liver, heart, longissimus dorsi muscle, and abomasum...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kamila Dias, Sergio Garcia, Mohammed Rafiq Islam, Cameron Clark
(1) Background: Pasture varies in its chemical composition from the top of the sward to the base and cattle prefer to eat the leaf fraction. In pasture-based dairy systems, cattle predominantly walk back to pasture voluntarily after each milking, with the first cattle arriving to pasture hours before the last. Here we study the impact of pasture composition according to milking order on milk yield and milk composition for dairy cattle offered grazed ryegrass pasture. (2) Methods: In the first experiment, individual cow milk yield data were recorded on six farms over 8 months...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Robert Ritson, Dustin H Ranglack, Nate Bickford
A wide variety of environmental stimuli can influence the behavior of animals including temperature, weather, light, lunar and seasonal cycles, seismic activity, as well as other perturbations to their circadian rhythm. Solar eclipses offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the relative influence of unexpected darkness on behavior of animals due to their sudden interference with local light levels and meteorology. Though occasionally bizarre, modern studies have lent support to the idea that at least some individuals of certain species display altered behavior during these events...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Anna Scandurra, Alessandra Alterisio, Anna Di Cosmo, Antonio D'Ambrosio, Biagio D'Aniello
Recent studies have underlined the effect of ovariectomy on the spatial cognition of female dogs, with ovariectomized dogs showing a clear preference for an egocentric rather than an allocentric navigation strategy whereas intact females did not show preferences. Intact females had better performances than gonadectomized females in solving a learning task in a maze. Ovariectomy also affects socio-cognitive abilities, reducing the dog's level of attention on the owner. We tested dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ) in the object choice task paradigm to assess whether an ovariectomy could impair females' ability to follow human signals...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Frank R Dunshea, Kehinde Oluboyede, Kristy DiGiacomo, Brian J Leury, Jeremy J Cottrell
Betaine is an organic osmolyte sourced from sugar beet that accumulates in plant cells undergoing osmotic stress. Since the accumulation of betaine lowers the energy requirements of animals and, therefore, metabolic heat production, the aim of this experiment was to investigate if betaine supplementation improved milk yield in grazing dairy cows in summer. One hundred and eighteen Friesian × Holstein cows were paired on days in milk and, within each pair, randomly allocated to a containing treatment of either 0 or 2 g/kg natural betaine in their concentrate ration for approximately 3 weeks during February/March 2015 (summer in Australia)...
February 13, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Mhairi Sutherland, Gemma Worth, Catherine Cameron, Else Verbeek
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of morphine on social and non-socialplay behaviour in calves. Twelve calves experienced four treatments in a cross over 2 × 2 factorialdesign: Calves received an intravenous injection of morphine or saline 10 min prior to being testedindividually or in pairs in an arena for 20 min. Play behaviour was continuously recorded in thearena test. Lying times were recorded in the home pen. Cortisol concentrations were measuredbefore and after testing. In the arena test, calves given morphine tended to perform more social playevents than calves given saline, however, morphine administration had no effect on locomotor play...
February 12, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Martin Škrlep, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Nina Batorek-Lukač, Urška Tomažin, Mónica Flores
Dry-fermented sausages were produced in a traditional way, without addition of nitrites and starter cultures, from meat of an autochthonous breed (Krškopolje pig) raised either in a conventional indoor or organic husbandry system. Physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed at the end of processing to characterize their quality. Dry-fermented sausages from organic pork retained more moisture, which resulted in higher water activity and softer texture (instrumental and sensory). They were more oxidized (higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), in agreement with more unsaturated fatty acid profile, a higher score for rancid taste, and a higher relative abundance of volatiles from lipid β-oxidation...
February 12, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Xiaoping Xin, Zhonghui Li, Yuyi Zhong, Qingqing Li, Jiaying Wang, Hao Zhang, Xiaolong Yuan, Jiaqi Li, Zhe Zhang
Previous studies have strongly recommended that KISS-1 metastasis suppressor ( KISS1 ) plays an essential gatekeeper of the initiation of reproductive maturation in mammals. However, KISS1 has been recently reported to highly express in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). But the biological functionalities of KISS1 on cell apoptosis, cell cycle, and synthesis of estradiol-17β (E2) have not been explored in GCs. In this study, using porcine GCs as a cellular model, the overexpression plasmid of KISS1 was built to explore the biological effects of KISS1 on the PI3K signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, and E2 secretion...
February 12, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kaya von Eugen, Rebecca E Nordquist, Elly Zeinstra, Franz Josef van der Staay
The recent increases in stocking density, in extreme cases resulting in 'crowding', have a major impact on poultry welfare. In contrast to available research on adult laying hens, there is a gap in the literature studying the rearing phase. The present study investigated the effects of stocking density during the rearing period on the welfare of the laying hen chick. The chicks were housed under one of three crowding conditions, increasing with age: undercrowding (500-1000-1429 cm² per chick), conventional crowding (167-333-500 cm² per chick), or overcrowding (56-111-167 cm² per chick)...
February 10, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Peter Coals, Dawn Burnham, Andrew Loveridge, David W Macdonald, Michael 't Sas-Rolfes, Vivienne L Williams, John A Vucetich
Conservation and natural resource management are increasingly attending the ethical elements of public decisions. Ethical considerations are challenging, in part, because they typically require accounting for the moral consideration of various human and nonhuman forms of life, whose interests sometimes conflict (or seem to conflict). A valuable tool for such evaluations is the formal analysis of ethical arguments. An ethical argument is a collection of premises, logically interrelated, to yield a conclusion that can be expressed in the form, " We ought to… " According to the rules of logic, a conclusion is supported by an argument if all its premises are true or appropriate and when it contains no mistaken inferences...
February 8, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Lauren Powell, Kate M Edwards, Adrian Bauman, Adam J Guastella, Bradley Drayton, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Paul McGreevy
Several studies suggest human⁻dog interactions elicit a positive effect on canine oxytocin concentrations. However, empirical investigations are scant and the joint influence of human⁻dog interaction and physical activity remains unexplored. The aims of the current study were to (a) examine the canine endogenous oxytocin response to owner-led dog-walking and affiliative human⁻dog interactions and (b) investigate the moderating effect of the owner-reported strength of the human⁻dog bond on such responses...
February 8, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jessica Pockett, Bronwyn Orr, Evelyn Hall, Wye Li Chong, Mark Westman
Due to resource limitations, animal shelters in Australia historically have focused on rehoming animals considered 'highly adoptable'. Increasingly, animal shelters in Australia are rehoming animals with pre-existing medical and/or behavioural issues. These animals are often rehomed with an 'indemnity waiver' to transfer the responsibility of ongoing financial costs associated with these conditions from the shelter to the new owner. However, it is unknown what effect these indemnity waivers have on the length of stay (LOS) of animals prior to adoption...
February 7, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Nienke van Staaveren, Caitlin Decina, Christine F Baes, Tina M Widowski, Olaf Berke, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Although Canada is one of the first to provide guidelines on pullet rearing in a new Code of Practice which came into effect in March 2017, little information is available about the housing and management of pullets on Canadian farms. We surveyed 99 pullet farmers and received useable responses from 33 pullet farmers (33.3% response rate) who took part in the Start Clean-Stay Clean™ program through their provincial egg boards across Canada during October⁻December 2017 as part of a larger study. Most flocks were housed in conventional cage systems (42...
February 6, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Ruan R Daros, José A Bran, Maria J Hötzel, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
In this cross-sectional study, we measured the association between water provision and milk production on intensively managed small-scale grazing dairy herds. Farms ( n = 53) were categorized according to water provision as follows: (1) Restricted-cows did not have access to a water trough while on pasture; and (2) Unrestricted-cows had free access to a water trough while on pasture. Herd main breed and feeding practices were included in a model to assess the effect of water provision category on farm average milk yield/cow/d...
February 5, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Leonie Jacobs, Dianna V Bourassa, Caitlin E Harris, R Jeff Buhr
The aim was to assess the onset of brain stem death for two euthanasia methods-manual cervical dislocation (CD) versus the Koechner Euthanizing Device (KED). Over three days broilers of 36 (n = 60), 42 (n = 80), or 43 days old (n = 60) were euthanized. On days 2 and 3, a treatment was added in which the bird's head was extended at a ~90° angle after application of the KED (KED+). On those days, gap size was recorded between the skull and atlas vertebra by 1-cm increments. The onset of brain death was assessed by recording the nictitating membrane reflex, gasping reflex and musculoskeletal movements (sec)...
February 1, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Anna Arczewska-Wlosek, Sylwester Swiatkiewicz, Dorota Bederska-Lojewska, Sylwia Orczewska-Dudek, Witold Szczurek, Danuta Boros, Anna Fras, Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Siemowit Muszynski, Małgorzata Kwiecien, Tomasz Schwarz
In this paper, we present a study on the evaluation of the effect of xylanase addition to a diet with an increasing content of modern hybrid rye (Brasetto variety) on the performance indices and viscosity of small intestine content in broiler chickens. A total of 560 1-day-old male Ross 308 chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 10 treatments, each comprising 7 replicate cages, with 8 male birds per cage. A 5 × 2 factorial arrangement was employed, with five dietary levels of ground rye (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%)...
January 31, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Maria Giovanna Ciliberti, Marzia Albenzio, Matteo Francavilla, Gianluca Neglia, Luigi Esposito, Mariangela Caroprese
The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of the unsaponified fraction (UP), the acetylated unsaponified fraction (AUP), and the total lipid fraction (TL) extracted and purified from Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) on the proliferation and cytokine profile of sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells were cultured with 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL concentrations of each extract (UP, AUP, and TL fractions) and activated with 5 μg/mL concanavalin A (ConA) and 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 37 °C for 24 h...
January 30, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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