Iain A Gillespie, Eleanor Barnes, Ian C K Wong, Philippa C Matthews, Graham S Cooke, Craig Tipple, Robert C Elston, Yunhao Liu, David A Smith, Tingyan Wang, Jim Davies, Kinga A Várnai, Oliver Freeman, Kenneth K C Man, Wallis C Y Lau, Ben Glampson, Xing Meng, Eleonora Morais, Sen Liu, Luca Mercuri, Naomi Boxall, Sarah Jenner, Stuart Kendrick, Jane Dong, Dickens Theodore
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. Low treatment rates are observed in patients living with HBV; the reasons for this are unclear. This study sought to describe patients' demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics across three continents and their associated treatment need. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional post hoc analysis of real-world data used four large electronic databases from the United States, United Kingdom and China (specifically Hong Kong and Fuzhou)...
July 11, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
George Kassianos, Osamah Barasheed, Victoria Abbing-Karahagopian, Mansour Khalaf, Serdar Ozturk, Angelika Banzhoff, Selim Badur
Recombinant vaccines against invasive meningococcal disease due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) have shown substantial impact in reducing MenB disease in targeted populations. 4CMenB targets four key N. meningitidis protein antigens; human factor H binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial heparin binding antigen (NHBA), Neisseria adhesin A (NadA) and the porin A protein (PorA P1.4), with one or more of these expressed by most pathogenic MenB strains, while MenB-FHbp targets two distinct fHbp variants...
July 6, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Ping-Huai Wang, Shu-Yung Lin, Hung-Hsiang Liou, Chien-Chia Chen, Chin-Chung Shu, Chih-Yuan Lee, Meng-Kun Tsai, Chong-Jen Yu
INTRODUCTION: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to be protective against latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of BCG vaccination against LTBI in adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal transplants. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 20 years with ESRD who received hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or kidney transplant were enrolled from January 2012 to December 2019 at a medical center and a regional hemodialysis center...
July 6, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Myrto Barmpouni, Jason P Gordon, Ryan L Miller, James W Dennis, Vassilis Grammelis, Aris Rousakis, Kyriakos Souliotis, Garyphallia Poulakou, George L Daikos, Amer Al-Taie
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health threat worldwide. Greece has the highest burden of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria among European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. One of the most serious AMR threats in Greece is hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) with limited treatment options (LTO) caused by resistant gram-negative pathogens. Thus, this study sought to estimate the current AMR burden in Greece and the value of reducing AMR to gram-negative pathogens for the Greek healthcare system...
July 6, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Edward P Armstrong, Daniel C Malone, Duska M Franic, Sissi V Pham, Dan Gratie, Alpesh Amin
INTRODUCTION: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a globally recognized cause of morbidity and mortality with devastating effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of this study was to conduct the first systematic literature review (SLR) to assess the humanistic burden of CDI on patient experiences, including HRQoL and related constructs, and attitudes towards treatment alternatives. METHODS: An SLR was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles that assessed CDI, including recurrent CDI (rCDI), and patient-reported outcomes or HRQoL...
July 3, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jehad S Abdalla, May Albarrak, Almunther Alhasawi, Tariq Al-Musawi, Basem M Alraddadi, Walid Al Wali, Ashraf Elhoufi, Nervana Habashy, Ashraf M Hassanien, Ayman Kurdi
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are the most common healthcare-associated infections, with rates varying between countries. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among common HAP/VAP pathogens has been reported, and multidrug resistance (MDR) is of further concern across Middle Eastern countries. This narrative review summarizes the incidence and pathogens associated with HAP/VAP in hospitals across Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. A PubMed literature search was limited to available data on HAP or VAP in patients of any age published within the past 10 years...
June 30, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Caitlyn M Hollingshead, Ana E Khazan, Justin H Franco, Jacob A Ciricillo, Michael N Haddad, Julia T Berry, Joel A Kammeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jason P Gordon, Amer Al Taie, Ryan L Miller, James W Dennis, Mark A T Blaskovich, Jonathan R Iredell, John D Turnidge, Geoffrey W Coombs, David Charles Grolman, Jacqueline Youssef
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health challenge requiring a global response to which Australia has issued a National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy. The necessity for continued-development of new effective antimicrobials is required to tackle this immediate health threat is clear, but current market conditions may undervalue antimicrobials. We aimed to estimate the health-economic benefits of reducing AMR levels for drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens in Australia, to inform health policy decision-making...
June 21, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Himanshu P Upadhyaya, Jenny Y Chien, Amanda J Long, Martin S Bohm, Nicole L Kallewaard, Lisa F Macpherson, Dipak R Patel, Matthew M Hufford, Constance J Krull, Jocelyn Y Ang, Peter Chen, William J Muller, Jeffrey A Potts, Timothy Quinn, Mark Williams
INTRODUCTION: Bamlanivimab and etesevimab (BAM + ETE) are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) effective in reducing COVID-19-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality in adult participants at increased risk for severe disease. We present pharmacokinetic (PK), efficacy, and safety results from pediatric participants (< 18 years of age) with COVID-19 who were treated with BAM + ETE. METHODS: In an addendum to the phase 2/3 BLAZE-1 clinical trial (NCT04427501), pediatric participants received open-label weight-based dosing (WBD, n = 94) based on exposure-matching to the authorized dose of BAM + ETE in adult participants...
June 17, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Nancy Reau, Wei-Han Cheng, Qiujun Shao, Steven E Marx, Hannah Brooks, Anthony Martinez
INTRODUCTION: The EXPEDITION-8 clinical trial has demonstrated that treatment-naïve patients with compensated cirrhosis (TN/CC) of HCV genotypes 1-6 can achieve a 98% intent-to-treat sustained virologic response rate 12 weeks post-treatment with an 8-week glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) regimen. Further real-world evidence is needed to support the effectiveness of 8-week G/P in a clinical practice setting and to consolidate these treatment recommendations. The aim of this study is to contribute real-world evidence for the effectiveness of an 8-week G/P treatment in TN/CC patients with HCV genotypes 1-6...
June 17, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
J Xin Liao, Haley J Appaneal, Anupama Menon, Vrishali Lopes, Kerry L LaPlante, Aisling R Caffrey
INTRODUCTION: Gram-negative resistance is a well-acknowledged public health threat. Surveillance data can be used to monitor resistance trends and identify strategies to mitigate their threat. The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance trends in Gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: The first cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens per hospitalized patient per month collected from 125 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) between 2011 to 2020 were included...
June 16, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Michele Wilson, Cheryl McDade, Anna Trisia Beby-Heijtel, Angela Waterval-Overbeek, Vishalini Sundaram, Johnna Perdrizet
INTRODUCTION: The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10, Synflorix) was introduced into the Dutch pediatric national immunization program (NIP) starting in 2011. However, there is substantial pneumococcal disease burden due to increases in non-PCV10 covered serotypes. Higher-valent vaccines for pediatrics (PCV13, PCV15, and PCV20) may alleviate much of the remaining disease burden upon implementation through broader serotype coverage. This article assesses the public health impact of different pediatric vaccination strategies (switching to PCV13, PCV15 or PCV20) versus maintaining PCV10 at different time intervals in the Netherlands...
June 15, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Shinya Tsuzuki, Ryuji Koizumi, Nobuaki Matsunaga, Norio Ohmagari
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global health threat. While antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in Japan substantially decreased after implementation of the AMR National Action Plan, the disease burden due to AMR seems to be unchanged. The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between AMC and the disease burden due to AMR in Japan. METHODS: We estimated the annual population-standardized AMC from 2015 to 2021 using defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs) and the disease burden due to bloodstream infections caused by nine major antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMR-BSIs) from 2015 to 2021 using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)...
June 15, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Peipei Lei, Weiwei Xu, Congjie Wang, Guoshuai Lin, Songmei Yu, Yanli Guo
INTRODUCTION: Despite numerous observational studies reporting a positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the risk of sepsis and mortality, the causation of such an association has yet to be firmly established. Thus, our study aimed to undertake the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to scrutinize the potential causalities of PUFAs with sepsis and mortality risk. METHODS: We conducted the MR investigation using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics of PUFAs [including omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3), omega-6 fatty acids (omega-6), the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (omega-6:3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA)], sepsis, and sepsis mortality...
June 14, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Peter San Martin, Kobkul Aunhachoke, Maria Christina Filomena Batac, Kris Lodrono-Lim, Chanida Kwanthitinan, Dicky Santoso, Thanabalan Fonseka, Minh Nguyen, Adriana Guzman-Holst
INTRODUCTION: Herpes zoster (HZ; i.e., shingles) is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus leading to a painful dermatomal rash. An increasing trend in cases of HZ is evident worldwide; however, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews for Southeast Asian countries. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of articles published until May 2022 that reported HZ epidemiology, clinical management, and health economic data in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam...
June 14, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sunho Choe, Oxana Talanova, Sooyoun Shin, Olga Syrkina, Marion Fournier
INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent inactivated split-virion influenza vaccine (QIV; VaxigripTetra® ) was initially licensed in South Korea in 2017 for immunization against seasonal influenza in those aged ≥ 3 years, with the indicated age subsequently lowered to include those aged ≥ 6 months in 2018. Here, to comply with South Korean licensure requirements, we undertook a post-marketing surveillance study to assess the safety of QIV in children aged 6-35 months (i...
June 10, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Hsin-I Shih, Chia-Yu Chi, Yu-Ping Wang, Yu-Wen Chien
INTRODUCTION: Although cases of acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, and acute appendicitis following dengue virus infections have been documented, very few large-scale studies have investigated the postdengue risk of these acute abdominal conditions. METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue from 2002 to 2015 in Taiwan and 1:4 nondengue individuals matched by age, sex, area of residence, and symptom onset time...
June 10, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Amani Alnimr
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious intensive care unit (ICU)-related infection in mechanically ventilated patients that is frequent, as more than half of antibiotics prescriptions in ICU are due to VAP. Various risk factors and diagnostic criteria for VAP have been referred to in different settings. The estimated attributable mortality of VAP can go up to 50%, which is higher in cases of antimicrobial-resistant VAP. When the diagnosis of pneumonia in a mechanically ventilated patient is made, initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy must be prompt...
June 5, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Motoyuki Sugai, Akira Yuasa, Ryan L Miller, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Hitomi Kurosu, Amer Taie, Jason P Gordon, Tetsuya Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: While incidence rates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium have remained comparatively low in Japan, there have been increasing reports of more vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) outbreaks, requiring costly measures to contain. Increased incidence of VRE in Japan may lead to more frequent and harder to contain outbreaks with current control measures, causing a significant burden to the healthcare system in Japan. This study aimed to demonstrate the clinical and economic burden of vancomycin-resistant E...
June 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Tangkai Qi, Fang Chen, Siyue Ma, Renfang Zhang, Li Liu, Zhenyan Wang, Yang Tang, Wei Song, Jianjun Sun, Junyang Yang, Shuibao Xu, Bihe Zhao, Yinzhong Shen, Jun Chen
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a serious and fatal fungal infection that affects individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite treatment, recurrence of symptoms is common and could lead to poor outcomes. Corticosteroids are not always useful in treating symptom recurrence following HIV/CM; thus, alternative therapy is needed. Thalidomide has been reported to be effective in treating symptom recurrence in several patients with HIV/CM. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in the treatment of symptom recurrence following HIV/CM...
June 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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