Mayan Gilboa, Nadav Baharav, Eyal Melzer, Gili Regev-Yochay, Dafna Yahav
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has become the most common healthcare-associated infection in the United States, with considerable morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Assessing new preventive strategies is vital. We present a literature review of studies evaluating a strategy of screening and isolation of asymptomatic carriers in hospital settings. Asymptomatic detection of C. difficile is reported in ~ 10-20% of admitted patients. Risk factors for carriage include recent hospitalization, previous antibiotics, older age, lower functional capacity, immunosuppression, and others...
September 13, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Laila Carolina Abu Esba, Ghada Al Mardawi, Elham Al Mardawi, Fay Musaed Almadhi, Husam I Ardah
INTRODUCTION: Misoprostol is widely used for medication abortion and postpartum hemorrhage. However, it has been associated with the adverse effect of fever, which can pose challenges in management and potentially contribute to unnecessary antibiotic use. The incidence of misoprostol-induced fever in the context of medical abortion has not been extensively studied. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the incidence of fever following misoprostol administration at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia...
September 13, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Michael Gemmell, Tyler Walsh, Michael Sherby, Adwoa Imbeah, Kelly Bono, Megan Baldenweck, Christina Gurnett, Jason G Newland
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at increased risk for adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019. Clusters of COVID-19 infections can be used to track SARS-CoV-2 transmission. This is particularly important in environments frequently used for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, such as schools. The objective of this study was to compare the number of clusters of student and staff cases identified during three distinct periods (pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron) of the COVID-19 pandemic...
September 13, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Louise Murdoch, Karen Quan, James A Baber, Agnes W Y Ho, Ying Zhang, Xia Xu, Claire Lu, David Cooper, Kenneth Koury, Stephen P Lockhart, Annaliesa S Anderson, Özlem Türeci, Uğur Şahin, Kena A Swanson, William C Gruber, Nicholas Kitchin
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is a critical tool for preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza illnesses. Coadministration of the COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, with seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (SIIV) can provide substantial benefits, including streamlining vaccine delivery. METHODS: In this phase 3 study, healthy 18- to 64-year-olds who had received three previous doses of BNT162b2 were randomized (1:1) to the coadministration group (month 0, BNT162b2 + SIIV; month 1, placebo) or the separate-administration group (month 0, placebo + SIIV; month 1, BNT162b2)...
September 12, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Liana R Clark, David R Johnson
Vaccination in pregnancy using a tetanus toxoid, reduced dose diphtheria toxoid, and reduced dose acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is important for prevention of severe pertussis disease in young infants. The objectives of this systematic literature review were to search for original research studies evaluating the vaccine effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of Adacel® /Adacel-Polio® used during pregnancy to prevent pertussis disease in young infants. Medical databases used included EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Chemical Abstracts, with search terms related to pregnancy, vaccines/immunization, safety, pertussis, effectiveness/efficacy, and immune response; other potentially eligible reports were included where applicable...
September 1, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Davide Fiore Bavaro, Roberta Papagni, Alessandra Belati, Lucia Diella, Antonio De Luca, Gaetano Brindicci, Nicolò De Gennaro, Francesco Di Gennaro, Federica Romanelli, Stefania Stolfa, Luigi Ronga, Adriana Mosca, Francesco Pomarico, Maria Dell'Aera, Monica Stufano, Lidia Dalfino, Salvatore Grasso, Annalisa Saracino
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are associated with high mortality with limited treatment. The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and safety of colistin-based versus cefiderocol-based therapies for CRAB-BSI. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study enrolling patients with monomicrobial CRAB-BSIs treated with colistin or cefiderocol from 1 January 2020, to 31 December 2022...
September 1, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jing Lin, Li Zhang, Menglan Zhou, Xiaotong Tian, Jialong Chen, Minya Lu, Zhengyin Liu
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the different efficacies between monotherapy and combination therapy with ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI) in treating carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed observational multicenter data from 38 hospitals in China. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore the association between combination therapy with CAZ/AVI and in-hospital mortality. Propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were performed to validate our findings...
September 1, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Motoyuki Sugai, Akira Yuasa, Ryan L Miller, Vasileios Vasilopoulos, Hitomi Kurosu, Amer Taie, Jason P Gordon, Tetsuya Matsumoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jos Luttjeboer, Joost Simons, Tjalke Westra, Jan Wilschut, Cornelis Boersma, Maarten Postma, Jurjen van der Schans
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the most effective strategy to protect women from cervical cancer. Three HPV vaccines are currently licensed in Europe and, although they are generally supported by favorable health economic outcomes, current models fall short in predicting vaccination benefits. Here, we aim to re-evaluate the health benefits of HPV vaccination, using updated long-term effectiveness data and emphasizing quality of life losses related to pre-cancer disease and treatment...
August 10, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Julie Priest, Guillaume Germain, François Laliberté, Mei Sheng Duh, Malena Mahendran, Iman Fakih, Alan Oglesby
INTRODUCTION: Dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) is a 2-drug regimen for HIV-1 treatment with long-term efficacy and good tolerability comparable to 3- or 4-drug regimens. This study evaluated DTG/3TC cost versus other standard single-tablet regimens during its first year of approval. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed US claims data from adults with HIV-1. Eligibility criteria included ≥ 1 dispensing of DTG/3TC, DTG/abacavir (ABC)/3TC, bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF), elvitegravir (EVG)/cobicistat (COBI)/FTC/TAF, and darunavir (DRV)/COBI/FTC/TAF (index date was first dispensing) and ≥ 6 months of continuous eligibility before index date (baseline period)...
August 8, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Zaihong Shen, Ying Wang, Aihua Bao, Jun Yang, Xi Sun, Yu Cai, Liping Wan, Chongmei Huang, Xiaowei Xu, Jiahua Niu, Xinxin Xia, Chang Shen, Yu Wei, Huiying Qiu, Kun Zhou, Min Zhang, Yin Tong, Xianmin Song
INTRODUCTION: Unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been used for infection diagnosis. In this study, we explored the clinical diagnosis value of mNGS for pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: From August 2019 to June 2021, a prospective study was performed to comparatively analyze the pathogenic results of mNGS and conventional tests for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 134 cases involving 101 patients with pulmonary complications after allo-HSCT...
August 4, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Selim Badur, Esin Senol, Alpay Azap, Cihan Yesiloglu, Alev Ozakay, Serdar Ozturk, Adriana Guzman-Holst
INTRODUCTION: Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) and typically presents as an acute, painful dermatomal rash, but can lead to long-term, distressing complications such as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Increasing trends in HZ cases are evident globally among the aging population; however, reviews investigating the epidemiology and clinical management of HZ in Turkey are lacking. Therefore, a literature review of local studies in Turkey was conducted to identify the data available and identify gaps in the literature...
August 2, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Lorena De La Mora, Cristina Pitart, Laura Morata, Ainoa Ugarte, María Martinez-Rebollar, Elisa De Lazzari, Andrea Vergara, Jordi Bosch, Ignasi Roca, Maria Piquet, Ana Rodriguez, Montserrat Laguno, Juan Ambrosioni, Berta Torres, Ana González-Cordón, Alexy Inciarte, Alberto Foncillas, Josep Riera, Irene Fuertes, Iván Chivite, Esteban Martinez, José L Blanco, Alex Soriano, Josep Mallolas
INTRODUCTION: There are no data on community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in the context of the chemsex phenomenon. This study aimed to characterize CA-MRSA-related infections in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) who engage in chemsex. METHODS: At the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, from February 2018 to January 2022, we analyzed CA-MRSA infections diagnosed in a cohort of PLWH who engage in chemsex. Epidemiological, behavioral and clinical variables were assessed...
July 26, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Qinqin Zhao, Bei Zheng, Bing Han, Pinpin Feng, Zhongni Xia, Hong Jiang, Yin Ying, Jun Zhu, Cheng Fei, Junlei Xiang, Lingli Shen, Qiliang Luo, Yinhuan Wu, Ayiguzhali Wusiman, Chuanwei Xin, Meiling Zhang, Gonghua Li, Xiang Li
INTRODUCTION: Azvudine and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir are more extensively used to treat COVID-19 in China due to their earlier approval by the National Medical Products Administration. However, there has been a scarcity of research directly comparing the clinical outcomes between azvudine and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir till now. We aimed to make a head-to-head comparison of the efficacy and safety of azvudine or nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in China. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province between December 2022 and January 2023...
July 24, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Dwaipayan Mukherjee, Michelle Collins, Douglas E Dylla, Jatinder Kaur, Dimitri Semizarov, Anthony Martinez, Brian Conway, Tipu Khan, Nael M Mostafa
INTRODUCTION: An unsafe injection practice is one of the major contributors to new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections; thus, people who inject drugs are a key population to prioritize to achieve HCV elimination. The introduction of highly effective and well-tolerated pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals, including glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB), has revolutionized the HCV treatment landscape. Glecaprevir is a weak cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor, so there is the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with some opioids metabolized by CYP3A4, such as fentanyl...
July 20, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Yongsheng Ruan, Libai Chen, Tingting Luo, Danfeng Xie, Wei Cao, Xuan Liu, Qiujun Liu, Yuhua Xiao, Cuiling Wu, Jianyun Wen, Juan Li, Jiangnan Meng, Xuedong Wu, Xiaoqin Feng
INTRODUCTION: Since hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an important therapy for malignant and non-malignant pediatric diseases, improving transplant-related mortality remains a challenge. Currently, rituximab, a monoclonal antibody of anti-CD20, is widely used for several post-HSCT complications. However, few studies have focused on the application of rituximab before HSCT. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study from January 2019 to July 2021 to determine this effect in a single center...
July 20, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Santiago Moreno, Antonio Rivero, Pere Ventayol, Vicenç Falcó, Miguel Torralba, Melanie Schroeder, Victoria Neches, Laura Amanda Vallejo-Aparicio, Isaac Mackenzie, Matthew Turner, Cale Harrison
INTRODUCTION: Current antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) have improved outcomes for people living with HIV. However, the requirement to adhere to lifelong daily oral dosing may be challenging for some people living with HIV, leading to suboptimal adherence and therefore reduced treatment effectiveness. Treatment with long-acting (LA) ART may improve adherence and health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cabotegravir + rilpivirine (CAB+RPV) LA administered every 2 months (Q2M) compared with current ART administered as daily oral single-tablet regimens (STRs) from a Spanish National Healthcare System perspective...
July 14, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Weronika Puzia, Jan Gawor, Robert Gromadka, Karolina Żuchniewicz, Izabela Wróbel-Pawelczyk, Patrycja Ronkiewicz, Agnieszka Gołębiewska, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy, Anna Skoczyńska
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) into the national immunization programs (NIPs) has significantly reduced the number of pneumococcal infections. However, infections caused by isolates of non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) started spreading shortly thereafter and strains of NVT 19A have become the main cause of invasive pneumococcal disease burden worldwide. The aim of the study was to characterize serotype 19A invasive pneumococci of GPSC1/CC320 circulating in Poland before the introduction of PCV into the Polish NIP in 2017 and to compare them to isolates from other countries where PCVs were implemented much earlier than in Poland...
July 13, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Evan J Zasowski, Maryam Ali, Ada Anugo, Nayle Ibragimova, Kierra M Dotson, Bradley T Endres, Khurshida Begum, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) commonly colonize the gut microbiota of patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). This increases the likelihood of systemic infections with these MDROs. To help guide MDRO screening and/or empiric antibiotic therapy, we derived and compared predictive indices for MDRO gut colonization in patients with CDI. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of adult patients with CDI from July 2017 to April 2018...
July 12, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Alieke van der Hoeven, Martha T van der Beek, Vincent Bekker, Erin Meijers, Marco J R Ivens, Els Wessels, Aloysius C M Kroes, Stefan A Boers
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis in infants is an infrequent but life-threatening condition. Empiric therapy should begin as soon as meningitis is thought likely. Consequently, the causative microorganisms may not always be detected using culturing techniques, as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures are influenced by antibiotics. Nucleic acid amplification tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (multiplex panels), may overcome this limitation but require a priori knowledge of the likely pathogen present within the sample...
July 12, 2023: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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