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Infectious Diseases and Therapy

Jacinda C Abdul-Mutakabbir, Razieh Kebriaei, Sarah C J Jorgensen, Michael J Rybak
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens has become a serious worldwide health concern. Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp.,) Acinetobacter spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have rendered most antibiotics inactive, leaving aminoglycosides and polymyxins. Plazomicin (formerly ACHN-490), is a neoglycoside with unique structural modifications to the aminoglycoside pharmacophore that impart activity against many MDR Gram-negative organisms...
March 9, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
T Joseph Mattingly, Neha S Pandit, Eberechukwu Onukwugha
INTRODUCTION: In patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represents a major cause of morbidity and economic burden. Economic evaluations in HIV-HCV typically focus on government-sponsored insurance plans rather than a commercially insured cohort. This study evaluated the clinical and economic burden of HIV-HCV co-infection compared with HCV alone in commercially insured patients throughout the United States. METHODS: Commercial medical and pharmacy claims from 2007 to 2015 from a 10% random sample of enrollees within the IQVIA PharMetrics Plus™ administrative claims database were analyzed...
March 2, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Alexandra C Charron, Mike A Carl, Barbara B Warner, Jason G Newland, Christopher C McPherson
INTRODUCTION: Very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates (< 1500 g) are commonly exposed to prolonged antibiotic courses related to concerns for presumed early onset sepsis often with unclear indications. While antibiotics can be life-saving medications, prolonged antibiotic exposure (> 5 days) increases an infant's risk for necrotizing enterocolitis, late onset sepsis, colonization or infection with resistant organisms, and death. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and laboratory factors that influence the length of initial antibiotic courses in VLBW neonates...
March 1, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Sahil Bhatia, Nivedita B Singh, Laila K Shammout, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: The emergence, spread and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a causative pathogen in community-onset (CO) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) have resulted in substantial changes in the management of these infections. The indications for obtaining blood cultures in patients with CO-MRSA SSTIs remain poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to derive and validate a clinical decision rule that predicts the probability of MRSA bacteremia in CO-MRSA SSTIs and to identify a low-risk population for whom blood cultures may be safely omitted...
February 19, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Latania K Logan, Rachel L Medernach, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Jared R Rispens, Andrea M Hujer, Nadia K Qureshi, Steven H Marshall, David C Nguyen, Susan D Rudin, Xiaotian Zheng, Sreenivas Konda, Robert A Weinstein, Robert A Bonomo
INTRODUCTION: The pandemic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (Ent) is strongly linked to the dissemination of CTX-M-type-ESBL-Ent. We sought to define the epidemiology of infections in children due to an emerging resistance type, CTX-M-9-group-producing-Ent (CTX-M-9-grp-Ent). METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control analysis of children with CTX-M-9-grp-Ent infections who received medical care at three Chicago area hospitals was performed...
February 16, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Kiyotaka Yamazaki, Dendy Macaulay, Yan Song, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Japan has one of the highest prevalence rate of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in the industrialized world. However, the burden of CHC treatment is poorly understood. Thus, the healthcare resource utilization and costs of treated versus untreated patients, and patients with early versus delayed treatment initiation, were assessed in Japan. METHODS: Adult patients with ≥ 2 CHC diagnoses were identified from the Medical Data Vision hospital claims database (1 April 2008-31 May 2016)...
February 15, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Maria Kotsopoulou, Christina Papadaki, Konstantinos Anargyrou, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Ioannis Baltadakis, Helen A Papadaki, Maria Angelopoulou, Vasiliki Pappa, Kleoniki Liakou, Manto Tzanetakou, Marina Moustaka, George Vassilopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Invasive candidiasis (IC) can be a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with cancer, hematologic diseases and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of micafungin in patients with hematologic malignancies or HSCT recipients, relevant to clinical presentation of IC, in real-life practice in Greece. METHODS: ASPIRE was a phase IV, multicenter, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, conducted at ten tertiary hospitals in Greece, in adults with hematologic disease...
February 14, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Partson Tinarwo, Temesgen Zewotir, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Nigel J Garrett, Delia North
INTRODUCTION: Past endeavours to deal with the obstacle of expensive Cluster of Difference 4 (CD4+ ) count diagnostics in resource-limited settings have left a long trail of suggested continuous CD4+ count clinical covariates that turned out to be a potentially important integral part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment process during disease progression. However, an evaluation to determine the strongest candidates among these CD4+ count covariates has not been well documented...
February 12, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Megan Hansen, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
INTRODUCTION: Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections are associated with dog bites, especially in asplenic or immunocompromised patients, and typically manifest as sepsis and/or bacteremia. Meningitis has been rarely described, and its diagnosis may be delayed due to poor or slow growth using traditional culture techniques. We provide our experience using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to establish the diagnosis and perform a comprehensive review of C. canimorsus meningitis cases to provide summary data on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and outcomes of this unusual infection...
January 31, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
HeeSoo Kim, Yongho Oh, Yael Thollot, Catherine Bravo
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis A, caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), is one of the leading causes of acute hepatitis in South Korea. Avaxim® 160U is an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine that has been proven to be highly effective and well tolerated. It is licensed for use in more than 90 countries, and was approved for use in South Korea in 2011. Clinical trial and approval processes may not fully assess the safety and efficacy of a vaccine. Post-marketing surveillance (PMS) aims to provide a complete safety profile of a vaccine in a real-life setting...
January 23, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Daniel Curcio, Alejandro Cané, Francisco Andrés Fernández, Jorge Correa
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection is rapidly increasing worldwide, but prevalence is difficult to estimate in developing countries where awareness, diagnostic resources, and surveillance protocols are limited. As diarrhea is the hallmark symptom, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence and incidence of C. difficile infection in patients in these regions who presented with diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases to identify and analyze data from recent studies providing prevalence or incidence rates of C...
January 18, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Rachel M Murdock, Marisa B Brizzi, Omar Perez, Melissa E Badowski
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern. There are limited data in clinical trials on the use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for treatment of HCV in co-infected PWID. It is critical for these patients to gain access to treatment in order to decrease progression of liver disease and decrease transmission of both HIV and HCV. Additional harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programs and opioid substitution treatment, should be made available to this vulnerable population...
January 3, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Berend J van Welzen, Tania Mudrikova, Ayman El Idrissi, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends
The burden of liver-related morbidity remains high among HIV-infected patients, despite advances in the treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis. Especially, the impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant with a prevalence of up to 50%. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the reasons for progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still not fully elucidated, but insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction and dyslipidemia seem to be the main drivers. Both HIV-infection itself and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can contribute to the development of NAFLD/NASH in various ways...
January 3, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
William C Lorson, R Eric Heidel, Mahmoud A Shorman
INTRODUCTION: The microbial epidemiology differs between infective endocarditis (IE) patients with and without a history of injection drug use. We set out to determine the prevalence and microbial epidemiology of infective endocarditis in our region, the Southeastern USA, to determine if any changes need to be made in empiric antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: The electronic medical record was reviewed for patients with IE between January 2013 and July 2017, which revealed 299 cases...
March 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Ravikar Ralph, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munusamy
INTRODUCTION: Heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) bacteremia may result in clinical failure of vancomycin therapy, together with prolonged infection and hospitalization. This clinical problem has resulted in a search for more effective treatment options. The current study was designed to further investigate the synergistic effect of oxacillin plus vancomycin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and hVISA using checkerboard and time-kill assays...
March 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Michael J Rybak, Evan J Zasowski, Sarah C J Jorgensen, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Susan L Davis, Aaron B Mendelsohn, Vasileios Margaritis
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) continues to increase. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a severe secondary complication of ABSSSI. The objective of this study was to determine clinical and sociodemographic risk factors for BSI in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and to determine if sociodemographic factors impact severity at presentation. METHODS: This was a retrospective unmatched (1:1) case-control study...
December 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sarah J Pugh, Mark A Fletcher, Apostolos Charos, Lynda Imekraz, Matt Wasserman, Raymond Farkouh
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the expected impact of the Algeria national immunization program (NIP) and potential impact for a Tunisia NIP, this study assessed the public health and economic value of vaccination, through a cost-effectiveness analysis, for a PCV13 or PCV10 NIP, compared with no vaccination. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was programmed in Microsoft Excel™ and adapted to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes of PCV vaccination. Assuming a steady state, the model estimated invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; bacteremia and meningitis), all-cause pneumonia (inpatient and outpatient), and all-cause otitis media cases as well as the associated costs from a payer perspective...
December 11, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Claris Shoko, Delson Chikobvu, Pascal O Bessong
In the original publication, the following text was missing from the beginning of the Methods section in the main text "This study uses similar methods to those previously published.
December 6, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Richard G Wunderink, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Galia Rahav, Amy J Mathers, Matteo Bassetti, Jose Vazquez, Oliver A Cornely, Joseph Solomkin, Tanaya Bhowmick, Jihad Bishara, George L Daikos, Tim Felton, Maria Jose Lopez Furst, Eun Jeong Kwak, Francesco Menichetti, Ilana Oren, Elizabeth L Alexander, David Griffith, Olga Lomovskaya, Jeffery Loutit, Shu Zhang, Michael N Dudley, Keith S Kaye
INTRODUCTION: Treatment options for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are limited and CRE infections remain associated with high clinical failure and mortality rates, particularly in vulnerable patient populations. A Phase 3, multinational, open-label, randomized controlled trial (TANGO II) was conducted from 2014 to 2017 to evaluate the efficacy/safety of meropenem-vaborbactam monotherapy versus best available therapy (BAT) for CRE. METHODS: A total of 77 patients with confirmed/suspected CRE infection (bacteremia, hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infection, complicated urinary tract infection/acute pyelonephritis) were randomized, and 47 with confirmed CRE infection formed the primary analysis population (microbiologic-CRE-modified intent-to-treat, mCRE-MITT)...
December 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Kimberly C Claeys, Evan J Zasowski, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Noor Sabagha, Donald P Levine, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) represent a large burden to the US healthcare system. There is little evidence-based guidance regarding the appropriate level of care for ABSSSIs. This study aimed to develop a prediction model and risk-scoring tool to determine appropriate levels of care. METHODS: This was a single-center observational cohort study of adult patients treated for ABSSSIs from 2012 to 2015 at the Detroit Medical Center...
December 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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