Julia Richmond DiBello, Valerie T Raziano, Xinyue Liu, Amy Puenpatom, Kathryn Peebles, Nazleen F Khan, Deanna D Hill
INTRODUCTION: Molnupiravir (MOV) is an oral antiviral for the treatment of individuals with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and at high risk of progression to severe disease. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) of evidence on the effectiveness of MOV in reducing the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in real-world outpatient settings. METHODS: The SLR was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines and using pre-determined population, intervention, comparison, outcome, time, and study design inclusion criteria...
May 14, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Wen Xu, Mei-Juan Peng, Lin-Shan Lu, Zhen-Jun Guo, A-Min Li, Jing Li, Yan Cheng, Jia-Yu Li, Yi-Jun Li, Jian-Qi Lian, Yu Li, Yang Sun, Wei-Lu Zhang, Ye Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Listeriosis is a severe food-borne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes infection. The data of listeriosis in Xi'an population are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and fatality risk factors for listeriosis in three tertiary-care hospitals in Xi'an, China METHODS: The characteristics of demographic data, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory indicators, cranial imaging examination, antibiotics therapeutic schemes, and clinical outcomes were collected between 2011 and 2023...
May 11, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
An Ta, Felicitas Kühne, Maren Laurenz, Christof von Eiff, Sophie Warren, Johnna Perdrizet
INTRODUCTION: Since 2009, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) covering 13 serotypes (PCV13) has been included by Germany's Standing Committee on Vaccinations for infants, resulting in major reductions in pneumococcal disease (PD). Higher-valent vaccines may further reduce PD burden. This cost-effectiveness analysis compared 20-valent PCV (PCV20) under a 3+1 schedule with 15-valent PCV (PCV15) and PCV13, both under 2+1 schedule, in Germany's pediatric population. METHODS: A Markov model with annual cycles over a 10-year time horizon was adapted to simulate the clinical and economic impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV20 versus lower-valent PCVs in Germany...
May 11, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Javier Álvarez Aldean, Irene Rivero Calle, Rosa Rodríguez Fernández, Susana Aceituno Mata, Alba Bellmunt, Miriam Prades, Amy W Law, Alejandra López-Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Cristina Méndez, María L García Somoza, Javier Soto, Virginia Lozano
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children under one year of age. In high-income countries, RSV infections cause a significant overload of care every winter, imposing a significant burden to the healthcare system, which has made the development of prevention strategies a major global health priority. In this context, a new bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based vaccine (RSVpreF) has recently been approved...
May 11, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Samah Hayek, Joseph Levy, Galit Shaham, Noa Dagan, Danielle Serby, Hadar Duskin-Bitan, Adva Yarden, Cátia Ferreira, Idit Livnat, Sabada Dube, Sylvia Taylor, Sudhir Venkatesan, Ran D Balicer, Doron Netzer, Alon Peretz
INTRODUCTION: AZD7442 is a combination of two neutralizing antibodies (tixagevimab/cilgavimab) with demonstrated efficacy in reducing the risk of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among individuals at high risk of severe COVID-19 ≤ 6 months after administration. On February 15, 2022, the Israeli Ministry of Health (IMoH) authorized the administration of 300 mg AZD7442 as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection among immunocompromised individuals aged ≥ 12 years...
May 10, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Wendy J Boschloo, Berend J van Welzen
The human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is a particular subtype of HIV, which is endemic in West Africa and is characterized by a more indolent course than HIV-1. As people living with HIV-2 (PWH-2) are at risk for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and can transmit the virus, antiretroviral therapy is usually indicated. However, the optimal treatment of HIV-2 is unknown and historically the protease inhibitors (PIs) were a regular part of therapy. Nowadays, the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in HIV-2 is increasing but the evidence supporting this approach is limited...
May 9, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Yuhui Yang, Qingling Zeng, Guangyun Hu, Zhenkun Wang, Zongyue Chen, Lang Zhou, Aibo He, Wei Qian, Yu Luo, Gaoming Li
INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, numerous studies have described the types of pathogens and their antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with burn injuries in China; however, the findings have generally been inconsistent. We conducted a literature search and meta-analysis to summarize the infection spectra and antimicrobial resistance patterns in patients with burn injuries. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biomedical Literature, Wanfang, and Weipu databases for relevant articles published between January 2010 and December 2023...
May 9, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Nicolas Joly-Tonetti, Raphael Legouffe, Aurore Tomezyk, Clémence Gumez, Mathieu Gaudin, David Bonnel, Martin Schaller
INTRODUCTION: Amorolfine 5% lacquer is an established topical treatment for fungal infection of the nails. The success of topical therapy for onychomycosis depends on whether the permeated drug concentration in the deep nail bed is retained above the effective antifungal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). We compared the penetration profile of amorolfine and a new topical formula of terbinafine in human mycotic toenails using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (MALDI-FTICR) imaging...
May 7, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Nicolas Joly-Tonetti, Raphael Legouffe, Aurore Tomezyk, Clémence Gumez, Mathieu Gaudin, David Bonnel, Martin Schaller
INTRODUCTION: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails that can be challenging to treat. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (MALDI-FTICR) imaging was applied to the quantitative analysis of the penetration profile of the antifungal compound, amorolfine, in human mycotic toenails. The amorolfine profile was compared with those of three other antifungals, ciclopirox, naftifine, and tioconazole. METHODS: Antifungal compounds (amorolfine 5% lacquer, ciclopirox 8% lacquer, naftifine 1% solution, and tioconazole 28% solution) were applied to mycotic nails (n = 42)...
May 4, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Myron J Levin, Andrew Ustianowski, Stephane De Wit, Rohini Beavon, Jesse Thissen, Seth Seegobin, Kanika Dey, Karen A Near, Katie Streicher, Alexandre Kiazand, Mark T Esser
INTRODUCTION: The phase 3 PROVENT and STORM CHASER studies evaluated AZD7442 (tixagevimab/cilgavimab) for pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report the final 15-month results of both studies. METHODS: In PROVENT, participants were randomized 2:1 to receive 300 mg AZD7442 (n = 3460) or placebo (n = 1737). In STORM CHASER, participants were enrolled within 8 days of exposure to a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individual and randomized 2:1 to receive 300 mg AZD7442 (n = 749) or placebo (n = 372)...
May 4, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Lucila Rey-Ares, Ahuva Averin, Mercedes Mac Mullen, Dhwani Hariharan, Mark Atwood, Carolina Carballo, Liping Huang
INTRODUCTION: In Argentina, vaccination with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23; PCV13 → PPSV23) has been recommended for all adults aged ≥ 65 years and younger adults with chronic medical ("moderate-risk") or immunocompromising ("high-risk") conditions since 2017. With the approval of a 20-valent PCV (PCV20), we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of PCV20 versus current recommendations for moderate-/high-risk adults aged 18-64 years and all adults 65-99 years...
May 3, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Wenjing Hu, Yang Wang, Lu Zhou, Kai Chu, Pengfei Jin, Qi Liang, Jingxin Li, Zhongming Tan, Fengcai Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Persistent nasal carriage has been associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection. Previous S. aureus studies in Asia have primarily focused on clinical patients, providing limited information on persistent nasal carriage among the general adult population. METHODS: This study examined 143 healthy adults in a community in Jiangsu, China. Nasal swab samples were collected 10 times. The colonization status was identified using SPA typing...
May 3, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Chun-Chi Yang, Chung-Feng Huang, Te-Sheng Chang, Ching-Chu Lo, Chao-Hung Hung, Chien-Wei Huang, Lee-Won Chong, Pin-Nan Cheng, Ming-Lun Yeh, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Chien-Yu Cheng, Jee-Fu Huang, Ming-Jong Bair, Chih-Lang Lin, Chi-Chieh Yang, Szu-Jen Wang, Tsai-Yuan Hsieh, Tzong-Hsi Lee, Pei-Lun Lee, Wen-Chih Wu, Chih-Lin Lin, Wei-Wen Su, Sheng-Shun Yang, Chia-Chi Wang, Jui-Ting Hu, Lein-Ray Mo, Chun-Ting Chen, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Chun-Chao Chang, Chia-Sheng Huang, Guei-Ying Chen, Chien-Neng Kao, Chi-Ming Tai, Chun-Jen Liu, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Hsing-Tao Kuo, Pei-Chien Tsai, Chia-Yen Dai, Jia-Horng Kao, Han-Chieh Lin, Wang-Long Chuang, Kuo-Chih Tseng, Chi-Yi Chen, Ming-Lung Yu
INTRODUCTION: Eight-week glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) is indicated for treatment-naïve (TN) patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), with or without compensated cirrhosis. Given that the Taiwanese government is committed to eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2025, this study aimed to measure real-world evidence for TN patients using 8-week GLE/PIB in the Taiwan HCV Registry (TACR). METHODS: The data of patients with CHC treated with 8-week GLE/PIB were retrieved from TACR, a nationwide registry program organized by the Taiwan Association for the Study of the Liver (TASL)...
April 28, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Julie M Strizki, Jay A Grobler, Nicholas Murgolo, Arthur Fridman, Matthew G Johnson, Jiejun Du, Patricia Carmelitano, Michelle L Brown, Amanda Paschke, Carisa De Anda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Tetsuya Matsumoto, Akira Yuasa, Hiroyuki Matsuda, Dilinuer Ainiwaer, Naohiro Yonemoto
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious public health challenges worldwide, including in Japan. However, there is limited evidence assessing the AMR burden in Japan. Thus, this systematic literature review (SLR) and meta-analysis (MA) were conducted to assess the clinical and economic burden of AMR in Japan. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were performed on EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and ICHUSHI between 2012 and 2022 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines...
April 25, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Diana Mendes, Sheeja Machira Krishnan, Esmé O'Brien, Thomas Padgett, Cale Harrison, W David Strain, Andrea Manca, Andrew Ustianowski, Rebecca Butfield, Elizabeth Hamson, Charlie Reynard, Jingyan Yang
INTRODUCTION: The delivery of COVID-19 vaccines was successful in reducing hospitalizations and mortality. However, emergence of the Omicron variant resulted in increased virus transmissibility. Consequently, booster vaccination programs were initiated to decrease the risk of severe disease and death among vulnerable members of the population. This study aimed to estimate the effects of the booster program and alternative vaccination strategies on morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 in the UK...
April 25, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Alen Marijam, Nikki Vroom, Amit Bhavsar, Inga Posiuniene, Nicolas Lecrenier, Hilde Vroling
INTRODUCTION: Older adults and patients with underlying conditions such as immunocompromised (IC) populations (e.g., due to medical conditions or immunosuppressive medication) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ). The first HZ recombinant vaccine for IC patients was approved in 2020. Limited evidence exists to inform decision-makers on HZ incidence in high-risk patients in Europe. This systematic literature review (SLR) assessed HZ incidence across 14 high-risk populations in the European Union/European Economic Area, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom...
April 24, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Marta Colaneri, Camilla Genovese, Federico Fassio, Marta Canuti, Andrea Giacomelli, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Erika Asperges, Giuseppe Albi, Raffaele Bruno, Spinello Antinori, Antonio Muscatello, Bianca Mariani, Ciro Canetta, Francesco Blasi, Alessandra Bandera, Andrea Gori
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have highlighted the prognostic value of easily accessible inflammatory markers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) for predicting severe outcomes in patients affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our study validates NLR and PLR cut-off values from a prior cohort at IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo (OSM) of Pavia, Italy, across two new cohorts from different hospitals. This aims to enhance the generalizability of these prognostic indicators...
April 21, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Patrick G A Oomen, Charlotte S Hakkers, Joop E Arends, Guido E L van der Berk, Pascal Pas, Andy I M Hoepelman, Berend J van Welzen, Stefan du Plessis
INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether neurotoxicity due to the antiretroviral drug efavirenz (EFV) results in neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH). Previously, we found that discontinuing EFV was associated with improved processing speed and attention on neuropsychological assessment. In this imaging study, we investigate potential neural mechanisms underlying this cognitive improvement using a BOLD fMRI task assessing cortical and subcortical functioning. METHODS: Asymptomatic adult PLWH stable on emtricitabine/tenofovirdisoproxil/efavirenz were randomly (1:2) assigned to continue their regimen (n = 12) or to switch to emtricitabine/tenofovirdisoproxil/rilpivirine (n = 28)...
April 20, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Victoria Starnes, Joan Duggan, Caitlyn Hollingshead
INTRODUCTION: Fungal prosthetic joint infections comprise less than 1% of prosthetic joint infections. Thus, little is known regarding optimal management. This study aims to characterize the microbiology, surgical and medical management, and outcomes for these complex infections. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of surgical approach, antifungal treatment, fungal species, and time to onset of infection from initial surgery on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective record review over 12 years was performed in two health systems that included patients with a deep culture positive for a fungal isolate and the presence of a prosthetic joint...
April 13, 2024: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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