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Microbial Cell

Miroslav Oborník
The names we give objects of research, to some extent, predispose our ways of thinking about them. Misclassifications of Oomycota, Microsporidia, Myxosporidia, and Helicosporidia have obviously affected not only their formal taxonomic names, but also the methods and approaches with which they have been investigated. Therefore, it is important to name biological entities with accurate terms in order to avoid discrepancies in researching them. The endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids is now the most accepted scenario for their evolution...
January 21, 2019: Microbial Cell
Ansgar Gruber
Mitochondria and plastids evolved from free-living bacteria, but are now considered integral parts of the eukaryotic species in which they live. Therefore, they are implicitly called by the same eukaryotic species name. Historically, mitochondria and plastids were known as "organelles", even before their bacterial origin became fully established. However, since organelle evolution by endosymbiosis has become an established theory in biology, more and more endosymbiotic systems have been discovered that show various levels of host/symbiont integration...
January 21, 2019: Microbial Cell
Poushali Chakraborty, Ashwani Kumar
A number of non-tuberculous mycobacterium species are opportunistic pathogens and ubiquitously form biofilms. These infections are often recalcitrant to treatment and require therapy with multiple drugs for long duration. The biofilm resident bacteria also display phenotypic drug tolerance and thus it has been hypothesized that the drug unresponsiveness in vivo could be due to formation of biofilms inside the host. We have discussed the biofilms of several pathogenic non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species in context to the in vivo pathologies...
January 18, 2019: Microbial Cell
Hannah L Klein, Kenny K H Ang, Michelle R Arkin, Emily C Beckwitt, Yi-Hsuan Chang, Jun Fan, Youngho Kwon, Michael J Morten, Sucheta Mukherjee, Oliver J Pambos, Hafez El Sayyed, Elizabeth S Thrall, João P Vieira-da-Rocha, Quan Wang, Shuang Wang, Hsin-Yi Yeh, Julie S Biteen, Peter Chi, Wolf-Dietrich Heyer, Achillefs N Kapanidis, Joseph J Loparo, Terence R Strick, Patrick Sung, Bennett Van Houten, Hengyao Niu, Eli Rothenberg
Genomes are constantly in flux, undergoing changes due to recombination, repair and mutagenesis. In vivo , many of such changes are studies using reporters for specific types of changes, or through cytological studies that detect changes at the single-cell level. Single molecule assays, which are reviewed here, can detect transient intermediates and dynamics of events. Biochemical assays allow detailed investigation of the DNA and protein activities of each step in a repair, recombination or mutagenesis event...
January 7, 2019: Microbial Cell
Hannah L Klein, Giedrė Bačinskaja, Jun Che, Anais Cheblal, Rajula Elango, Anastasiya Epshtein, Devon M Fitzgerald, Belén Gómez-González, Sharik R Khan, Sandeep Kumar, Bryan A Leland, Léa Marie, Qian Mei, Judith Miné-Hattab, Alicja Piotrowska, Erica J Polleys, Christopher D Putnam, Elina A Radchenko, Anissia Ait Saada, Cynthia J Sakofsky, Eun Yong Shim, Mathew Stracy, Jun Xia, Zhenxin Yan, Yi Yin, Andrés Aguilera, Juan Lucas Argueso, Catherine H Freudenreich, Susan M Gasser, Dmitry A Gordenin, James E Haber, Grzegorz Ira, Sue Jinks-Robertson, Megan C King, Richard D Kolodner, Andrei Kuzminov, Sarah Ae Lambert, Sang Eun Lee, Kyle M Miller, Sergei M Mirkin, Thomas D Petes, Susan M Rosenberg, Rodney Rothstein, Lorraine S Symington, Pawel Zawadzki, Nayun Kim, Michael Lisby, Anna Malkova
Understanding the plasticity of genomes has been greatly aided by assays for recombination, repair and mutagenesis. These assays have been developed in microbial systems that provide the advantages of genetic and molecular reporters that can readily be manipulated. Cellular assays comprise genetic, molecular, and cytological reporters. The assays are powerful tools but each comes with its particular advantages and limitations. Here the most commonly used assays are reviewed, discussed, and presented as the guidelines for future studies...
January 7, 2019: Microbial Cell
Taylor K Soderborg, Jacob E Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial disease affecting nearly 40% of obese youth and up to 10% of the general pediatric population. A key aspect of NAFLD pathogenesis is proinflammatory hepatic macrophage activation and hepatic recruitment of circulating monocytes, which originate from the bone marrow. In neonates, the activation and polarization of myeloid immune cells are normally shaped in part by systemic factors derived from intestinal microbiota during the first 1000 days of life...
December 19, 2018: Microbial Cell
Paul Lesbats, Vincent Parissi
The ability of retroviruses to integrate their genomes into host chromatin is a key step for the completion of their replication cycle. Selection of a suitable chromosomal integration site has been described as a hierarchical mechanism involving both cellular and viral proteins but the exact molecular determinants are still unclear. We recently showed that the spumaretrovirus prototype foamy virus (PFV) Gag protein is acting as a chromatin tether by interacting with the nucleosome acidic patch (Lesbats et al...
November 19, 2018: Microbial Cell
Teresa R O'Meara, Leah E Cowen
The innate immune system is the first defense against invasive fungal infections, including those caused by Candida albicans . Although C. albicans can exist as a commensal, it can also cause systemic or mucosal infections, especially when the innate immune system is impaired. A key aspect of the interaction between C. albicans and innate immune cells is the ability of C. albicans to induce macrophage pyroptosis, an inflammatory cell death program. The induction of pyroptosis is temporally coupled to a morphological transition between yeast and filamentous growth...
November 12, 2018: Microbial Cell
Julia María Coronas-Serna, Teresa Fernández-Acero, María Molina, Víctor J Cid
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a key regulator of phosphoinositide-dependent signaling in mammalian cells and its dysfunction is related to multiple syndromes, including cancer. By heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , we have developed a humanized yeast system as a tool for functional studies on higher eukaryotic PI3K. Here we restrict PI3K activity in yeast to specific plasma membrane (PM) microdomains by fusing the p110α PI3K catalytic subunit to either a septin or an eisosome component...
November 12, 2018: Microbial Cell
François L Mayer, Eddy Sánchez-León, James W Kronstad
Pathogenic microorganisms employ specialized virulence factors to cause disease. Biofilm formation and the production of a polysaccharide capsule are two important virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans, the fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis. Here, we show that the bipolar disorder drug lithium inhibits formation of both virulence factors by a mechanism involving dysregulation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system. By using a chemical genetics approach and bioinformatic analyses, we describe the cellular landscape affected by lithium treatment...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Cell
Keisuke Nakashima
Mammalian guts harbor indigenous microbes that are integral to host health. Microbiome research using sophisticated model organisms has provided insights into intricate interactions between microbiota and host animals. However, it remains unclear how these animal-microbe associations developed. We have recently addressed this question via comparative analyses of chordates, given that complex biological systems can be resolved into ancestral and derived elements when examined in an evolutionary framework (Nat Commun 9: 3402)...
October 30, 2018: Microbial Cell
Heldder Gutierrez, Bakhtiyar Taghizada, Marc D Meneghini
Transient exposures to environmental stresses induce altered physiological states in exposed cells that persist after the stresses have been removed. These states, referred to as cellular memory, can even be passed on to daughter cells and may thus be thought of as embodying a form of epigenetic inheritance. We find that meiotically produced spores in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae possess a state of heightened stress resistance that, following their germination, persists for numerous mitotic generations. As yeast meiotic development is essentially a starvation response that a/alpha diploid cells engage, we sought to model this phenomenon by subjecting haploid cells to starvation conditions...
October 29, 2018: Microbial Cell
Antje Flieger, Freddy Frischknecht, Georg Häcker, Mathias W Hornef, Gabriele Pradel
Host cell exit is a critical step in the life-cycle of intracellular pathogens, intimately linked to barrier penetration, tissue dissemination, inflammation, and pathogen transmission. Like cell invasion and intracellular survival, host cell exit represents a well-regulated program that has evolved during host-pathogen co-evolution and that relies on the dynamic and intricate interplay between multiple host and microbial factors. Three distinct pathways of host cell exit have been identified that are employed by three different taxa of intracellular pathogens, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, namely (i) the initiation of programmed cell death, (ii) the active breaching of host cellderived membranes, and (iii) the induced membrane-dependent exit without host cell lysis...
October 18, 2018: Microbial Cell
Félix Ramos-León, Sergio Arévalo, Vicente Mariscal, Enrique Flores
Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria are multicellular organisms in which growth requires the activity of two interdependent cell types that exchange nutrients and regulators. Vegetative cells provide heterocysts with reduced carbon, and heterocysts provide vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Additionally, heterocyst differentiation from vegetative cells is regulated by inhibitors of differentiation produced by prospective heterocysts and heterocysts. Proteinaceous structures known as septal junctions join the cells in the filament...
October 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
Rebeca L Vicente, Lucie Spina, Jose P L Gómez, Sebastien Dejean, Jean-Luc Parrou, Jean Marie François
The yeast trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) catalyzes the formation of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) in trehalose synthesis. Besides, Tps1 plays a key role in carbon and energy homeostasis in this microbial cell, as shown by the well documented loss of ATP and hyper accumulation of sugar phosphates in response to glucose addition in a mutant defective in this protein. The inability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1 mutant to cope with fermentable sugars is still a matter of debate. We reexamined this question through a quantitative analysis of the capability of TPS1 homologues from different origins to complement phenotypic defects of this mutant...
October 1, 2018: Microbial Cell
Paola Coccetti, Raffaele Nicastro, Farida Tripodi
All proliferating cells need to match metabolism, growth and cell cycle progression with nutrient availability to guarantee cell viability in spite of a changing environment. In yeast, a signaling pathway centered on the effector kinase Snf1 is required to adapt to nutrient limitation and to utilize alternative carbon sources, such as sucrose and ethanol. Snf1 shares evolutionary conserved functions with the AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK) in higher eukaryotes which, activated by energy depletion, stimulates catabolic processes and, at the same time, inhibits anabolism...
September 29, 2018: Microbial Cell
Aileen K Sewell, Min Han, Bin Qi
Iron plays many critical roles in human biology, such as aiding the transport of oxygen and mediating redox reactions. Iron is essential for life, yet little is known about how iron is taken up into mitochondria to impact the labile iron pool. Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent human nutrient-deficiency diseases in the world and is a major cause of anemia that affects >25% of the world's population, but unfortunately the current treatment (oral iron supplementation) is inefficient and has many side effects...
September 27, 2018: Microbial Cell
Ye-Ram Kim, Chul-Su Yang
Ginseng ( Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that plays a protective role against microbial attack. Several studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory effects. Ginseng contains several components that vary according to the year of cultivation and the processing method used, such as heating, drying, and steaming, which induce different degrees of pharmacological activities. This review discusses the antibacterial effects of ginseng against pathogenic bacterial infections...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Cell
Michael T Ringel, Thomas Brüser
Pyoverdines are fluorescent siderophores of pseudomonads that play important roles for growth under iron-limiting conditions. The production of pyoverdines by fluorescent pseudomonads permits their colonization of hosts ranging from humans to plants. Prominent examples include pathogenic or non-pathogenic species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , P. putida , P. syringae , or P. fluorescens . Many distinct pyoverdines have been identified, all of which have a dihydroxyquinoline fluorophore in common, derived from oxidative cyclizations of non-ribosomal peptides...
August 28, 2018: Microbial Cell
Borka Jojic, Simona Amodeo, Torsten Ochsenreiter
The translationally controlled tumor protein TCTP, is a universally conserved protein that seems to be of essential function in all systems tested so far. TCTP is involved in a multitude of cellular functions including cell cycle control, cell division, apoptosis and many more. The mechanism of how TCTP is involved in most of these functions remains elusive. Here we describe that TCTP is a cytoplasmic protein involved in cell cycle regulation and heat stress response in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei ...
August 24, 2018: Microbial Cell
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