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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

Patrizio Mancuso, Swarna Raman, Aoife Glynn, Frank Barry, J Mary Murphy
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory condition still lacking effective treatments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully employed in pre-clinical models aiming to resurface the degenerated cartilage. In early-phase clinical trials, intra-articular (IA) administration of MSCs leads to pain reduction and cartilage protection or healing. However, the consistent lack of engraftment indicates that the observed effect is delivered through a "hit-and-run" mechanism, by a temporal release of paracrine molecules...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Alex Avendano, Marcos Cortes-Medina, Jonathan W Song
The physical remodeling associated with cancer progression results in barriers to mass transport in the tumor interstitial space. This hindrance ultimately affects the distribution of macromolecules that govern cell fate and potency of cancer therapies. Therefore, knowing how specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular components regulate transport in the tumor interstitium could lead to matrix normalizing strategies that improve patient outcome. Studies over the past decades have provided quantitative insights into interstitial transport in tumors by characterizing two governing parameters: (1) molecular diffusivity and (2) hydraulic conductivity...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Roberto Narcisi, Eric Farrell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Marcel Felder, Bettina Trueeb, Andreas Oliver Stucki, Sarah Borcard, Janick Daniel Stucki, Bruno Schnyder, Thomas Geiser, Olivier Thierry Guenat
The lung alveolar region experiences remodeling during several acute and chronic lung diseases, as for instance idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal disease, whose onset is correlated with repetitive microinjuries to the lung alveolar epithelium and abnormal alveolar wound repair. Although a high degree of mechanical stress (>20% linear strain) is thought to potentially induce IPF, the effect of lower, physiological levels of strain (5-12% linear strain) on IPF pathophysiology remains unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of mechanical strain on alveolar epithelial wound healing...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Michail N Isupov, Konstantin M Boyko, Jan-Moritz Sutter, Paul James, Christopher Sayer, Marcel Schmidt, Peter Schoenheit, Alena Yu Nikolaeva, Tatiana N Stekhanova, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Ekaterina Yu Bezsudnova, Vladimir O Popov, Jennifer A Littlechild
Two new thermophilic branched chain amino acid transaminases have been identified within the genomes of different hyper-thermophilic archaea, Geoglobus acetivorans , and Archaeoglobus fulgidus . These enzymes belong to the class IV of transaminases as defined by their structural fold. The enzymes have been cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzymes have been characterized both biochemically and structurally. Both enzymes showed high thermostability with optimal temperature for activity at 80 and 85°C, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ferdinandus, Satoshi Arai
In recent decades, diversified approaches using nanoparticles or nano-structured scaffolds have been applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Thanks to recent interdisciplinary studies, the materials developed have been intensively evaluated at animal level. Despite these efforts, less attention has been paid to what is really going on at the subcellular level during the interaction between a nanomaterial and a cell. As the proposed concept becomes more complex, the need for investigation of the dynamics of these materials at the cellular level becomes more prominent...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Maryam Rahmati, Masoud Mozafari
During the last few decades, several studies have suggested that carbon-based nanomaterials, owing to their unique properties, could act as promising candidates in biomedical engineering application. Wide-ranging research efforts have investigated the cellular and molecular responses to carbon-based nanomaterials at the nano-bio interfaces. In addition, a number of surface functionalization strategies have been introduced to improve their safety profile in the biological environment. The present review discusses the general principles of immunological responses to nanomaterials...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Giordano Rampioni, Francesca D'Angelo, Livia Leoni, Pasquale Stano
The bottom-up branch of synthetic biology includes-among others-innovative studies that combine cell-free protein synthesis with liposome technology to generate cell-like systems of minimal complexity, often referred to as synthetic cells. The functions of this type of synthetic cell derive from gene expression, hence they can be programmed in a modular, progressive and customizable manner by means of ad hoc designed genetic circuits. This experimental scenario is rapidly expanding and synthetic cell research already counts numerous successes...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Giovanni Nicoletti, Marco Saler, Laura Villani, Agnese Rumolo, Marco Mario Tresoldi, Angela Faga
This study reports on the development of an original, ex-vivo wounded skin culture protocol using autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and enriched Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). Human skin samples obtained from specimens harvested during reduction mammoplasty procedures, were injured in their central portion-to create a standard wound-and cultured under three different conditions: - enriched DMEM with saline solution in the central wound (control)- enriched DMEM with the same medium in the central wound- enriched DMEM plus 2...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sophie Le Cann, Erika Tudisco, Mikael J Turunen, Alessandra Patera, Rajmund Mokso, Magnus Tägil, Ola Belfrage, Stephen A Hall, Hanna Isaksson
Long-term stability of endosseous implants depends on successful bone formation, ingrowth and adaptation to the implant. Specifically, it will define the mechanical properties of the newly formed bone-implant interface. 3D imaging during mechanical loading tests ( in situ loading) can improve the understanding of the local processes leading to bone damage and failure. In this study, titanium screws were implanted into rat tibiae and were allowed to integrate for 4 weeks with or without the addition of the growth factor Bone Morphogenetic Protein and the bisphosphonate Zoledronic Acid...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Dayana Arias, Luis A Cisternas, Carol Miranda, Mariella Rivas
The processes of biomineralization, mediated by ureolytic bacteria, possess a wide range of technological applications, such as the formation of biocements and remediation of water and soil environments. For this reason, the bioprospecting of new ureolytic bacteria is interesting for its application to these technologies, particularly for water treatment. This study demonstrates the isolation, selection, and identification of halotolerant ureolytic bacteria from Laguna Salada (inland from Atacama Desert) and the evaluation of their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate crystals in freshwater in the presence of calcium ions, as well as the ability to induce the precipitation of crystals from different ions present in seawater...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
René Custers, Josep M Casacuberta, Dennis Eriksson, László Sági, Joachim Schiemann
The ability to successfully exploit genome edited organisms for the benefit of food security and the environment will essentially be determined by the extent to which these organisms fall under specific regulatory provisions. In many jurisdictions the answer to this question is considered to depend on the genetic characteristics of the edited organism, and whether the changes introduced in its genome do (or do not) occur naturally. We provide here a number of key considerations to assist with this evaluation as well as a guide of concrete examples of genetic alterations with an assessment of their natural occurrence...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Barbara Schmieg, Johannes Döbber, Frank Kirschhöfer, Martina Pohl, Matthias Franzreb
The development of process steps catalyzed by immobilized enzymes usually encompasses the screening of enzyme variants, as well as the optimization of immobilization protocols and process parameters. Direct immobilization of biocatalysts by physical entrapment into hydrogels can be applied to reduce the effort required for immobilization, as the enzyme-specific optimization of the immobilization procedure is omitted. Physical entrapment is applicable for purified enzymes as well as crude cell extracts. Therefore, it can be used to quickly assess and compare activities of immobilized enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Larissa Pereira Brumano, Francisco Vitor Santos da Silva, Tales Alexandre Costa-Silva, Alexsandra Conceição Apolinário, João Henrique Picado Madalena Santos, Eduardo Krebs Kleingesinds, Gisele Monteiro, Carlota de Oliveira Rangel-Yagui, Brahim Benyahia, Adalberto Pessoa Junior
L-Asparaginase (ASNase) is a vital component of the first line treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), an aggressive type of blood cancer expected to afflict over 53,000 people worldwide by 2020. More recently, ASNase has also been shown to have potential for preventing metastasis from solid tumors. The ASNase treatment is, however, characterized by a plethora of potential side effects, ranging from immune reactions to severe toxicity. Consequently, in accordance with Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles, ingenious new products tailored to minimize adverse reactions while increasing patient survival have been devised...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
B Audrey Nguyen, Cynthia J Roberts, Matthew A Reilly
Aim or Purpose: To describe the effect of varying scleral stiffness on the biomechanical deformation response of the cornea under air-puff loading via a finite-element (FE) model. Methods: A two-dimensional axisymmetric stationary FE model of the whole human eye was used to examine the effects varying scleral stiffness and intraocular pressure (IOP) on the maximum apical displacement of the cornea. The model was comprised of the cornea, sclera, vitreous, and surrounding air region. The velocity and pressure profiles of an air-puff from a dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer were replicated in the FE model, and the resultant profile was applied to deform the cornea in a multiphysics study (where the air-puff was first simulated before being applied to the corneal surface)...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Patrick Opdensteinen, Juliana I Clodt, Catherine R Müschen, Volkan Filiz, Johannes F Buyel
The production of biopharmaceutical proteins in plants offers many advantages over traditional expression platforms, including improved safety, greater scalability and lower upstream production costs. However, most products are retained within plant cells or the apoplastic space instead of being secreted into a liquid medium, so downstream processing necessarily involves tissue and cell disruption followed by the removal of abundant particles and host cell proteins (HCPs). We investigated whether ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) can simplify the purification of the model recombinant protein cyanovirin-N (CVN), an ~ 11 kDa HIV-neutralizing lectin, from tobacco extracts prior to chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Florian Nadler, Felix Bracharz, Johannes Kabisch
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has long been used as a host for production and secretion of industrially relevant enzymes like amylases and proteases. It is imperative for optimal efficiency, to balance protein yield and correct folding. While there are numerous ways of doing so on protein or mRNA level, our approach aims for the underlying number of coding sequences. Gene copy numbers are an important tuning valve for the optimization of heterologous gene expression. While some genes are best expressed from many gene copies, for other genes, medium or even single copy numbers are the only way to avoid formation of inclusion bodies, toxic gene dosage effects or achieve desired levels for metabolic engineering...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Hideaki Fujita, Chongxia Zhong, Satoshi Arai, Madoka Suzuki
Probing intracellular events is a key step in developing new biomedical methodologies. Optical microscopy has been one of the best options to observe biological samples at single cell and sub-cellular resolutions. Morphological changes are readily detectable in brightfield images. When stained with fluorescent molecules, distributions of intracellular organelles, and biological molecules are made visible using fluorescence microscopes. In addition to these morphological views of cells, optical microscopy can reveal the chemical and physical status of defined intracellular spaces...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Behrouz Mohammadi Nargesi, Georg A Sprenger, Jung-Won Youn
Aromatic amines are an important class of chemicals which are used as building blocks for the synthesis of polymers and pharmaceuticals. In this study we establish a de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of the aromatic amines para- amino-phenylethanol (PAPE) and para- amino-phenylacetic acid (4-APA) in Escherichia coli . We combined a synthetic para -amino-l-phenylalanine pathway with the fungal Ehrlich pathway. Therefore, we overexpressed the heterologous genes encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase ( pabAB from Corynebacterium glutamicum ), 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate mutase and 4-amino-4-deoxyprephenate dehydrogenase ( papB and papC from Streptomyces venezuelae ) and ThDP-dependent keto-acid decarboxylase ( aro 10 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) in E...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Reinhard Oeggl, Timo Neumann, Jochem Gätgens, Diego Romano, Stephan Noack, Dörte Rother
The economically efficient utilization of NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes requires the regeneration of consumed reduction equivalents. Classically, this is done by substrate supplementation, and if necessary by addition of one or more enzymes. The simplest method thereof is whole cell NADPH regeneration. In this context we now present an easy-to-apply whole cell cofactor regeneration approach, which can especially be used in screening applications. Simply by applying citrate to a buffer or directly using citrate/-phosphate buffer NADPH can be regenerated by native enzymes of the TCA cycle, practically present in all aerobic living organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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