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Life Sciences in Space Research

Mariana Bobeica, Sohichiroh Aogaki, Theodor Asavei, Mihail O Cernaianu, Petru Ghenuche, Dan Stutman
One of the specific properties of laser-driven radiation is a broadband energy spectrum, which is also a feature of the space radiation fields. This property can be used in materials science studies or radiobiology experiments to simulate the energy spectrum of space radiation exposures in a ground-based laboratory. However, the differences in effects between the higher dose rates of laser generated radiation and the lower dose rates of space radiation have to be investigated in separate, prior studies. A design for a high-throughput irradiation experiment and the associated Monte Carlo dose calculations for a broadband energy proton beam depositing energy in a cell monolayer is presented...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Alexander A Tikhomirov, Sofya A Ushakova, Vladimir V Velichko, Sergey V Trifonov, Natalia A Tikhomirova, Galina S Kalacheva
The study describes a small closed ecosystem used to test technologies to be further employed in full-scale manned closed ecosystems. The experimental ecosystem is designed to use a certain portion of human metabolism, which is included in the gas, water, and organic waste loops of the system. In this experimental ecosystem, gas and water loops are fully closed, and the model enables processing of human waste and plant inedible biomass. A physicochemical method is used to remove pollutants from the air in the system...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
M A Mickens, E J Skoog, L E Reese, P L Barnwell, L E Spencer, G D Massa, R M Wheeler
To optimize crop production/quality in space, we studied various "light recipes" that could be used in the Advanced Plant Habitat currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. 'Outredgeous') plants were grown for 28 days under seven treatments of white (W) LEDs (control), red (635 nm) and blue (460 nm) (RB) LEDs, W + blue (B) LEDs, W + green (520 nm) (G) LEDs, W + red (R) LEDs, W + far red (745 nm) (FR) LEDs, and RGB + FR LEDs with ratios similar to natural sunlight...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Naresh T Deoli, Karl H Hasenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
J J Bevelacqua, S M J Mortazavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Ravishankar Narayana, Judith Fliegmann, Ivan Paponov, Massimo E Maffei
The Earth magnetic field (or geomagnetic field, GMF) is a natural component of our planet and variations of the GMF are perceived by plants with a still uncharacterized magnetoreceptor. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of near null magnetic field (NNMF, ∼40 nT) on Arabidopsis thaliana Col0 root ion modulation. A time-course (from 10 min to 96 h) exposure of Arabidopsis to NNMF was compared to GMF and the content of some cations (NH4 + , K+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+ ) and anions (Cl- , SO4 = , NO3 - and PO4 = ) was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Krishna Luitel, Ronald Bozeman, Aadil Kaisani, Sang Bum Kim, Summer Barron, James A Richardson, Jerry W Shay
There are considerable health risks related to ionizing and proton radiation exposure. While there is a long history of health risks associated with ionizing (photon) radiation exposure, there is a limited understanding of the long-term health risks associated with proton radiation exposure. Since proton radiation is becoming more common in cancer therapy, the long-term biological effects of proton radiation remain less well characterized in terms of radiotherapy and well as for astronauts during deep space explorations...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Naresh T Deoli, Karl H Hasenstein
Although space radiation is a known risk for space travel and eventual colonization of Moon or Mars, relatively few data exist on radiation effects on potential crop plants. We studied Brassica rapa to assess the tolerance of seeds and seedlings to radiation by exposing dry and hydrated B. rapa seeds to 1, 2 and 3 MeV proton ions of various fluences and examined the effect on germination and root growth. Modeling penetration depth with SRIM code indicated that the applied energy was insufficient to penetrate the seeds; therefore, all energy was deposited into the tissue...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Francis A Cucinotta, Olga A Smirnova
A biologically motivated dynamical model of the radiogenic leukemia risk assessment (Smirnova, 2015, 2017; Smirnova and Cucinotta, 2018) is applied to the study of the effects of dose rate N and dose D on the excess relative risk ERR for non-CLL leukemia among continuously irradiated humans. In the study, the dose rate N of continuous irradiation is varied from 3×10-6 to 0.576 Sv/day and the dose D is varied from zero to 2.2 Sv. In the considered range of doses D, the developed model reproduces the linear dependence of ERR on D for the low dose rates N...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Madhu Kashyap Jagadeesh, Milena Roszkowska, Łukasz Kaczmarek
Finding life on other worlds is a fascinating area of astrobiology and planetary sciences. Presently, over 3800 exoplanets, representing a very wide range of physical and chemical environments, are known. Scientists are not only looking for traces of life outside Earth, but they are also trying to find out which of Earth's known organisms (ex: tardigrades (water bears)) would be able to survive on other planets. In our study, we have established a metric tool for distinguishing the potential survivability of active and cryptobiotic tardigrades on rocky-water and water-gas planets in our solar system and exoplanets, taking into consideration the geometrical means of six physical parameters such as radius, density, escape velocity, revolution period, surface temperature, and surface pressure of the considered planets...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Paulo Vale
The chain-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella was grown with LED or fluorescent light. With LED light, the pool of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) with strong antioxidant properties, such as mycosporine-glycine and palythene, was reduced in comparison to fluorescent light. The conjugated MAAs M-320 and M-335/360 presented similar stability to light and oxidation than their respective more sensitive moiety: mycosporine-glycine and palythene, respectively. A. catenella was exposed to extracellular hydrogen peroxide under LED or fluorescent light...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Alexandra Pontefract, Julie Hachey, Maria T Zuber, Gary Ruvkun, Christopher E Carr
The detection of extant life is a major focus of many planned future planetary missions, a current challenge of which is the ability to target biomarkers capable of providing unambiguous evidence of life. DNA sequencing is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool for life detection for planetary exploration missions; beyond use of sequence information to determine the origins of the sample (e.g., extant life or forward contamination), recent advances in the field have enabled interrogation of single molecules, with or without amplification...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Christina Mackaill, Gregori Sponchiado, Ana K Leite, Paola Dias, Michele Da Rosa, Elliot J Brown, Julio C M de Lima, Lucas Rehnberg, Thais Russomano
INTRODUCTION: 2015 UK resuscitation guidelines aim for 50-60 mm depth when giving external chest compressions (ECCs). This is achievable in hypogravity if the rescuer flexes and extends their arms during CPR, or using a new method trialed; the 'Mackaill-Russomano' (MR CPR) method. METHODS: 10 participants performed 3 sets of 30 ECCs in accordance with 2015 guidelines. A control was used at 1Gz, with eight further conditions using Mars and Moon simulations, with and without braces in the terrestrial position and using the MR CPR method...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
John W Norbury, Kathryn Whitman, Kerry Lee, Tony C Slaba, Francis F Badavi
This paper is the third in a series of comparisons of American (NASA) and Russian (ROSCOSMOS) space radiation calculations. The present work focuses on calculation of fluxes of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which are a constant source of radiation that constitutes one of the major hazards during deep space exploration missions for both astronauts/cosmonauts and hardware. In this work, commonly used GCR models are compared with recently published measurements of cosmic ray Hydrogen, Helium, and the Boron-to-Carbon ratio from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Rafe A McBeth, Thomas B Borak
Measurements of the incident fluence of HZE particles, as a function of LET, are used to determine absorbed dose as well as Quality Factors for assigning risk estimates to astronauts during manned space missions. These data are often based on thin solid state detectors that measure energy deposition, dE, and the assumption that the trajectory of the particle, dx, is equivalent to the thickness of the detector. Heavy ions often fragment while penetrating shielding materials in vehicles or habitats. Projectile fragments can be clustered spatially and temporally at the location of the thin detector which are then misclassified as a single particle...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Motoshi Kamada, Kensuke Miyamoto, Mariko Oka, Eiji Uheda, Junichi Ueda, Akira Higashibata
The mechanism by which gravity controls the polar transport of auxin, a plant hormone regulating multiple physiological processes in higher plants, remains unclear, although an important role of PIN proteins as efflux carriers/facilitators in polar auxin transport is suggested. We are going to study the effect of microgravity on the polar transport of auxin, focusing on the cellular localization of its efflux carrier, PsPIN1 in etiolated pea seedlings and ZmPIN1a in etiolated maize seedlings grown under microgravity conditions on the International Space Station (ISS) using immunohistochemical analyses according to space experimental plans (Ueda, 2016)...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Robert J Reynolds, Steven M Day
Astronauts and cosmonauts have been reported to be at substantially lower age-specific risk of death from chronic disease (primarily heart disease and cancers) in comparison to the general populations of the United States and Russia, respectively. Yet, both groups have been at greater age-specific risk of death from external causes, mainly due to plane crashes and spacecraft accidents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the reported reductions in mortality from natural causes result, to some degree, from survival bias created by early deaths from external causes...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Ye A Morozov, S V Trifonov, S A Ushakova, O V Anishchenko, A A Tikhomirov
The present study addresses the ways to increase the closure of biotechnical life support systems (BTLSS) for space applications. A promising method of organic waste processing based on "wet combustion" in hydrogen peroxide developed at the IBP SB RAS to produce fertilizers for higher plants is discussed. The method is relatively compact, energy efficient, productive, and eco-friendly. However, about 4-6 g/L of recalcitrant sediment containing such essential nutrients as Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn precipitates after the initial process...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
V M Barabanov, V I Gulimova, R K Berdiev, S V Saveliev
We investigated the behavior of 15 female Turner's thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY 1864) during a 30-day orbital experiment on the unmanned spacecraft "BION-M" No. 1. During weightlessness, the geckos maintained their ability to attach to the surfaces using the subdigital pads on their toes. On average, the geckos spent 99.9% of the time adhering to surfaces during the flight and only 0.1% floating freely. The active geckos, when starting to float, immediately restored attachment by a number of behavioral responses...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
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