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EcoSal Plus

Bruno Manta, Dana Boyd, Mehmet Berkmen
The formation of disulfide bonds is critical to the folding of many extracytoplasmic proteins in all domains of life. With the discovery in the early 1990s that disulfide bond formation is catalyzed by enzymes, the field of oxidative folding of proteins was born. Escherichia coli played a central role as a model organism for the elucidation of the disulfide bond-forming machinery. Since then, many of the enzymatic players and their mechanisms of forming, breaking, and shuffling disulfide bonds have become understood in greater detail...
February 2019: EcoSal Plus
Chaoyou Xue, Dipali G Sashital
CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against invasion by bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements. Short fragments of invader DNA are stored as immunological memories within CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) arrays in the host chromosome. These arrays provide a template for RNA molecules that can guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to specifically neutralize viruses upon subsequent infection. Over the past 10 years, our understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems has benefited greatly from a number of model organisms...
February 2019: EcoSal Plus
Alyssa C Fasciano, Lamyaa Shaban, Joan Mecsas
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat that has stimulated the scientific community to search for nontraditional therapeutic targets. Because virulence, but not the growth, of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens depends on the multicomponent type three secretion system injectisome (T3SSi), the T3SSi has been an attractive target for identifying small molecules, peptides, and monoclonal antibodies that inhibit its function to render the pathogen avirulent. While many small-molecule lead compounds have been identified in whole-cell-based high-throughput screens (HTSs), only a few protein targets of these compounds are known; such knowledge is an important step to developing more potent and specific inhibitors...
February 2019: EcoSal Plus
Denis Duché, Laetitia Houot
Gram-negative bacteria have evolved a complex envelope to adapt and survive in a broad range of ecological niches. This physical barrier is the first line of defense against noxious compounds and viral particles called bacteriophages. Colicins are a family of bactericidal proteins produced by and toxic to Escherichia coli and closely related bacteria. Filamentous phages have a complex structure, composed of at least five capsid proteins assembled in a long thread-shaped particle, that protects the viral DNA...
January 2019: EcoSal Plus
James J Gilchrist, Calman A MacLennan
Nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) are a major cause of invasive (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, manifesting as bacteremia and meningitis. Available epidemiological data indicate that iNTS disease is endemic in much of the region. Antimicrobial resistance is common and case fatality rates are high. There are well-characterized clinical associations with iNTS disease, including young age, HIV infection, malaria, malnutrition, anemia, and sickle cell disease. However, the clinical presentation of iNTS disease is often with fever alone, so clinical diagnosis is impossible without blood culture confirmation...
January 2019: EcoSal Plus
Alisa W Serio, Tiffany Keepers, Logan Andrews, Kevin M Krause
Aminoglycosides are cidal inhibitors of bacterial protein synthesis that have been utilized for the treatment of serious bacterial infections for almost 80 years. There have been approximately 15 members of this class approved worldwide for the treatment of a variety of infections, many serious and life threatening. While aminoglycoside use declined due to the introduction of other antibiotic classes such as cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems, there has been a resurgence of interest in the class as multidrug-resistant pathogens have spread globally...
November 2018: EcoSal Plus
Peter D Karp, Wai Kit Ong, Suzanne Paley, Richard Billington, Ron Caspi, Carol Fulcher, Anamika Kothari, Markus Krummenacker, Mario Latendresse, Peter E Midford, Pallavi Subhraveti, Socorro Gama-Castro, Luis Muñiz-Rascado, César Bonavides-Martinez, Alberto Santos-Zavaleta, Amanda Mackie, Julio Collado-Vides, Ingrid M Keseler, Ian Paulsen
EcoCyc is a bioinformatics database available at that describes the genome and the biochemical machinery of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. The long-term goal of the project is to describe the complete molecular catalog of the E. coli cell, as well as the functions of each of its molecular parts, to facilitate a system-level understanding of E. coli . EcoCyc is an electronic reference source for E. coli biologists and for biologists who work with related microorganisms. The database includes information pages on each E...
November 2018: EcoSal Plus
Catherine Sutherland, Katsuhiko S Murakami
RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the essential enzyme responsible for transcribing genetic information stored in DNA to RNA. Understanding the structure and function of RNAP is important for those who study basic principles in gene expression, such as the mechanism of transcription and its regulation, as well as translational sciences such as antibiotic development. With over a half-century of investigations, there is a wealth of information available on the structure and function of Escherichia coli RNAP. This review introduces the structural features of E...
August 2018: EcoSal Plus
Blake Bertani, Natividad Ruiz
The cell envelope is the first line of defense between a bacterium and the world-at-large. Often, the initial steps that determine the outcome of chemical warfare, bacteriophage infections, and battles with other bacteria or the immune system greatly depend on the structure and composition of the bacterial cell surface. One of the most studied bacterial surface molecules is the glycolipid known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is produced by most Gram-negative bacteria. Much of the initial attention LPS received in the early 1900s was owed to its ability to stimulate the immune system, for which the glycolipid was commonly known as endotoxin...
August 2018: EcoSal Plus
Günther Koraimann
The F plasmid or F-factor is a large, 100-kbp, circular conjugative plasmid of Escherichia coli and was originally described as a vector for horizontal gene transfer and gene recombination in the late 1940s. Since then, F and related F-like plasmids have served as role models for bacterial conjugation. At present, more than 200 different F-like plasmids with highly related DNA transfer genes, including those for the assembly of a type IV secretion apparatus, are completely sequenced. They belong to the phylogenetically related MOBF12 A group...
July 2018: EcoSal Plus
Frederick Stull, Jean-Michel Betton, James C A Bardwell
The biogenesis of periplasmic and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Escherichia coli is assisted by a variety of processes that help with their folding and transport to their final destination in the cellular envelope. Chaperones are macromolecules, usually proteins, that facilitate the folding of proteins or prevent their aggregation without becoming part of the protein's final structure. Because chaperones often bind to folding intermediates, they often (but not always) act to slow protein folding. Protein folding catalysts, on the other hand, act to accelerate specific steps in the protein folding pathway, including disulfide bond formation and peptidyl prolyl isomerization...
July 2018: EcoSal Plus
James R Johnson, Thomas A Russo
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important pathogens in humans and certain animals. Molecular epidemiological analyses of ExPEC are based on structured observations of E. coli strains as they occur in the wild. By assessing real-world phenomena as they occur in authentic contexts and hosts, they provide an important complement to experimental assessment. Fundamental to the success of molecular epidemiological studies are the careful selection of subjects and the use of appropriate typing methods and statistical analysis...
April 2018: EcoSal Plus
Glenn T Werneburg, David G Thanassi
Gram-negative bacteria assemble a variety of surface structures, including the hair-like organelles known as pili or fimbriae. Pili typically function in adhesion and mediate interactions with various surfaces, with other bacteria, and with other types of cells such as host cells. The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway assembles a widespread class of adhesive and virulence-associated pili. Pilus biogenesis by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and integral outer membrane protein termed the usher, which forms a multifunctional assembly and secretion platform...
March 2018: EcoSal Plus
Chelsie E Armbruster, Harry L T Mobley, Melanie M Pearson
Proteus mirabilis , a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium most noted for its swarming motility and urease activity, frequently causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) that are often polymicrobial. These infections may be accompanied by urolithiasis, the development of bladder or kidney stones due to alkalinization of urine from urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis. Adherence of the bacterium to epithelial and catheter surfaces is mediated by 17 different fimbriae, most notably MR/P fimbriae...
February 2018: EcoSal Plus
Keith A Lampel, Samuel B Formal, Anthony T Maurelli
The history of Shigella , the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens...
January 2018: EcoSal Plus
Jennine M Crane, Linda L Randall
In Escherichia coli , proteins found in the periplasm or the outer membrane are exported from the cytoplasm by the general secretory, Sec, system before they acquire stably folded structure. This dynamic process involves intricate interactions among cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, as well as lipids. In vivo , both ATP hydrolysis and proton motive force are required. Here, we review the Sec system from the inception of the field through early 2016, including biochemical, genetic, and structural data...
November 2017: EcoSal Plus
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σN (also σ54 ) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σN is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σN ), ptsN , hpf , rapZ , and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia , Shigella , and Salmonella . In an increasing number of bacteria, σN has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo, Jean-Pierre Bohin, Jean-Marie Lacroix
Among all the systems developed by enterobacteria to face osmotic stress, only osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) were found to be modulated during osmotic fluxes. First detected in 1973 by E.P. Kennedy's group in a study of phospholipid turnover in Escherichia coli , OPGs have been shown across alpha, beta, and gamma subdivisions of the proteobacteria. Discovery of OPG-like compounds in the epsilon subdivision strongly suggested that the presence of periplasmic glucans is essential for almost all proteobacteria...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
Valley Stewart
Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 became standard organisms for genetic analysis during the Truman administration. Half a century later, genetic analysis with these strains had become an art form, interpreted through 23 articles in the ambitious two-volume masterpiece edited by the late Fred Neidhardt and colleagues. These legacy articles now are available through EcoSal Plus , so as to inform and inspire contemporary genetic analyses in these standard organisms and their relatives...
April 2017: EcoSal Plus
Kyeong Rok Choi, Jae Ho Shin, Jae Sung Cho, Dongsoo Yang, Sang Yup Lee
Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals...
March 2017: EcoSal Plus
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