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Toxicology Reports

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766799/subacute-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-assessments-of-acridocarpus-smeathmannii-dc-guill-perr-root-in-wistar-rats
#1
O E Kale, O Awodele, A J Akindele
Recent adverse herb reactions have stimulated interest documenting the safety profile of medicinal agents. Thus, subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of Acridocarpus smeathmannii root (HEASR) in Wistar rats was investigated. In the 28 and 90-day subacute and subchronic toxicity tests, sixty-four rats (n = male: female = 1:1 = 32) were divided into four of eight/group and ninety-six (n = male: female = 1:1 = 48) into twelve/group respectively. Distilled water (10 mL/kg) or HEASR4, HEASR5 and HEASR6 (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) respectively were administered via oral gavage...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723690/acute-glufosinate-based-herbicide-treatment-in-rats-leads-to-increased-ocular-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-c-fos-protein-levels-as-well-as-intraocular-pressure
#2
Selim Çomaklı, Çiğdem Sevim, George Kontadakis, Elif Doğan, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Mustafa Özkaraca, Michael Aschner, Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Aristides Tsatsakis
Glufosinate is a common herbicide with neurotoxic effects, leading to seizures, convulsions and memory loss. Glufosinate indirectly induces glutamate toxicity by inhibiting glutamine synthesis in astrocytes. Here, we studied the acute toxic effects of a glufosinate-based herbicide in rat optic nerve at three doses (40, 80 or 120 μM, equal to 714 or 21 mg/kg bw/day). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, glucose, calcium, as well as creatinine concentrations were analyzed after 24, 48 and 72 h treatment...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705831/model-of-vitamin-and-mineral-deficiency-for-toxicological-research-apoptosis-activity-under-conditions-of-ccl4-intoxication
#3
Nadezhda V Tyshko, Svetlana I Shestakova
The apoptosis activity and clinical state in vitamin and mineral supplemented male Wistar rats was evaluated after carbon tetrachloride exposure (CCL4). The animals were divided equally into 6 groups (3 control groups and 3 exposure groups) with the control groups (C-75, C-30, C-19) receiving AIN-93, a specific diet for rodents, consisting of a 75%, 30% and 19% ratio of vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6) and minerals (Fe3+ and Mg2+) and exposure groups (E-75, E-30, E-19) receiving the same diet paradigm as with the control groups but with the additional CCL4 administered once a week as an olive oil solution (control groups received the same ratio of olive oil without CCL4) for a duration of 64 days...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705830/toxicological-profile-of-amanita-virosa-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Gholamreza Karimi, Ramin Rezaee
Mushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mushroom species are considered "poisonous" as they produce dangerous toxins. For instance, members of the genus Amanita , especially A. phalloides , A. virosa and A. verna , are responsible for severe and even life-threatening noxious consequences...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671349/ros-mediated-antibacterial-activity-of-photoilluminated-riboflavin-a-photodynamic-mechanism-against-nosocomial-infections
#5
Saniyya Khan, Mohammed Rayis P, Asim Rizvi, Md Maroof Alam, Meher Rizvi, Imrana Naseem
Nosocomial infections are a major threat to modern therapeutics. The major causative agent of these infections is multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, which impart high morbidity and mortality rate. This has led to an urge for the development of new antibiotics. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is a promising strategy to which till date no resistant strain has been reported. Since the efficacy of photodynamic therapy largely depends on the selection and administration of an appropriate photosensitizer, therefore, the realization of clinically active photosensitizers is an immediate need...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671348/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-occupational-exposure-to-low-dose-organic-solvents
#6
Renata Sisto, Pasquale Capone, Luigi Cerini, Filippo Sanjust, Enrico Paci, Daniela Pigini, Maria Pia Gatto, Monica Gherardi, Andrea Gordiani, Nunziata L'Episcopo, Giovanna Tranfo, Pieranna Chiarella
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently acknowledged as novel and non-invasive biomarkers of exposure to environmental and occupational hazardous substances. This preliminary study investigates the potential role of blood miRNAs as molecular biomarkers of exposure to the most common organic solvents (ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene) used in the shipyard painting activity. Despite the low number of recruited workers, a two-tail standard Students' test with Holm-Bonferroni adjusted p-value shows a significant up-regulation of two miRNAs (miR_6819_5p and miR_6778_5p) in exposed workers with respect to controls...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671347/morphological-and-chemical-composition-of-particulate-matter-in-buses-exhaust
#7
V V Chernyshev, A M Zakharenko, S M Ugay, T T Hien, L H Hai, S M Olesik, A S Kholodov, E Zubko, M Kokkinakis, T I Burykina, A K Stratidakis, Ya O Mezhuev, D A Sarigiannis, A Tsatsakis, K S Golokhvast
This research article investigates the particulate matter originated from the exhaust emissions of 20 bus models, within the territory of Vladivostok, Russian Federation. The majority of evaluated buses (17 out of 20) had emissions of large particles with sizes greater than 400 μm, which account for more than 80% of all measured particles. The analysis of the elemental composition showed that the exhaust emissions contained Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, with the concentration of Zn prevailing in all samples by two to three orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the other elements...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622906/appropriate-approach-to-technology-in-animal-hematology
#8
Javad Beheshtipour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622905/toxicity-bioassay-of-waste-cooking-oil-based-biodiesel-on-marine-microalgae
#9
K S Pikula, A M Zakharenko, V V Chaika, A K Stratidakis, M Kokkinakis, G Waissi, V N Rakitskii, D A Sarigiannis, A W Hayes, M D Coleman, A Tsatsakis, K S Golokhvast
The world biodiesel production is increasing at a rapid rate. Despite its perceived safety for the environment, more detailed toxicity studies are mandatory, especially in the field of aquatic toxicology. While considerable attention has been paid to biodiesel combustion emissions, the toxicity of biodiesel in the aquatic environment has been poorly understood. In our study, we used an algae culture growth-inhibition test (OECD 201) for the comparison of the toxicity of B100 (pure biodiesel), produced by methanol transesterification of waste cooking oil (yellow grease), B0 (petroleum diesel fuel) and B20 (diesel-biodiesel blended of 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel fuel by volume)...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622904/maximum-tolerated-doses-and-erythropoiesis-effects-in-the-mouse-bone-marrow-by-79-pesticides-technical-materials-assessed-with-the-micronucleus-assay
#10
Nataliya Ilyushina, Marina Goumenou, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Alexander I Vardavas, Gleb Masaltsev, Nataliya Averianova, Olga Dmitricheva, Yulia Revazova, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Valerii Rakitskii
Effects of technical materials of pesticide active ingredients, belonging to various chemical classes, on erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow were studied as part of the research on the pesticide mutagenic activity in micronucleus test. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the toxic action of the test substances on the target organ and the validity of the results of the micronucleus assay under conditions of erythropoiesis suppression. It was demonstrated that intragastrically administrated triazole pesticides reached bone marrow (target organ where micronucleus induction was assessed) and exerted an inhibitory effect on erythropoiesis...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622903/chemical-design-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-new-pyrimidothienotetrahydroisoquinolines-as-potential-insecticidal-agents
#11
Adel M Kamal El-Dean, Aly A Abd-Ella, Reda Hassanien, Mohamed E A El-Sayed, Remon M Zaki, Shaban A A Abdel-Raheem
Neonicotinoids are the most widely used from all existing pesticides. So, in purpose to discover new pesticides being more effective against the aphid, twelve heterocyclic compounds neonicotinoid analogs have been prepared in a pure state; pyrimidothienotetrahydroisoquinolines 1-12 and their toxicity as potential insecticidal agents against cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch was screened. Their characterizations by using spectroscopic analyses were performed. The toxicity data exhibited that the 8-chloropyrimidine compound 4 is more toxic about 2-fold than a reference insecticide, acetamiprid...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581763/gentamicin-induced-acute-renal-damage-and-its-evaluation-using-urinary-biomarkers-in-rats
#12
Venkatesha Udupa, Veeru Prakash
Consistent, sensitive biomarkers of acute kidney injury in animal models and humans have historically represented a poorly met need for investigators and clinicians. Detection of early kidney damage using urinary biomarkers is essential to assess the adversity in preclinical toxicology studies, which will help in reducing attrition of lead candidates in drug development. This study was undertaken to evaluate recently identified urinary biomarkers use in identifying acute kidney injury compared to traditional serum markers in experimentally induced nephrotoxicity in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581762/screening-of-biopolymeric-materials-for-cardiovascular-surgery-toxicity-evaluation-of-their-surface-relief-with-assessment-of-morphological-aspects-of-monocyte-macrophage-polarization-in-atherosclerosis-patients
#13
Natalia G Menzyanova, Svetlana А Pyatina, Elena D Nikolaeva, Alexander V Shabanov, Ivan V Nemtsev, Dmitry P Stolyarov, Dmitry B Dryganov, Eugene V Sakhnov, Ekaterina I Shishatskaya
The morphotypes of human macrophages (MPh) were studied in the culture on nano-structured biopolymer substrates, made from polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) of five various monomer compositions, followed by the solvent evaporation. Its surface relief, which was further in direct contact with human cells in vitro, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown, that the features of the micro/nano relief depend on the monomeric composition of the polymer substrates...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581761/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-impose-metabolic-toxicity-by-de-regulating-proteome-and-metabolome-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Piyoosh Kumar Babele
As zinc oxide nanoparticles are being increasingly used in various applications, it is important to assess their potential toxic implications. Stress responses and adaptations are primarily controlled by modulation in cellular proteins (enzyme) and concentration of metabolites. To date proteomics or metabolomics applications in nanotoxicity assessment have been applied to a restricted extent. Here we utilized 2DE and 1 H NMR based proteomics and metabolomics respectively to delineate the toxicity mechanism of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in budding yeast S...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581760/preclinical-evaluation-of-amblyomin-x-a-kunitz-type-protease-inhibitor-with-antitumor-activity
#15
Durvanei A Maria, Sonia Elisabete A L Will, Rosemary V Bosch, Jean G Souza, Juliana M Sciani, Mauricio B Goldfeder, Giuliana G Rondon, Ana M Chudzinski-Tavassi
Amblyomin-X, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, is a recombinant protein that selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells and promotes tumor reduction in vivo in melanoma animal models. Furthermore, Amblyomin-X was able to drastically reduce lung metastasis in a mice orthotopic kidney tumor model. Due to its antitumor activity, Amblyomin-X potential to become a new drug is currently under investigation, therefore the aim of the present study was to perform preclinical assays to evaluate Amblyomin-X toxicity in healthy mice...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581759/sympathomimetic-amine-compounds-and-hepatotoxicity-not-all-are-alike-key-distinctions-noted-in-a-short-review
#16
REVIEW
Cyril Willson
Sympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e., hepatotoxicity) where these compounds have been improperly grouped together is covered. A review of the proposed mechanisms through which known hepatotoxic sympathomimetic agents (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, methamphetamine and amphetamine) cause liver injury, along with a corresponding review of in vitro data, interventional data, animal model studies and observational data allow for a comparison/contrast of different agents and reveals a lack of potential toxicity for some agents (e...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30560060/an-imazamox-based-herbicide-causes-apoptotic-changes-in-rat-liver-and-pancreas
#17
Çiğdem Sevim, Selim Çomaklı, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Mustafa Özkaraca, Robin Mesnage, Leda Kovatsi, Tatyana I Burykina, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Michael N Antoniou, Aristidis Tsatsakis
We studied the acute toxicity of an imazamox-based herbicide at 12, 24 and 36 mg/kg body (bw) weight imazamox equivalent dose on the liver and pancreatic tissue in Sprague Dawley rats. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, glucose, calcium as well as creatinine, were determined in blood samples, which were collected after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure. Caspase 3 and anti-insulin expression and immunopositivity were evaluated using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30560059/risk-assessment-and-exposure-to-levels-of-naturally-occurring-aflatoxins-in-some-packaged-cereals-and-cereal-based-foods-consumed-in-accra-ghana
#18
Nii Korley Kortei, Akwasi Akomeah Agyekum, Felicia Akuamoa, Vincent Kyei Baffour, Huseini Wiisibie Alidu
Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin that contaminate agricultural commodities before, during and after harvest periods. A total of fifty-three (53) different foods (27 rice brands, 20 cereal based food brands and 6 pasta brands) were randomly obtained from the market and assessed for their different aflatoxin constitution (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) as well as the total levels of the aflatoxins using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. For the rice grain category, RS4 recorded the highest aflatoxin quantities of 65...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30519530/influence-of-smoking-on-levels-of-urinary-8-iso-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE
#19
Angela van der Plas, Sandrine Pouly, Guillaume de La Bourdonnaye, Gizelle Baker, Frank Lüdicke
Background: To evaluate the reduced-risk potential of alternative tobacco products, biomarkers that are involved in the biological pathways affected by cigarette smoking and smoking cessation are needed. Isoprostanes, a measure of oxidative stress, appear to be influenced by smoking and reversible upon smoking cessation and therefore could be a good biomarker. This review aims at quantifying the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on levels of urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α ), an isoprostane...
2019: Toxicology Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30510908/anti-melanogenic-and-anti-oxidant-activities-of-ethanol-extract-of-kummerowia-striata-kummerowia-striata-regulate-anti-melanogenic-activity-through-down-regulation-of-trp-1-trp-2-and-mitf-expression
#20
Jae Yeon Lee, Young-Rak Cho, Ju Hyoung Park, Eun-Kyung Ahn, Wonsik Jeong, Hyoung Seok Shin, Mi-Sun Kim, Seung Hwan Yang, Joa Sub Oh
Kummerowia striata ( K. striata ) is used as a traditional medicine for inflammation-related therapy. To determine whether it has beneficial anti-melanogenic and anti-oxidant activities, we investigated the biological activities of the ethanol extract of Kummerowia striata (EKS) using a variety of in vitro and cell culture model systems. The anti-melanogenic activity was assessed in B16F10 melanoma cells in terms of melanin synthesis and in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The anti-oxidant assays were performed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)...
2019: Toxicology Reports
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