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Oncolytic Virotherapy

Bingtao Tang, Zong Sheng Guo, David L Bartlett, Jia Liu, Grant McFadden, Joanna L Shisler, Edward J Roy
Background: Oncolytic viruses selectively infect cancer cells while avoiding infection of normal cells. Usually, selectivity is demonstrated by injecting a virus into tumor-bearing mice and observing infection and lysis of tumor cells without infection of other tissues. The general view is that this selectivity is due to tropisms of the virus. However, apparent selectivity could be due to accessibility. For example, intravenously injected virus may not gain access to cells within the central nervous system (CNS) because of the blood-brain barrier...
2019: Oncolytic Virotherapy
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 11 in vol. 6, PMID: 28224120.].
2019: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Jonathan G Pol, Matthew J Atherton, Byram W Bridle, Kyle B Stephenson, Fabrice Le Boeuf, Jeff L Hummel, Chantal G Martin, Julia Pomoransky, Caroline J Breitbach, Jean-Simon Diallo, David F Stojdl, John C Bell, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
Oncolytic activity of the MG1 strain of the Maraba vesiculovirus has proven efficacy in numerous preclinical cancer models, and relied not only on a direct cytotoxicity but also on the induction of both innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. To further expand tumor-specific T-cell effector and long-lasting memory compartments, we introduced the MG1 virus in a prime-boost cancer vaccine strategy. To this aim, a replication-incompetent adenoviral [Ad] vector together with the oncolytic MG1 have each been armed with a transgene expressing a same tumor antigen...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Chase Burton, Arabinda Das, Daniel McDonald, William A Vandergrift, Sunil J Patel, David Cachia, Eric Bartee
Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain cancer which is associated with poor prognosis. A variety of oncolytic viruses have previously shown positive efficacy against GBM, potentially offering new treatment options for patients. One such oncolytic virus is Myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific poxvirus that has been shown to be efficacious against a variety of tumor models including GBM. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of MYXV combined with current treatment regimens for GBM in both established cell lines as well as patient biopsy samples...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Sareh Zhand, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Alijan Tabarraei, Mohsen Saeidi, Marie Saghaeian Jazi, Mohamad Reza Kalani, Abdolvahab Moradi
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer death throughout the world. Replication-competent viruses, which are naturally able to infect and lyse tumor cells, seem to be promising in this field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) on human CRC cells and elucidate the mechanism of apoptosis induction. Materials and methods: Protein and gene expression of poliovirus (PV) receptor (CD155) on four human CRC cell lines including HCT116, SW480, HT-29, and Caco-2 and normal fetal human colon (FHC) cell line as a control were examined by flow cytometry and SYBR Green Real-Time PCR, respectively...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Linus D Kloker, Can Yurttas, Ulrich M Lauer
Oncolytic virotherapy constitutes an upcoming alternative treatment option for a broad spectrum of cancer entities. However, despite great research efforts, there is still only a single US Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency-approved oncolytic virus available for clinical use. One reason for that is the gap between promising preclinical data and limited clinical success. Since oncolytic viruses are biological agents, they might require more realistic in vitro tumor models than common monolayer tumor cell cultures to provide meaningful predictive preclinical evaluation results...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Chun-Yu Chen, Brian Hutzen, Mary F Wedekind, Timothy P Cripe
Oncolytic viruses are lytic for many types of cancers but are attenuated or replication-defective in normal tissues. Aside from tumor lysis, oncolytic viruses can induce host immune responses against cancer cells and may thus be viewed as a form of immunotherapy. Although recent successes with checkpoint inhibitors have shown that enhancing antitumor immunity can be effective, the dynamic nature of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment presents significant hurdles to the broader application of these therapies...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Matthew B Phillips, Johnasha D Stuart, Roxana M Rodríguez Stewart, Jameson Tl Berry, Bernardo A Mainou, Karl W Boehme
Mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) is under development as a cancer virotherapy. Clinical trials demonstrate that reovirus-based therapies are safe and tolerated in patients with a wide variety of cancers. Although reovirus monotherapy has proven largely ineffective, reovirus sensitizes cancer cells to existing chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Clinical trials are underway to test the efficacy of reovirus in combination with chemotherapeutic and radiation regimens and to evaluate the effectiveness of reovirus in conjunction with immunotherapies...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Tien V Nguyen, Catherine M Crosby, Gregory J Heller, Zachary I Mendel, Mary E Barry, Michael A Barry
Background: Human species C adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the archetype oncolytic adenovirus and has been used in the vast majority of preclinical and clinical tests. While Ad5 can be robust, species C Ad6 has lower seroprevalence, side effects, and appears to be more potent as a systemic therapy against a number of tumors than Ad5. Historically, there have only been four species C human adenoviruses: serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6. More recently a new species C adenovirus, Ad57, was identified...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Chun Xu, Annika Verena Goß, Carmen Dorneburg, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Jiwu Wei, Christian Beltinger
Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase clinical trials. However, pre-existing immunity against measles might be a hurdle for OMV therapy. Methods: OMV was inactivated with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C). Loss of replication and oncolytic activity of UV-inactivated OMV were confirmed by tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50 ) assay using Vero cells and by flow cytometry using Jurkat cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify that UV-inactivated OMV remained antigenic...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Adrian Pelin, Jiahu Wang, John Bell, Fabrice Le Boeuf
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are an emergent and unique therapy for cancer patients. Similar to chemo- and radiation therapy, OV can lyse (kill) cancer cell directly. In general, the advantages of OVs over other treatments are primarily: a higher safety profile (as shown by less adverse effects), ability to replicate, transgene(s) delivery, and stimulation of a host's immune system against cancer. The latter has prompted successful use of OVs with other immunotherapeutic strategies in a synergistic manner. In spite of extended testing in pre-clinical and clinical setting, using biologically derived therapeutics like virus always raises potential concerns about safety (replication at non-intended locations) and bio-availability of the product...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Raquel Yokoda, Bolni M Nagalo, Mansi Arora, Jan B Egan, James M Bogenberger, Thomas T DeLeon, Yumei Zhou, Daniel H Ahn, Mitesh J Borad
Upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies are among the most challenging cancers with regard to response to treatment and prognosis. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities. Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Eric Bartee
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal malignancy of plasma cells that is newly diagnosed in ~30,000 patients in the US each year. While recently developed therapies have improved the prognosis for MM patients, relapse rates remain unacceptably high. To overcome this challenge, researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of oncolytic viruses as a novel treatment option for MM. Preclinical work with these viruses has demonstrated that their infection can be highly specific for MM cells and results in impressive therapeutic efficacy in a variety of preclinical models...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Raquel Yokoda, Bolni M Nagalo, Brent Vernon, Rahmi Oklu, Hassan Albadawi, Thomas T DeLeon, Yumei Zhou, Jan B Egan, Dan G Duda, Mitesh J Borad
With the advancement of a growing number of oncolytic viruses (OVs) to clinical development, drug delivery is becoming an important barrier to overcome for optimal therapeutic benefits. Host immunity, tumor microenvironment and abnormal vascularity contribute to inefficient vector delivery. A number of novel approaches for enhanced OV delivery are under evaluation, including use of nanoparticles, immunomodulatory agents and complex viral-particle ligands along with manipulations of the tumor microenvironment...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Yoshihiro Hotta, Hideki Kasuya, Itzel Bustos, Yoshinori Naoe, Toru Ichinose, Maki Tanaka, Yasuhiro Kodera
BACKGROUND: HF10 is a highly attenuated type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV) with proven effective oncolytic effect. Previous investigations have demonstrated that colon cancer mice model treated with HF10 not only had better survival but were also resistant to the reimplantation of the antitumor effect mediated by host antitumor immunity. Importantly, it has also been noted that in mice with antitumors implanted on both sides of the back, an injection of HF10 on only one side strongly restrains not only the injected antitumor but also the non-injected ones...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Teridah Ernala Ginting, Jeremiah Suryatenggara, Salomo Christian, George Mathew
PURPOSE: To investigate the specific role of immune responses induced by lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for its antitumor effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NDV LaSota strain was used to infect the following human cells: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87MG and T98G), mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MCF7 and MDA-MB-453), hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7), transformed embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), primary monocytes, lung fibroblast (HF19), skin fibroblast (NB1RGB) and rat astroglia (RCR-1) at 0...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Faris Farassati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Hani M Babiker, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Muhammad Husnain, Mitesh J Borad
The treatment of metastatic melanoma has evolved from an era where interferon and chemotherapy were the mainstay of treatments to an era where immunotherapy has become the frontline. Ipilimumab (IgG1 CTLA-4 inhibitor), nivolumab (IgG4 PD-1 inhibitor), pembrolizumab (IgG4 PD-1 inhibitor) and nivolumab combined with ipilimumab have become first-line therapies in patients with metastatic melanoma. In addition, the high prevalence of BRAF mutations in melanoma has led to the discovery and approval of targeted molecules, such as vemurafenib (BRAF kinase inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor), as they yielded improved responses and survival in malignant melanoma patients...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Zeeshan Ahmad, Robert A Kratzke
Oncolytic virotherapy is the use of replication-competent viruses to treat malignancies. The potential of oncolytic virotherapy as an approach to cancer therapy is based on historical evidence that certain viral infections can cause spontaneous remission of both hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Oncolytic virotherapy may eliminate cancer cells through either direct oncolysis of infected tumor cells or indirect immune-mediated oncolysis of uninfected tumor cells. Recent advances in oncolytic virotherapy include the development of a wide variety of genetically attenuated RNA viruses with precise cellular tropism and the identification of cell-surface receptors that facilitate viral transfer to the tissue of interest...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Shilpa Bhatia, Samia M O'Bryan, Angel A Rivera, David T Curiel, J Michael Mathis
Ad vectors are promising delivery vehicles for cancer therapeutic interventions. However, their application is limited by promiscuous tissue tropism and hepatotoxicity. This limitation can be avoided by altering the native tropism of Ads so that they can be redirected to the target cells through alternate cellular receptors. The CXCR4 chemokine receptor belongs to a large superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors and is known to be upregulated in a wide variety of cancers, including breast cancer and melanoma...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
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