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Lori M Cullen, Madelyn R Schmidt, Gretel M Torres, Adam A Capoferri, Trudy G Morrison
Efforts to develop a vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have primarily focused on the RSV fusion protein. The pre-fusion conformation of this protein induces the most potent neutralizing antibodies and is the focus of recent efforts in vaccine development. Following the first identification of mutations in the RSV F protein (DS-Cav1 mutant protein) that stabilized the pre-fusion conformation, other mutant stabilized pre-fusion F proteins have been described. To determine if there are differences in alternate versions of stabilized pre-fusion F proteins, we explored the use, as vaccine candidates, of virus-like particles (VLPs) containing five different pre-fusion F proteins, including the DS-Cav1 protein...
February 15, 2019: Vaccines
John Foerster, Aleksandra Molęda
BACKGROUND: The development of therapeutic vaccines requires thorough knowledge of potential hazards associated with long-term inactivation of self-proteins. Among potential targets, interleukin 13 (IL-13) merits consideration, as monoclonal antibodies disrupting IL-13 signaling are proving to be exceedingly effective in common conditions such as atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: Given the mass publication of scientific data, an appraisal of safety aspects is challenging...
February 12, 2019: Vaccines
Tomer Israely, Nir Paran, Noam Erez, Lilach Cherry, Hadas Tamir, Hagit Achdout, Boaz Politi, Ofir Israeli, Galia Zaide, Inbar Cohen-Gihon, Einat B Vitner, Shlomo Lustig, Sharon Melamed
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to a broad range of pathologies. CNS infections with Orthopox viruses have been mainly documented as an adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus. To date, there is insufficient data regarding the mechanisms underlying pathological viral replication or viral clearance. Therefore, informed risk assessment of vaccine adverse reactions or outcome prediction is limited. This work applied a model of viral infection of the CNS, comparing neurovirulent with attenuated strains...
February 12, 2019: Vaccines
Vibha Jha, Edward N Janoff
Bacterial pathogens expressing capsular polysaccharides are common causes of mucosal infections (pneumonia, intestinal), as well as often fatal, invasive infections (meningitis, bloodstream infections) in children and adults worldwide. These chemically simple but structurally complex carbohydrate structures on the bacterial surface confer resistance to recognition and clearance by the immune system through a range of mechanisms. Such recognition of capsular polysaccharides may be reduced by their limited ability to directly stimulate B cells and the T cells that may facilitate these humoral responses...
February 11, 2019: Vaccines
Anita H J van den Biggelaar, William S Pomat, Geraldine Masiria, Sandra Wana, Birunu Nivio, Jacinta Francis, Rebecca Ford, Megan Passey, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Peter Jacoby, Deborah Lehmann, Peter Richmond
We investigated the immunogenicity, seroprotection rates and persistence of immune memory in young children at high risk of pneumococcal disease in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Children were primed with 10-valent (PCV10) or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13) at 1, 2 and 3 months of age and randomized at 9 months to receive PPV (PCV10/PPV-vaccinated, n = 51; PCV13/PPV-vaccinated, n = 52) or no PPV (PCV10/PPV-naive, n = 57; PCV13/PPV-naive, n = 48). All children received a micro-dose of PPV at 23 months of age to study the capacity to respond to a pneumococcal challenge...
February 4, 2019: Vaccines
Roberta Lynne Crim, Sangeeta Kumari, Priyanka Jayanti, Susette Audet, Ashwin Kulkarni, Judy Beeler
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and the elderly. Although there is no licensed vaccine, RSV-F and -G glycoproteins are targets for vaccine development and therapeutics. We developed an assay that can detect anti-RSV-G IgG antibodies, either as a biomarker of natural exposure or immunization. RSV genes encoding native and mutated G (mG) proteins from subgroups A and B strains were cloned, expressed as luciferase-tagged proteins, and tested individually to detect anti-RSV-G specific IgG antibodies using a high-throughput luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS-G)...
February 1, 2019: Vaccines
Anusha Thadi, Marian Khalili, William F Morano, Scott D Richard, Steven C Katz, Wilbur B Bowne
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...].
January 31, 2019: Vaccines
Camilla de Gier, Caitlyn M Granland, Janessa L Pickering, Tony Walls, Mejbah Bhuiyan, Nikki Mills, Peter C Richmond, Emma J Best, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham
Otitis media (OM) is a major reason for antibiotic consumption and surgery in children. Nasopharyngeal carriage of otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), is a prerequisite for development of OM, and increased nasopharyngeal otopathogen density correlates with disease onset. Vaccines can reduce or eliminate otopathogen carriage, as demonstrated for pneumococcal serotypes included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). The 10-valent PCV (PCV10) includes an NTHi carrier protein, and in 2011 superseded 7-valent PCV on the New Zealand Immunisation Program...
January 31, 2019: Vaccines
Ioanna Papadatou, Irene Tzovara, Paul V Licciardi
Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae , pneumococcus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Achieving long-term immunity against S. pneumoniae through immunization is an important public health priority. Long-term protection after immunization is thought to rely both on protective serum antibody levels and immunological memory in the form of antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs). Although the ability to achieve protective antibody levels shortly after pneumococcal vaccination has been well documented for the various infant immunization schedules currently in use worldwide, the examination of immunological memory in the form of antigen-specific MBCs has been much more limited...
January 29, 2019: Vaccines
Sun-Young Sunwoo, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Igor Morozov, Elena G Sánchez, Natasha N Gaudreault, Jessie D Trujillo, Lina Mur, Marisa Nogal, Daniel Madden, Kinga Urbaniak, In Joong Kim, Wenjun Ma, Yolanda Revilla, Juergen A Richt
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes high morbidity and mortality in swine ( Sus scrofa ), for which there is no commercially available vaccine. Recent outbreaks of the virus in Trans-Caucasus countries, Eastern Europe, Belgium and China highlight the urgent need to develop effective vaccines against ASFV. Previously, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a vaccination strategy designed to test various combinations of ASFV antigens encoded by DNA plasmids and recombinant proteins with the aim to activate both humoral and cellular immunity...
January 28, 2019: Vaccines
Federico Perdomo-Celis, Maria S Salvato, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Juan C Zapata
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of clinically similar diseases that can be caused by enveloped RNA viruses primarily from the families Arenaviridae , Filoviridae , Hantaviridae , and Flaviviridae . Clinically, this group of diseases has in common fever, fatigue, dizziness, muscle aches, and other associated symptoms that can progress to vascular leakage, bleeding and multi-organ failure. Most of these viruses are zoonotic causing asymptomatic infections in the primary host, but in human beings, the infection can be lethal...
January 22, 2019: Vaccines
Jessica E Manning, Tineke Cantaert
The current increase in vector-borne disease worldwide necessitates novel approaches to vaccine development targeted to pathogens delivered by blood-feeding arthropod vectors into the host skin. A concept that is gaining traction in recent years is the contribution of the vector or vector-derived components, like salivary proteins, to host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, the triad of vector-host-pathogen interactions in the skin microenvironment can influence host innate and adaptive responses alike, providing an advantage to the pathogen to establish infection...
January 21, 2019: Vaccines
Theano Lagousi, Paraskevi Basdeki, John Routsias, Vana Spoulou
Non-serotype-specific protein-based pneumococcal vaccines have received extensive research focus due to the limitations of polysaccharide-based vaccines. Pneumococcal proteins (PnPs), universally expressed among serotypes, may induce broader immune responses, stimulating humoral and cellular immunity, while being easier to manufacture and less expensive. Such an approach has raised issues mainly associated with sequence/level of expression variability, chemical instability, as well as possible undesirable reactogenicity and autoimmune properties...
January 19, 2019: Vaccines
Nora Moussli, Emmanuel Kabengele, Emilien Jeannot
BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the status of measles vaccination among employees working for a multinational company. It also assesses the effectiveness of an on-site prevention campaign. In keeping with the guidelines of the World Health Organization regarding measles awareness, the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland aims to eliminate measles by 2020. METHODS: A questionnaire about measles vaccination was sent by e-mail and via a fluid survey...
January 16, 2019: Vaccines
Mariana Guerra-Maupome, Mitchell V Palmer, Jodi L McGill, Randy E Sacco
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of pediatric respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that two-thirds of infants are infected with RSV during the first year of life and it is one of the leading causes of death in this age group worldwide. Similarly, bovine RSV is a primary viral pathogen in cases of pneumonia in young calves and plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex. Importantly, naturally occurring infection of calves with bovine RSV shares many features in common with human RSV infection...
January 8, 2019: Vaccines
Janine Paynter, Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Jane Morgan, Peter Saxton, Steven Black, Helen Petousis-Harris
Gonorrhea is a major global public health problem with emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains with no effective vaccine. This retrospective cohort study aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the New Zealand meningococcal B vaccine against gonorrhea-associated hospitalization. The cohort consisted of individuals born from 1984 to 1999 residing in New Zealand. Therefore, it was eligible for meningococcal B vaccination from 2004 to 2008. Administrative datasets of demographics, customs, hospitalization, education, income tax, and immunization were linked using the national Integrated Data Infrastructure...
January 5, 2019: Vaccines
Ezra Linley, Abigail Bell, Jenna F Gritzfeld, Ray Borrow
Since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a number of studies have demonstrated the limited efficacy of the pneumococcal serotype 3 component of this vaccine. Evidence from seven countries (Denmark, France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden, UK, US) shows limited or no effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against serotype 3 invasive pneumococcal disease and carriage. The serotype 3 capsule has some unique characteristics that may serve to explain this lack of efficacy-capsular polysaccharide is abundantly expressed, leading to a greater thickness of capsule, and free capsular polysaccharide may be released during growth...
January 3, 2019: Vaccines
Rika Gomi, Anurag Sharma, Wenzhu Wu, Stefan Worgall
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Immunoprophylaxis with the anti-RSV monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, reduces the risk for RSV-related hospitalizations, but its use is restricted to high-risk infants due to the high costs. In this study, we investigated if genetic delivery of anti-RSV antibody to neonatal mice by chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 expressing the murine form of palivizumab (AdC7αRSV) can provide protection against RSV...
December 29, 2018: Vaccines
Eranga Abeyratne, Joseph R Freitas, Ali Zaid, Suresh Mahalingam, Adam Taylor
Our previous investigation of the nucleolar localisation sequence (NoLS) of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) capsid protein demonstrated the role of capsid in CHIKV virulence. Mutating the NoLS of capsid in CHIKV led to the development of a unique live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine candidate, termed CHIKV-NoLS. CHIKV-NoLS-immunised mice developed long-term immunity from CHIKV infection after a single dose. To further evaluate CHIKV-NoLS attenuation and suitability as a vaccine, we examined the footpad of inoculated mice for underlying CHIKV-NoLS-induced immunopathology by histological and flow cytometric analysis...
December 22, 2018: Vaccines
Arpad Barabas, Chad Cole, Zoltan Kovacs, Erno Kovacs, Rene Lafreniere
In addition to active and passive immunizations, there is a third method of immunization, the modified vaccination technique, which is based on injecting a combination of target antigens and antibodies against this antigen. The vaccine is essentially comprised of immune complexes with pre-determined immune-inducing components. When such an immune complex (target antigen × antibody against the target antigen) with a slight antigen excess is administered, it evokes a corrective immune response by the production of the same antibody with the same specificity against the target antigen that is present in the immune complex (pre-determined immune response)...
December 21, 2018: Vaccines
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