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Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal

Radoslav Zamborsky, Milan Kokavec, Stefan Harsanyi, Lubos Danisovic
Both adolescents and children suffer from osteosarcoma, localized in the metaphysis of the long bones. This is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in this patient group. Early tumor detection is the key to ensuring effective treatment. Improved osteosarcoma outcomes in clinical trials have been contingent on biomarker discovery and an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions. In this review, we present a short overview of biomarkers for osteosarcoma, and highlight advances in osteosarcoma-related biomarker research...
February 11, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Akira Kanda, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Mikiya Asako, Koichi Tomoda, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Hiroshi Iwai
The concept of united airway disease comprises allergic rhinitis (AR) with asthma, and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) with asthma. It embodies a comprehensive approach to the treatment of upper and lower airway inflammation. The treatment of upper airway inflammation reduces asthma symptoms and decreases the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) necessary to treat asthma. However, little is known about the mechanisms of interaction between upper and lower airway inflammation. Here we review these mechanisms, focusing on neural modulation and introduce a novel therapeutic approach to united airway disease using a fine-particle ICS...
February 11, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Bibhuti Das, Michelle-Marie Jadotte, Jaime Mills, Kak-Chen Chan
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common respiratory sequelae of prematurity and histopathologically features fewer, dysmorphic, pulmonary arteries. We present our experience with the digital subtraction pulmonary angiography (DSPA) findings of a segmental vascular filling abnormality in three children who were born at extreme prematurity and have pulmonary hypertension due to severe BPD. Our preliminary data suggest that DSPA may be useful in evaluating the severity of pulmonary vascular disease in children with BPD...
February 8, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Marie-José H E Gijsberts, Anke I Liefbroer, René Otten, Erik Olsman
Many studies on spiritual care in palliative care are performed in the US, leaving other continents unexplored. The objective of this systematic review is to map the recent studies on spiritual care in palliative care in Europe. PubMed, CINAHL, ATLA, PsycINFO, ERIC, IBSS, Web of Science, EMBASE, and other databases were searched. Included were European studies published in a peer-reviewed journal in 2015, 2016, or 2017. The characteristics of the included studies were analyzed and a narrative synthesis of the extracted data was performed...
February 7, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Ayca Ece Nezir, Burge Ulukan, Dilek Telci
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional crosslinking enzyme that displays transamidation, protein disulfide isomerase, protein kinase, as well as GTPase and ATPase activities. TG2 can also act as an adhesion molecule involved in the syndecan and integrin receptor signaling. In recent years, TG2 was implicated in cancer progression, survival, invasion, migration, and stemness of many cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Von Hippel-Lindau mutations leading to the subsequent activation of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-1-mediated signaling pathways, survival signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway resulting in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) metastasis and angiogenesis are the main factors in RCC progression...
February 6, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Antonio Artigas, Jean Carlet, José Garnacho, Michael Niederman, Antoni Torres
This 24th International Symposium on Infections in the Critically Ill Patient aims to review current concepts, technology and present advances in infections in critically ill patient [...].
February 6, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Alper Evrensel, Barış Önen Ünsalver, Mehmet Emin Ceylan
The search for rational treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in 1951 and continues to evolve. Day by day, new details of the intestinal microbiota⁻brain axis are coming to light. As the role of microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders is more clearly understood, microbiota-based (or as we propose, "fecomodulation") treatment options are increasingly discussed in the context of treatment. Although their history dates back to ancient times, the importance of psychobiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has only recently been recognized...
January 31, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Sumaiya Mamun, Christopher Guy Nicholas Mascie-Taylor
The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) and anaemia is a growing concern in developing countries. Using the cross-sectional Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011, 5763 mother⁻child pairs were examined. In households where the mother was overweight, 24.5% of children were stunted, 19.8% underweight, 9.3% wasted, and 51.7% anaemic. Significant regional differences were found in DBM and anaemia as well as drinking water source, while DBM alone was more common in more well-off households (based on wealth index) and where the father was employed in skilled or service occupations...
January 28, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Claudio Tabolacci, Angelo De Martino, Carlo Mischiati, Giordana Feriotto, Simone Beninati
Tissue transglutaminase (transglutaminase type 2; TG2) is the most ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family (EC that catalyzes specific post-translational modifications of proteins through a calcium-dependent acyl-transfer reaction (transamidation). In addition, this enzyme displays multiple additional enzymatic activities, such as guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, protein kinase, disulfide isomerase activities, and is involved in cell adhesion. Transglutaminase 2 has been reported as one of key enzymes that is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis; the molecular mechanisms of action and physiopathological effects depend on its expression or activities, cellular localization, and specific cancer model...
January 25, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Nirmala Sarwan, Ricardo Jurawan, Rudrunath Singh, Vijay Kumar Chattu
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional concept that assesses an individual's personal satisfaction with his/her daily life while coping with a medical condition and/or its consequent therapy. This study aims to determine the psychosocial needs most commonly affected among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Psychosocial needs which were pertinent to the IBD community were assessed using a questionnaire designed by the gastrointestinal team at the Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad after getting ethical approval...
January 25, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Charles Antwi-Boasiako, Gifty B Dankwah, Robert Aryee, Charles Hayfron-Benjamin, Eric S Donkor, Andrew D Campbell
Oxidative stress plays a very significant role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) and associated complications. Oxidative stress, which is often experienced by SCD patients as a result of continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), may lead to endothelial dysfunction and acute inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), often play a protective role. The current study aimed at determining the oxidative profile of persons with SCD at a tertiary hospital in Ghana...
January 25, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Hongyan Chai, Autumn DiAdamo, Brittany Grommisch, Jennifer Boyle, Katherine Amato, Dongmei Wang, Jiadi Wen, Peining Li
Current prenatal genetic evaluation showed a significantly increase in non-invasive screening and the reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures. To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy on detecting common aneuploidies, structural chromosomal rearrangements, and pathogenic copy number variants (pCNV), we performed a retrospective analysis on a case series initially analyzed by aneuvysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and karyotyping then followed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Of the 386 cases retrieved from the past decade, common aneuploidies were detected in 137 cases (35...
January 23, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Rupendra T Shrestha, Darin Ruanpeng, James V Hennessey
The re-naming of noninvasive follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer to the apparently non-malignant, noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) impacts the prevalence of malignancy rates, thereby affecting mutation frequency in papillary thyroid cancer. Preoperative assessment of such nodules could affect management in the future. The original publications following the designation of the new nomenclature have been extensively reviewed. With the adoption of NIFTP terminology, a reduction in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) prevalence is anticipated, as is a modest reduction of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) prevalence that would be distributed mainly across indeterminate thyroid nodules...
January 22, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Tiffany Seto, Danny Sam, Minggui Pan
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) have revolutionized cancer therapy with broad activities against a wide range of malignancies. However, in many malignancies their efficacy remains limited due to the primary resistance. Furthermore, a high percentage of patients develop progression due to the secondary resistance even after obtaining a response or achieving a stable disease. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms that underlie the primary and secondary resistance to ICPis in cancer immunotherapy and provide an overview to impart a broad understanding of the critical issues that are encountered in clinical oncology practice...
January 22, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Emmanuel Nnabugwu Agomuo, Peter Uchenna Amadi, Chiamaka Adumekwe
Pregnancy brings about strong cravings for nonfood materials, the gestational toxicities of which are not yet ascertained. In this study, we used rat models to investigate the effect of clay beverage consumption during early and late gestation on p-Type ATPases, nephrocardiac integrity, the antioxidant system, and on the activities of the renin⁻angiotensin⁻aldosterone system (RAAS). The rats at early (7th day) and late gestation (20th) were administered single doses (500 mg/kg body weight of clay beverage and examined using ELISA and spectrophotometry...
January 22, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Iris Pélieu, Corey Kull, Bernhard Walder
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major healthcare problem and a major burden to society. The identification of a TBI can be challenging in the prehospital setting, particularly in elderly patients with unobserved falls. Errors in triage on scene cannot be ruled out based on limited clinical diagnostics. Potential new mobile diagnostics may decrease these errors. Prehospital care includes decision-making in clinical pathways, means of transport, and the degree of prehospital treatment. Emergency care at hospital admission includes the definitive diagnosis of TBI with, or without extracranial lesions, and triage to the appropriate receiving structure for definitive care...
January 21, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Takenori Haruna, Shin Kariya, Takaya Higaki, Sei-Ichiro Makihara, Kengo Kanai, Yasutoshi Komatsubara, Aiko Oka, Kazunori Nishizaki, Mitsuhiro Okano
: Prophylactic treatment with intranasal corticosteroids is effective for pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. However, the appropriate time to start this treatment remains unclear. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Starting on February 1, 2014, patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis received either fluticasone furoate nasal spray (FFNS) for 8 weeks (Group A: n = 24), placebo nasal spray for 2 weeks followed by FFNS for 6 weeks (Group B: n = 23), or placebo for 4 weeks followed by FFNS for 4 weeks (Group C: n = 23)...
January 15, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Nicolò Maria Vanoni, Manuela Carugati, Noemi Borsa, Giovanni Sotgiu, Laura Saderi, Andrea Gori, Marco Mantero, Stefano Aliberti, Francesco Blasi
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CAP mortality is driven by the development of sepsis and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We performed a systematic review of the available English literature published in the period 1 January 1997 to 31 August 2017 and focused on ARF in CAP. The database searches identified 189 articles-of these, only 29 were retained for data extraction. Of these 29 articles, 12 addressed ARF in CAP without discussing its ventilatory management, while 17 evaluated the ventilatory management of ARF in CAP...
January 14, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Holly Eadsforth
Doctors from the United Kingdom are increasingly involved in international medical volunteerism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although supported by government policy this practice lacks infrastructure and coordination. Volunteer activities can have positive impact but also risk causing harm. Without external governance the responsibility lies with volunteers and their organisations to self-evaluate their activities. This study aimed to explore influences affecting volunteer engagement with ethical standards and evaluative practice...
January 14, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Vincent Avecilla, Andrea Avecilla
The ongoing growth of the international occurrence of depression and its ability to co-occur with other serious medical disorders, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, is a current public health problem. Inhibitor of DNA-Binding/Differentiation (ID) proteins are part of a group of transcriptional factors that have shown involvement in neurocognitive disorders and, therefore, may have influence on depressive disorders. Previously, it has been established that exposure to environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol A (BPA), have played an important role in the modulation of depressive disorders...
January 9, 2019: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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