Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports

Mirret M El-Hagrassy, Dante G G Duarte, Aurore Thibaut, Mariana F G Lucena, Felipe Fregni
Purpose of Review: Clinical trials are essential to advance health care and develop new therapies. In this review we discuss the underlying principles of clinical trial design with an emphasis on assessing design risks that lead to trial failure as well as negative trials. While of general interest, this is perhaps particularly timely for the neuromodulation community, given the paucity of well-designed trials in the field. We give some examples from the phantom limb pain (PLP) literature...
June 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Fabian Munoz, Christian Aurup, Elisa E Konofagou, Vincent P Ferrera
Purpose of review: The past decade has seen rapid growth in the application of focused ultrasound (FUS) as a tool for basic neuroscience research and potential treatment of brain disorders. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how FUS can alter brain activity, perception and behavior when applied to the central nervous system, either alone or in combination with circulating agents. Recent findings: Focused ultrasound in the central nervous system can directly excite or inhibit neuronal activity, as well as affect perception and behavior...
June 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Carlos A Sánchez-León, Claudia Ammann, Javier F Medina, Javier Márquez-Ruiz
Purpose of Review: Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a non-invasive stimulation technique used for modulating brain function in humans. To help tES reach its full therapeutic potential, it is necessary to address a number of critical gaps in our knowledge. Here, we review studies that have taken advantage of animal models to provide invaluable insight about the basic science behind tES. Recent Findings: Animal studies are playing a key role in elucidating the mechanisms implicated in tES, defining safety limits, validating computational models, inspiring new stimulation protocols, enhancing brain function and exploring new therapeutic applications...
June 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
John R Pfeiffer, Leon Mutesa, Monica Uddin
Purpose of Review: Traumatic stress has profound impacts on many domains of life, yet the mechanisms that confer risk for or resilience to the development of traumatic stress-related psychopathologies are still very much under investigation. The current review highlights recent developments in the field of traumatic stress epigenetics in humans. Recent Findings: Recent results reveal traumatic stress-related epigenetic dysregulation in neural, endocrine, and immune system genes and associated networks...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Danielle M Gerhard, Ronald S Duman
Purpose of Review: Ketamine produces rapid (within hours) antidepressant actions, even in patients considered treatment resistant, and even shows promise for suicidal ideation. Here, we review current research on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ketamine and other novel rapid-acting antidepressants, and briefly explore gender differences in the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. Recent Findings: Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, increases BDNF release and synaptic connectivity, opposing the deficits caused by chronic stress and depression...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Scott A Langenecker, Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Purpose of review: We set out to review the current state of science in neuroprediction, using biological measures of brain function, with task based fMRI to prospectively predict response to a variety of treatments. Recent findings: Task-based fMRI neuroprediction studies are balanced between whole brain and ROI specific analyses. The predominant tasks are emotion processing, with ROIs based upon amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, both within the salience and emotion network...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
John-Stuart Brittain, Hayriye Cagnan
Purpose of Review: This review aims to survey recent trends in electrical forms of neuromodulation, with a specific application to Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging trends are identified, highlighting synergies in state-of-the-art neuromodulation strategies, with directions for future improvements in stimulation efficacy suggested. Recent Findings: Deep brain stimulation remains the most common and effective form of electrical stimulation for the treatment of PD...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Magdalena Nowak, Catharina Zich, Charlotte J Stagg
Purpose of Review: An increase in oscillatory activity in the γ -frequency band (approximately 50-100 Hz) has long been noted during human movement. However, its functional role has been difficult to elucidate. The advent of novel techniques, particularly transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has dramatically increased our ability to study γ oscillations. Here, we review our current understanding of the role of γ oscillations in the human motor cortex, with reference to γ activity outside the motor system, and evidence from animal models...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Annegret Krause-Utz, Bernet Elzinga
Purpose of Review: In this article, we aim to give an overview over recent neuroimaging research on dissociation in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Stress-related dissociation is highly prevalent in BPD, while so far only little is known about its neural underpinnings. Recent Findings: Based on research in depersonalization and the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, it has been proposed that dissociation involves alterations in a cortico-limbic network...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Keri K Wong, Adrian Raine
Purpose of the Review: This review identifies the early developmental processes that contribute to schizotypy and suspiciousness in adolescence and adulthood. It includes the most recent literature on these phenomena in childhood. Recent Findings: The early developmental processes that affect schizotypy and paranoia in later life are complex. In contrast to existing studies of psychiatric patients and clinical/nonclinical adult populations, the study of schizotypy and suspiciousness in young children and adolescents is possible due to new child-appropriate dimensional assessments...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Alex Lau-Zhu, Emily A Holmes, Kate Porcheret
Purpose of the Review: Intrusive memories are those that spring to mind unbidden, e.g. sensory recollections of stressful/traumatic events. We review recent methods to monitor intrusions of a stressor (a trauma film) within the laboratory. Recent Findings: Recent studies suggest three main methodologies after viewing a trauma film by which to monitor intrusions in the laboratory: during post-film rest periods, after exposure to trigger cues, and while performing an ongoing task...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Thalia K Robakis, Linn Aasly, Katherine Ellie Williams, Claire Clark, Natalie Rasgon
Inflammation, the body's response to harmful external agents, has long been found to be associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between inflammation and depression is well established in the general population of people with depression, but is less so among perinatal women. Depression in the perinatal period is a common disorder, however available data do not indicate that there is a specific inflammatory picture associated with perinatal depression. We suggest that perinatal depression may be a heterogeneous construct, and that inflammation may be relevant to it in the context of other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy...
December 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Colleen A Hanlon, Tonisha Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Sarah Hamilton, William DeVries, Oliver Mithoefer, Christopher Austelle, Daniel H Lench, Brittany Correia, Melanie Canterberry, Joshua P Smith, Kathleen T Brady, Mark S George
Purpose of the Review: Cocaine dependence is a chronic and relapsing disorder which is particularly resistant to behavioral or pharmacologic treatment, and likely involves multiple dysfunctional frontal-striatal circuits. Through advances in preclinical research in the last decade, we now have an unprecedented understanding of the neural control of drug-taking behavior. In both rodent models and human clinical neuroimaging studies, it is apparent that medial frontal-striatal limbic circuits regulate drug cue-triggered behavior...
December 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Sarah H Baum, Ryan Stevenson
Purpose of Review: The integration of information across sensory modalities into unified percepts is a fundamental sensory process upon which a multitude of cognitive processes are based. We review the body of literature exploring aging-related changes in audiovisual integration published over the last five years. Specifically, we review the impact of changes in temporal processing, the influence of the effectiveness of sensory inputs, the role of working memory, and the newer studies of intra-individual variability during these processes...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Asante Kamkwalala, Paul Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As of the year 2016, an estimated 50% of the United States' HIV-Positive population is aged 50 years or older. Due to a combination of increased rates of infection in older adults, and successful anti-retroviral (ART) regimens allowing HIV-positive adults to survive for decades with the disease, we are now faced with a steadily graying HIV-positive population, with only limited knowledge of how the cognitive and physiological effects of aging intersect with those of chronic HIV-infection...
September 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Jennifer R Fanning, Sarah Keedy, Mitchell E Berman, Royce Lee, Emil F Coccaro
Purpose of review: Aggressive behavior has adaptive value in many natural environments; however, it places substantial burden and costs on human society. For this reason, there has long been interest in understanding the neurobiological basis of aggression. This interest, and the flourishing of neuroimaging research in general, has spurred the development of a large and growing scientific literature on the topic. As a result, a neural circuit model of aggressive behavior has emerged that implicates interconnected brain regions that are involved in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and cognitive control...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Gabriela Alarcón, Erika E Forbes
Purpose of Review: Prosocial behavior and depression are related constructs that both increase during adolescence and display gender-specific effects. The current review surveys literature examining the association between depressive symptoms and prosociality, measured with behavioral economic paradigms, across development and proposes a theoretical model explaining a mechanism through which adolescent girls have higher risk for depression than boys. Recent Findings: Relative to healthy controls, prosocial behavior is reduced in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) but may be increased in adolescents with MDD...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Royce Lee
Purpose of review: Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) has historically been neglected by science out of proportion to its prevalence or its association with negative clinical outcomes. This review provides an update on what is known about PPD regarding its prevalence, demographics, comorbidity, biological mechanism, risk factors, and relationship to psychotic disorders. Recent Findings: PPD has long been the subject of a rich and prescient theoretical literature which has provided a surprisingly coherent account of the psychological mechanism of non-delusional paranoia...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Jelena Radulovic
Purpose of Review: Psychological stress can impact memory systems in several different ways. In individuals with healthy defense and coping systems, stress results in the formation of negatively valenced memories whose ability to induce emotional and somatic distress subsides with time. Vulnerable individuals, however, go on to develop stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suffer from significant memory abnormalities. Whether expressed as intrusive trauma memories, partial amnesia, or dissociative amnesia, such abnormalities are thought to be the core source of patients' symptoms, which are often debilitating and implicate an entire socio-cognitive-affective spectrum...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Sarah K Fineberg, Dylan Stahl, Philip Corlett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"