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Current Oral Health Reports

Henry F Duncan, Yoshifumi Kobayashi, Emi Shimizu
Purpose of Review: To summarize current views on the role and therapeutic potential of growth factors (GFs) within endodontic cell homing. Recent Findings: Cell homing/revitalization techniques aim to regenerate dentin and pulp using endogenous cells. Clinically, revitalization has successfully created new vital tissue in necrotic permanent teeth with an open apex; however, there is no evidence of new odontoblasts, pulp tissue, or predictable extension in root length...
December 2018: Current Oral Health Reports
J L Ebersole, D A Dawson, P Emecen Huja, S Pandruvada, A Basu, L Nguyen, Y Zhang, O A Gonzalez
Purpose of the Review: Aging clearly impacts a wide array of systems, in particular the breadth of the immune system leading to immunosenescence, altered immunoactivation, and coincident inflammaging processes. The net result of these changes leads to increased susceptibility to infections, increased neoplastic occurrences, and elevated frequency of autoimmune diseases with aging. However, as the bacteria in the oral microbiome that contribute to the chronic infection of periodontitis is acquired earlier in life, the characteristics of the innate and adaptive immune systems to regulate these members of the autochthonous microbiota across the lifespan remains ill defined...
December 2018: Current Oral Health Reports
Howard H Yen, Panagiota G Stathopoulou
Purpose of review: CAD/CAM and 3D-printing are emerging manufacturing technologies in dentistry. In the field of alveolar ridge augmentation, graft customization utilizing these technologies can result in significant reduction of surgical time. A review of the literature on materials, techniques and applications of CAD/CAM and 3D-printing available for alveolar ridge augmentation was performed. Recent findings: CAD/CAM applications for milling of customized block grafts of allogeneic, xenogeneic, and alloplastic origins have been reported, and currently only limited products are commercially available...
June 2018: Current Oral Health Reports
A M Decker, L S Taichman, N J D'Silva, R S Taichman
Purpose of Review: Dental care is an essential component in the comprehensive treatment for the cancer patient. As such, a review of the literature was completed to determine the relationships between periodontal and dental care in the cancer patient and provide strategic suggestions. Recent Findings: Periodontal treatment must be personalized depending on the patient's current oral health status, systemic status, and progress in treatment. Oral mucositis, periodontal status, and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) remain periodontal concerns in the cancer patient...
March 2018: Current Oral Health Reports
Ana Angelova Volponi, Lucia K Zaugg, Vitor Neves, Yang Liu, Paul T Sharpe
Purpose of Review: Current dental treatments are based on conservative approaches, using inorganic materials and appliances.This report explores and discusses the newest achievements in the field of "regenerative dentistry," based on the concept of biological repair as an alternative to the current conservative approach. Recent Findings: The review covers and critically analyzes three main approaches of tooth repair: the re-mineralization of the enamel, the biological repair of dentin, and whole tooth engineering...
2018: Current Oral Health Reports
Igor Robert Blum, Mutlu Özcan
Purpose of Review: Defective dental restorations are amongst the most common encounters in general dental practice. Replacement of defective restorations is often costly and commonly results in the sacrifice of sound tooth structure, thereby compromising the vitality of the dental pulp, potentially resulting in the acceleration of the restoration cycle and premature loss of the restored tooth. With advances in adhesive dentistry, 'reparative dentistry' is becoming an important area of minimally invasive dentistry...
2018: Current Oral Health Reports
C M C Volgenant, J J de Soet
Purpose of Review: Recently, numerous scientific publications were published which shed new light on the possible risks of infection for dental healthcare workers and their patients. This review aimed to provide the latest insights in the relative risks of transmission of (pathogenic) micro-organisms in the dental office. Recent Findings: Of all different routes of micro-organism transmission during or immediately after dental treatment (via direct contact/via blood-blood contact/via dental unit water and aerosols), evidence of transmission is available...
2018: Current Oral Health Reports
Patrick Rijkschroeff, Bruno G Loos, Elena A Nicu
Purpose of Review: Oral health is maintained in a dynamic equilibrium between the host immunity and the oral microbiome. Oral polymorphonuclear neutrophils (oPMNs) are important innate immune cells in the oral cavity. Recent Findings: The oPMNs play a co-controlling part in the maintenance of oral equilibrium. In human saliva, the oPMNs integrity is preserved, and their function remains unaffected. In general, oPMNs are in a higher state of baseline activation compared to peripheral PMNs...
2018: Current Oral Health Reports
Eliseu A Münchow, Marco C Bottino
Purpose of review: To present an overview on the main agents (i.e., biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. Recent findings: According to studies retrieved for full text reading (2014-2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (i) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (ii) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (iii) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (iv) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol wet-bonding technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (v) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (vi) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physico-mechanical properties of the hybrid layer...
September 2017: Current Oral Health Reports
Robert P Allaker, Abish S Stephen
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to critically assess recent studies concerning the use of probiotics to control periodontal diseases, dental caries and halitosis (oral malodour). Recent Findings: Clinical studies have shown that probiotics when allied to conventional periodontal treatment can ameliorate microbial dysbiosis and produce significant improvement in clinical indicators of disease. However, this effect is often not maintained by the host after the end of probiotic use...
2017: Current Oral Health Reports
Lena Larsson
Purpose: The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the recent findings on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in periodontal disease, including disease susceptibility, progression, and as potential treatment options. Recent Findings: The findings on the influence of oral pathogens on epigenetic regulation of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines suggest an important role for epigenetics in the regulation of the host immune response...
2017: Current Oral Health Reports
I F Persoon, A R Özok
Purpose of Review: This review describes the recent findings from epidemiological studies on endodontic infections. The recent literature was screened for studies on the prevalence of primary apical periodontitis and posttreatment apical periodontitis in various populations. Recent Findings: Twenty-nine articles reporting data on the prevalence of primary or posttreatment apical periodontitis from all over the world were included. The prevalence of apical periodontitis varied between 7 and 86%, while that of posttreatment apical periodontitis varied between 10 and 62%...
2017: Current Oral Health Reports
P Mark Bartold, Angelo Mariotti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periodontal medicine recognizes a "bidirectional" interaction between periodontitis and systemic conditions. Unfortunately, the facile ability to publish a periodontal-systemic association, regardless of biologic plausibility or rigorous scientific scrutiny, continues without abate. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing number of periodontal-systemic associations corrupts the ability of dentists to distinguish which of the associations are spurious and which are valid...
2017: Current Oral Health Reports
Lewis Winning, Gerard J Linden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim was to assess recent evidence that diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity impact the progression of periodontitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic searches using Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were carried out for epidemiological studies on humans, published between 2014 and 2016. A small number of prospective studies and systematic reviews were identified that in general provide further support for the hypothesis that diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity can adversely affect the periodontal condition...
2017: Current Oral Health Reports
Elizabeth E Smith, Pamela C Yelick
Tooth loss is a significant health issue that affects the physiological and social aspects of everyday life. Missing teeth impair simple tasks of chewing and speaking, and can also contribute to reduced self-confidence. An emerging and exciting area of regenerative medicine based dental research focuses on the formation of bioengineered whole tooth replacement therapies that can provide both the function and sensory responsiveness of natural teeth. This area of research aims to enhance the quality of dental and oral health for those suffering from tooth loss...
December 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Josué Cuevas, Donald L Chi
Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in children and is caused by poor oral health behaviors. These behaviors include high-sugar diet, inadequate exposure to topical fluorides, and irregular use of professional dental care services. A number of behavioral intervention approaches have been used to modify health behaviors. One example is the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model, which has been widely used to reduce substance abuse in both adults and children. SBIRT is a promising behavior change approach that could similarly be used to address problematic oral health behaviors...
September 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Hope M Amm, Mary MacDougall
Several molecular pathways have been shown to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors. These neoplasms arise from the epithelial or mesenchymal cells of the dental apparatus in the jaw or oral mucosa. Next generation genomic sequencing has identified gene mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with many of these tumors. In this review, we focus on two of the most common odontogenic tumor subtypes: ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. We highlight gene expression and protein immunohistological findings and known genetic alterations in the hedgehog, BRAF/Ras/MAPK, epidermal growth factor receptor, Wnt and Akt signaling pathways relevant to these tumors...
June 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Rebecca C Hoesli, Jeffrey S Moyer
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been found to be an immunosuppressive malignancy, with many defects in the host immune system contributing to the progression of disease. A greater understanding of these defects has lead to the identification and investigation of new therapeutic strategies, targeting immune system dysfunction in an effort to improve the outcomes of this disease. This article provides a brief review of the knowledge regarding the immune defects present in head and neck cancer, as well as a review of the current therapeutic strategies being investigated for use...
June 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Benjamin Cross, Roberta C Faustoferri, Robert G Quivey
Extraordinary technological advances have greatly accelerated our ability to identify bacteria, at the species level, present in clinical samples taken from the human mouth. In addition, technologies are evolving such that the oral samples can be analyzed for their protein and metabolic products. As a result, pictures are the advent of personalized dental medicine is becoming closer to reality.
March 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
Hubertine Me Willems, Zhenbo Xu, Brian M Peters
Microbes rarely exist as single species planktonic forms as they have been commonly studied in the laboratory. Instead, the vast majority exists as part of complex polymicrobial biofilm communities attached to host and environmental surfaces. The oral cavity represents one of the most diverse and well-studied polymicrobial consortia. Despite a burgeoning field of mechanistic biofilm research within the past decades, our understanding of interactions that occur between microbial members within oral biofilms is still limited...
March 2016: Current Oral Health Reports
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