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Current Tropical Medicine Reports

Rie R Yotsu, Koichi Suzuki, Rachel E Simmonds, Roger Bedimo, Anthony Ablordey, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Richard Phillips, Kingsley Asiedu
Purpose of the Review: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing and disabling cutaneous disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans , one of the skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs). This article aims to review the current knowledge of this disease and challenges ahead. Recent Findings: Around 60,000 cases of BU have been reported from over 33 countries between 2002 and 2017. Encouraging findings for development of point-of-care tests for BU are being made, and its treatment is currently in the transition period from rifampicin plus streptomycin (injection) to all-oral regimen...
2018: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Tinashe A Tizifa, Alinune N Kabaghe, Robert S McCann, Henk van den Berg, Michele Van Vugt, Kamija S Phiri
Purpose of Review: Malaria remains a global burden contributing to morbidity and mortality especially in children under 5 years of age. Despite the progress achieved towards malaria burden reduction, achieving elimination in more countries remains a challenge. This article aims to review the prevention and control strategies for malaria, to assess their impact towards reducing the disease burden and to highlight the best practices observed. Recent Findings: Use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has resulted a decline in the incidence and prevalence of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Monica M Johnson, Kristy M Ainslie
Purpose of review: Burkholderia pseudomallei 's and Burkholderia mallei 's high rate of infectivity, limited treatment options, and potential use as biological warfare agents underscore the need for development of effective vaccines against these bacteria. Research efforts focused on vaccines against these bacteria are in pre-clinical stages, with no approved formulations currently on the market. Recent findings: Several live attenuated and subunit vaccine formulations have been evaluated in animal studies, with no reports of significant long term survival after lethal challenge...
September 2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Adam J Merritt, Timothy J J Inglis
Purpose of Review: Melioidosis epidemiology is susceptible to climate change through direct and indirect effects on human encounter with the causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei . This review describes the current depth of knowledge and recent advances in the understanding of this relationship and applies it to observations of melioidosis in Western Australia. Recent Findings: High maximum rainfall and dense cloud cover have been shown to predict environmental presence of B...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Marcelo Pérez Carvajal, Kaila A Fagerstrom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leptospirosis is a global spirochete causing chronic renal disease that is increasing in Costa Rica. This paper identifies the prevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in Costa Rica between the years of 2011-2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical cases of leptospirosis in Costa Rica demonstrated various symptoms: from asymptomatic diseases to severe cases of kidney and liver failure. A variety of diagnostic methods with varying specificities and sensitivities were employed...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Anna-Bella Failloux, Ali Bouattour, Chafika Faraj, Filiz Gunay, Nabil Haddad, Zoubir Harrat, Elizabeta Jancheska, Khalil Kanani, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Majlinda Kota, Igor Pajovic, Lusine Paronyan, Dusan Petric, Mhammed Sarih, Samir Sawalha, Taher Shaibi, Kurtesh Sherifi, Tatiana Sulesco, Enkelejda Velo, Lobna Gaayeb, Kathleen Victoir, Vincent Robert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses, viruses transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and fleas are a significant threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. The geographical distribution of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile (WN), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika has expanded over the last decades. Countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions are not spared. Outbreaks of WN are repeatedly reported in the Mediterranean basin...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Jennifer Jao, Lee Fairlie, David Griffith, Allison L Agwu
An unprecedented number of youth living with HIV (YLHIV) are aging into adolescence and young adulthood, increasing concerns about the possibility of these youth being lost in the transition from supported care (sometimes in pediatric settings) to more independent healthcare settings and perhaps furthering the emerging disparities in outcomes (e.g., higher nonadherence to treatment, increased morbidity and mortality). In resource-rich settings where there is likely greater recognition of adolescent cognitive and developmental challenges, transitioning YLHIV to adult healthcare has emerged as a major challenge...
December 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Angela M Arenas-Gamboa, Carlos A Rossetti, Sankar P Chaki, Daniel G Garcia-Gonzalez, Leslie G Adams, Thomas A Ficht
Purpose of Review: Brucellosis is a neglected, zoonotic disease of nearly worldwide distribution. Despite brucellosis being recognized as a reproductive disease in animals, it has been historically known as a flu-like illness in humans with little or no significant role in maternal or newborn health. This review focuses on what is currently known relative to the epidemiology of brucellosis in human pregnancy as well as new insights of placental immunology. Recent Findings: New evidence suggests that maternal infection poses a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes including increased risk for miscarriage during the first and second trimester of gestation, preterm delivery, and vertical transmission to the fetus...
December 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Carol A Gilchrist
The outcome of an Entamoeba histolytica infection is variable and the contribution of genetic diversity within E. histolytica to human disease is not fully understood. The information provided by the whole genome sequence of the E. histolytica reference laboratory strain (HM-1:IMSS) and thirteen additional laboratory strains have been made publically available. In this review theories on the source of the unexpected level of structural diversity found in E. histolytica will be discussed.
December 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Dana K Shaw, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Having emerged during the early part of the Cretaceous period, ticks are an ancient group of hematophagous ectoparasites with significant veterinary and public health importance worldwide. The success of their life strategy can be attributed, in part, to saliva. As we enter into a scientific era where the collection of massive data sets and structures for biological application is possible, we suggest that understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern the life cycle of ticks is within grasp. With this in mind, we discuss what is currently known regarding the manipulation of Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like (NLR) receptor signaling pathways by tick salivary proteins, and how these molecules impact pathogen transmission...
June 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Rinosh J Mani, Rebecca J Morton, Kenneth D Clinkenbeard
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the Northern Hemisphere caused by the gammabacterium Francisella tularensis. The most severe form of human tularemia occurs in the central USA and involves a rabbit enzootic cycle, ixodid tick vectors, and F. tularensis subspecies tularensis genotype A1. Enzootic tularemia is thought to have a spring-summer seasonality corresponding to the questing activity of its primary tick vectors. Domestic cats, another common incidental host, acquire the infection by preying on infected rabbits...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Stacey L Burgess, William A Petri
Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, is a significant cause of pediatric diarrhea in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The clinical outcome of an E. histolytica exposure varies enormously and can present as diarrhea, dysentery, or amebic liver abscess. Host and parasite factors likely contribute to the outcome of infection with the parasite, but do not explain the wide variation in presentation of disease. This suggests that other environmental factors affect disease. An emerging body of work suggests that the host intestinal bacterial microbiome may have a significant influence on the development and outcome of amebiasis...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Lisa D Brown, Kevin R Macaluso
Rickettsia felis is an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever. First described as a human pathogen from the USA in 1991, R. felis is now identified throughout the world and considered a common cause of fever in Africa. The cosmopolitan distribution of this pathogen is credited to the equally widespread occurrence of cat fleas ( Ctenocephalides felis ), the primary vector and reservoir of R. felis . Although R. felis is a relatively new member of the pathogenic Rickettsia , limited knowledge of basic R...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Claire L Jeffries, Thomas Walker
Arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes are a major cause of human disease worldwide. The absence of vaccines and effective vector control strategies has resulted in the need for novel mosquito control strategies. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has been proposed to form the basis for an effective mosquito biocontrol strategy. Resident strains of Wolbachia inhibit viral replication in Drosophila fruit flies and induce a reproductive phenotype known as cytoplasmic incompatibility that allows rapid invasion of insect populations...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Graciela Ostera, James Blum
This commentary discusses our current understanding about Strongyloides stercoralis prevalence rates in the United States (USA) in the context of healthcare delivery to immigrants from Latin America. A literature search reveals that while prevalence rates in Latin American countries are not well documented, the rates in Latin American immigrants living in the USA are even less well known. This limited understanding compounds the health challenge facing immigrants who already have limited access to the healthcare system...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Tavis L Mendez, Atasi De Chatterjee, Trevor Duarte, Joaquin De Leon, Leobarda Robles-Martinez, Siddhartha Das
Sphingolipids are sphingosine-based phospholipids, which are present in the plasma and endomembranes of many eukaryotic cells. These lipids are involved in various cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (also called "lipid rafts") contain a set of proteins and lipids, which take part in the signaling process in response to intra- or extracellular stimuli. Recent findings suggest that sphingolipids, especially glucosylceramide, play a critical role in inducing encystation and maintaining the cyst viability in Giardia...
September 1, 2015: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Hayley Sparks, Gayatri Nair, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, A Clinton White
Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly recognized as an important global health concern. While initially reported in immunocompromised such as AIDS patients, cryptosporidiosis has now been documented as a major cause of childhood diarrhea and an important factor in childhood malnutrition. Currently, nitazoxanide is the only proven anti-parasitic treatment for Cryptosporidium infections. However, it is not effective in severely immunocompromised patients and there is limited data in infants. Immune reconstitution or decreased immunosuppression is critical to therapy in AIDS and transplant patients...
September 2015: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Jacob G Ludington, Honorine D Ward
Cryptosporidium spp is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, particularly in malnourished children and untreated AIDS patients in developing countries in whom it can cause severe, chronic and debilitating disease. Unfortunately, there is no consistently effective drug for these vulnerable populations and no vaccine, partly due to a limited understanding of both the parasite and the host immune response. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the systemic and mucosal immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection, discuss the feasibility of developing a Cryptosporidium vaccine and evaluate recent advances in Cryptosporidium vaccine development strategies...
September 1, 2015: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Mahsa Abassi, David R Boulware, Joshua Rhein
Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis are promising and have been improving long-term survival. Point of care testing has made diagnosing cryptococcal meningitis rapid, practical, and affordable. Targeted screening and treatment programs for cryptococcal antigenemia are a cost effective method for reducing early mortality on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Optimal initial management with amphotericin and flucytosine improves survival against alternative therapies, although amphotericin is difficult to administer and flucytosine is not available in middle or low income countries, where cryptococcal meningitis is most prevalent...
June 1, 2015: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Nathan C Bahr, Spinello Antinori, L Joseph Wheat, George A Sarosi
In the United States, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many U.S. physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide...
June 1, 2015: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
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