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SAGE Open Medicine

Kaitlyn M Eck, Colleen L Delaney, Melissa D Olfert, Karla P Shelnutt, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
Objective: Obesity is a public health concern for children and adults and effective obesity prevention programming is needed urgently. The effectiveness of health-related messaging and interventions is influenced by the way content is framed. HomeStyles is an obesity prevention program, which aims to promote health through the frame of improved quality of life. Methods: Thus, focus groups were conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of school-aged children (ages 6-11) to identify key quality-of-life determinants as described by parents...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Boressa Adugna Horsa, Yohanes Ayele, Mohammed Biset Ayalew
Background: Critically ill patients with moderate-to-severe physiologically stressful event are at high risk of developing stress ulcers. The use of pharmacological prophylaxis significantly reduces the incidence of stress ulcer in high-risk patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the use of pharmacological prophylaxis for stress ulcer in the medical wards of University of Gondar Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Mekonnen Sisay, Dumessa Edessa, Yohanes Ayele, Mesay Getachew
Objectives: Despite the successes of treatment with antiretroviral therapy in reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients, long-term sustainability of the initial regimen has become challenging. Therefore, this study is aimed to address pattern of and reasons for change of antiretroviral therapy regimens among HIV/AIDS patients at Jugel Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to review medical records of 220 patients who had been on treatment and experienced regimen change at least once from September 2006 to August 2016...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Gashaw Garedew Woldeamanuel, Teshome Gensa Geta, Tesfaye Petros Mohammed, Mulualem Belachew Shuba, Temesgen Abera Bafa
Back ground: Maternal nutritional status influences the developmental environment of the fetus which consequently affects the birth weight of the newborn. However, the association between maternal nutritional factors and birth weight is complex and is not well characterized in Ethiopia. Objective: To assess the effect of maternal anthropometry and biochemical profile on birth weight of babies at Butajira Referral Hospital, Butajira, Ethiopia. Methods and materials: Laboratory-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 337 pregnant women at the hospital...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Francisco José Gondim Pitanga, Sheila Maria Alvim Matos, Maria da Conceição C Almeida, Ana Luísa Patrão, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Estela Ml Aquino
Objectives: To assess associations, both individually and in combination, between leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behavior, and cardiometabolic health. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 13,931 civil servants participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Leisure-time physical activity was analyzed using the leisure-time domain of the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire, while questions related to cumulative sitting time and leisure-based screen time on a weekday and on one day on the weekend were used to establish sedentary behavior...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Iiro Ilmari Salminen, Bernard J Crespi, Mikael Mokkonen
Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes are often referred to as a sister pair of neurodevelopmental disorders, resulting from different genetic and epigenetic alterations to the same chromosomal region, 15q11-q13. Some of the primary phenotypes of the two syndromes have been suggested to be opposite to one another, but this hypothesis has yet to be tested comprehensively, and it remains unclear how opposite effects could be produced by changes to different genes in one syndrome compared to the other. We evaluated the evidence for opposite effects on sleep and eating phenotypes in Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, and developed physiological-genetic models that represent hypothesized causes of these differences...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Leanne Kosowan, Pamela Wener, Maxine Holmqvist, Miriam Gonzalez, Gayle Halas, Janet Rothney, Alan Katz
Objectives: To present findings of a workshop with physical activity professionals in Manitoba, Canada, to facilitate the enhancement of physical activity promotion efforts by exploring (1) effective physical activity strategies, (2) methods to strengthen physical activity strategies, (3) challenges in implementing physical activity strategies in Manitoba, and (4) strategies to support collaboration. Methods: The Manitoba Research Chair in Primary Prevention hosted a workshop for 54 stakeholders in Manitoba...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Anna Ruergård, Christoph Spang, Håkan Alfredson
Background: Treatment with ultrasound and colour Doppler-guided minimally invasive Achilles tendon scraping and plantaris tendon removal has shown promising short-term results in patients with chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Methods: In a follow-up study, 182 consecutive patients (241 tendons) who had undergone Achilles tendon scraping and plantaris tendon removal were contacted on telephone by an independent investigator. The patients who answered the telephone call were included, and they answered a questionnaire on telephone and then also sent their written answers...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Susan J Gordon, Karen A Grimmer, Nicky Baker, Elaine Bell, John Coveney, Johanna H Jordaan, Christopher Lind, Tania Marin, Joanne Murray, Lynda H Norton, Lua Perimal-Lewis, Karen Sparrow, Margie A Steffens, Jolene Thomas, Michael Kidd
Objectives: There are no agreed comprehensive tests for age-related changes to physical, emotional, mental and social functioning. Research into declining function focuses on those 75 years and older and little is known about age-related changes in younger people. The aims of this project were (1) to ascertain a comprehensive test battery that could underpin community-based health screening programmes for people aged 40-75 years and pilot both (2) community-based recruitment and (3) the utility, acceptability, response burden and logistics...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Andrea L Murphy, Claire L O'Reilly, Randa Ataya, Steve P Doucette, Ruth Martin-Misener, Alan Rosen, David M Gardner
Background: There is limited information available regarding community pharmacists' stigma of suicide. Pharmacists regularly interact with people at risk of suicide and stigmatizing attitudes may impact care. Objective: To measure community pharmacists' stigma of suicide. Method: Pharmacists in Canada and Australia completed an online survey with the Stigma of Suicide Scale-Short Form. Data were analysed descriptively and with univariate and multivariate analyses...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Hüseyin Sancar Bozkurt, Eamonn Mm Quigley, Banu Kara
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. The pathogensesis of colorectal cancer involves a multi-step and multi-factorial process. Disruption of the gut microbiota has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases such as colorectal cancer. The genus Bifidobacterium is considered an important component of the commensal microbiota and plays important roles in several homeostatic functions: immune, neurohormonal, and metabolic. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Kamal Sharma, Andre Raszynski, Balagangadhar R Totapally
Introduction: Obesity is associated with poor health outcomes but may be protective in intensive care unit patients. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of underweight, normal weight, and obese children, and to compare their length of stay, resource utilization, and mortality. Methods: The charts of 1447 patients who were admitted to a tertiary-level pediatric intensive care unit during 1 calendar year were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: underweight (<5th percentile), normal (5th-95th percentiles), and obese (>95th percentile)...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Chia-Ming Yen
Background: This report describes a protocol for determining the barriers and requirements of family caregivers for people with dementia. The perspectives of healthcare professionals, family caregivers, and dementia patients will be collected and analyzed to construct a support model of requirements. Methods: An in-depth interview and care diary will be adopted during Phase I. Subsequently, the Delphi technique will be conducted to transform opinions from participants into a group consensus...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Gashaw Garedew Woldeamanuel, Teshome Gensa Geta
Background: Chronic consumption of khat affects many organ systems and leads to various health disturbances in the chewers. Few studies examined the acute effects of khat ingestion on lung function parameters. However, studies which assessed the long-term effects of khat chewing on pulmonary function parameters and oxygen saturation are lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chronic Khat chewing on pulmonary function parameters and oxygen saturation among chronic Khat chewers in Wolkite, Ethiopia...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Florence Tochukwu Sibeudu, Benjamin Sc Uzochukwu, Obinna E Onwujekwe
Objectives: The study determined the levels of geographic differences in the utilization of routine immunization between households in an urban and a rural community. It also identified and compared the determinants of utilization of routine immunization in the two geographic areas. Method: The study was undertaken in two randomly selected communities (one rural and one urban) in Anambra State, Nigeria. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on utilization of immunization services from households...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Fitsum Weldegebreal, Desalegn Admassu, Dereje Meaza, Mulatu Asfaw
Background: Outbreaks of healthcare-acquired infections have been linked to contaminated medical devices such as electronic thermometers, sphygmomanometers, stethoscopes, latex gloves, masks, neckties, white coats and other. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess non-critical healthcare tools as a potential source of healthcare-acquired bacterial infections and associated factors in public health hospitals of Harar, eastern Ethiopia from March 2016 to February 2017...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Renata F Dominguez, Valeria A da Costa-Hong, Luan Ferretti, Fabio Fernandes, Luiz A Bortolotto, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Brent M Egan, Heno F Lopes
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if carvedilol improved structural and functional changes in the left ventricle and reduced mortality in patients with hypertensive heart disease. Methods: Blood pressure, heart rate, echocardiographic parameters, and laboratory variables, were assessed pre and post treatment with carvedilol in 98 eligible patients. Results: Carvedilol at a median dose of 50 mg/day during the treatment period in hypertensive heart disease lowered blood pressure 10/10 mmHg, heart rate 10 beats/min, improved left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to follow-up (median: 6 years) (36%-47%)) and reduced left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions (62 vs 56 mm; 53 vs 42 mm, respectively, all p-values <0...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Åsa Dorell, Karin Sundin
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the topics relatives with a family member in a nursing home for older persons choose to talk about and focus on when participating in a nurse-led "Family Health Conversations" intervention. Family Health Conversations consisted of a series of three nurse-led conversations with each family, with a 2-week interval between meetings. Methods: The Family Health Conversations meetings were tape-recorded and analyzed using qualitative content methods...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Takuo Nomura, Tomoyasu Ishiguro, Masayoshi Ohira, Hiroyuki Oka, Yukio Ikeda
Objectives: To determine standard reference values for isometric knee extension force using a cohort of Japanese type 2 diabetic patients without diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods: Patient data were collected from the Multicenter Survey of the Isometric Lower Extremity Strength in Type 2 Diabetes study and compared with previously published data of healthy control subjects. In total, we enrolled 898 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30-87 years, who did not have diabetic polyneuropathy...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
Reina Kaneko, Shunsuke Ono
Background/objectives: The results of phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, which justify decisions regarding marketing approval for new drugs, are used for comparison of drugs in the post-marketing phase. A number of meta-analyses of approved antidiabetics have been performed, but the heterogeneity of trials has not been fully examined. The aim of this study was to explore factors that may influence baseline HbA1c in trial samples and treatment outcomes (i.e. HbA1c reductions and effect sizes), with the goal of providing unbiased and fair retrospective comparisons between different antidiabetics...
2019: SAGE Open Medicine
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