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Receptors & Clinical Investigation

Yiyong Liu, Jingru Sun
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of transmembrane proteins that perceive many extracellular signals and transduce them into cellular physiological responses. GPCRs regulate immunity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the mechanisms responsible for such regulation are not fully understood. Recent research using the genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has led to the identification of specific GPCRs, neurotransmitters, neurons and non-neural cells in the regulation of innate immunity...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Manuel Yepes
Despite the fact that ischemic stroke has been considered a leading cause of mortality in the world, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ischemic injury and the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients have led to a sharp decrease in the number of stroke deaths. However, this decrease in stroke mortality has also led to an increase in the number of patients that survive the acute ischemic injury with different degrees of disability. Unfortunately, to this date we do not have an effective therapeutic strategy to promote neurological recovery in these growing population of stroke survivors...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Alon Herschhorn, Joseph Sodroski
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate viral entry and are the sole target of neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies show that the metastable HIV-1 Env trimer can transit among three conformational states: State 1, State 3, and State 2, corresponding to the "closed", "open" and intermediate conformations, respectively. During virus entry, binding to the CD4 receptor drives Env from state 1 to state 3. In the unliganded Env, transitions from the closed (State 1) conformation are restrained by intramolecular interactions among different Env residues, which regulate HIV-1 Env conformation...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Raymond Kaempfer, Andrey Popugailo, Revital Levy, Gila Arad, Dalia Hillman, Ziv Rotfogel
Formation of the costimulatory axis between the B7-2 and CD28 coreceptors is critical for T-cell activation. Superantigens, Gram-positive bacterial virulence factors, cause toxic shock and sepsis by hyperinducing inflammatory cytokines. We report a novel role for costimulatory receptors CD28 and B7-2 as obligatory receptors for superantigens, rendering them therapeutic targets. We show that by engaging not only CD28 but also its coligand B7-2 directly, superantigens potently enhance the interaction between B7-2 and CD28, inducing thereby T-cell hyperactivation...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Sébastien S Dufresne, Antoine Boulanger-Piette, Sabrina Bossé, Jérôme Frenette
The bone remodeling and homeostasis are mainly controlled by the receptor-activator of nuclear factor kB (RANK), its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway. While there is a strong association between osteoporosis and skeletal muscle dysfunction, the functional relevance of a particular biological pathway that synchronously regulates bone and skeletal muscle physiopathology remains elusive. Our recent article published in the American Journal of Physiology (Cell Physiology) showed that RANK is also expressed in fully differentiated C2C12 myotubes and skeletal muscles...
May 30, 2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Lucia Mendoza-Viveros, Arthur H Cheng, Hai-Ying M Cheng
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that terminate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by phosphorylating the receptor and inducing its internalization. In addition to their canonical function, some GRKs can phosphorylate non-GPCR substrates and regulate GPCR signaling in a kinase-independent manner. GPCRs are abundantly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a structure in the mammalian brain that serves as the central circadian pacemaker...
February 1, 2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Anna Vilborg, Maria C Passarelli, Joan A Steitz
The calcium ion (Ca2+ ) is a key intracellular signaling molecule with far-reaching effects on many cellular processes. One of the most important such Ca2+ regulated processes is transcription. A body of literature describes the effect of Ca2+ signaling on transcription initiation as occurring mainly through activation of gene-specific transcription factors by Ca2+ -induced signaling cascades. However, the reach of Ca2+ extends far beyond the first step of transcription. In fact, Ca2+ can regulate all phases of transcription, with additional effects on transcription-associated events such as alternative splicing...
2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Xuhui Bao, Ira Pastan, Darell D Bigner, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor among all primary brain and central nervous system tumors. The median survival time for glioblastoma patients given the current standard of care treatment (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) is less than 15 months. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more efficient therapeutics to improve the poor survival rates of patients with glioblastoma. To address this need, we have developed a novel tumor-targeted immunotoxin (IT), D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL (D2C7-IT), by fusing the single chain variable fragment (scFv) from the D2C7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the Pseudomonas Exotoxin (PE38KDEL)...
2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Quanxi Li, Juanmahel Davila, Milan K Bagchi, Indrani C Bagchi
Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy...
2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Andrew J Bryant, Edward W Scott
Pulmonary hypertension complicating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, also known as secondary pulmonary hypertension, represents a major source of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. While the study of primary pulmonary arterial hypertension has yielded several therapies, the same is not true for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. Recent studies have indicated an important role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) - a regulatory protein that is vital in adaptation to hypoxic conditions - in the development of secondary pulmonary hypertension...
2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Nataliia V Shults, Dividutta Das, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Major vault protein (MVP) is the major component of the vault particle whose functions are not well understood. One proposed function of the vault is to serve as a mechanism of drug transport, which confers drug resistance in cancer cells. We show that MVP can be found in cardiac and smooth muscle. In human airway smooth muscle cells, knocking down MVP was found to cause cell death, suggesting that MVP serves as a cell survival factor. Further, our laboratory found that MVP is S-glutathionylated in response to ligand/receptor-mediated cell signaling...
2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Katherine Upchurch, SangKon Oh, HyeMee Joo
Dendritic cells (DCs) are major antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that can induce and control host immune responses. DCs express pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which can translate external and internal triggers into different types of T cell responses. The types of CD4(+) T cell responses elicited by DCs (e.g., Th1, Th2, Th17, Th21, Th22 and regulatory T cells (Tregs)) are associated with either host immunity or inflammatory diseases, including allergic diseases and autoimmune diseases. In particular, the pathogenic functions of Th2-type T cells in allergic immune disorders have been well documented, although Th2-type T cell responses are crucial for immunity against certain parasite infections...
January 1, 2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Jenna Ciesielski, Tsung-Ping Su, Shang-Yi Tsai
Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to tauopathy as a result of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) binding to its p25 activator instead of its p35 activator and becoming over-activated. The overactive complex stimulates the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, leading to neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and stunting axon growth and development. It is known that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, can be involved in axon growth by promoting neurite sprouting through nerve growth factor (NGF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)[1, 2] ...
2016: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Kai Yang, Qian Jiang, Ziyi Wang, Meichan Li, Qian Zhang, Wenju Lu, Jian Wang
Transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) is known for its crucial role in promoting the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Previous studies have indicated the in-depth mechanisms that Hif-1α increases the distal pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure and vascular remodeling by triggering the intracellular calcium homeostasis, especially the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) process. In our recent research paper published in the Journal of Molecular Medicine, we found that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation could attenuate the PH pathogenesis by suppressing the elevated distal PA pressure and vascular remodeling...
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Ivan H Chan, Victoria Wu, Scott McCauley, Elizabeth A Grimm, John B Mumm
Recent advances in immunoncology have dramatically changed the treatment options available to cancer patients. However, the fundamental challenges with this therapeutic modality are not new and still persist with the current wave of immunoncology compounds. These challenges are centered on the activation and expansion, induction of intratumoral infiltration and persistence of highly activated, cytotoxic, tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. We have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of action of pegylated recombinant interleukin-10, (PEG-rIL-10) both pre-clinically with murine (PEG-rMuIL-10) and now clinically (AM0010) with human pegylated interleukin-10...
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Nance Yuan, Kameron S Rezzadeh, Justine C Lee
Skeletal regenerative medicine emerged as a field of investigation to address large osseous deficiencies secondary to congenital, traumatic, and post-oncologic conditions. Although autologous bone grafts have been the gold standard for reconstruction of skeletal defects, donor site morbidity remains a significant limitation. To address these limitations, contemporary bone tissue engineering research aims to target delivery of osteogenic cells and growth factors in a defined three dimensional space using scaffolding material...
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Sandeep Artham, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Azza B El-Remessy, Susan C Fagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Yeon Sun Lee, Sara M Hall, Cyf Ramos-Colon, Michael Remesic, David Rankin, Todd W Vanderah, Frank Porreca, Josephine Lai, Victor J Hruby
Dynorphin A (Dyn A) is an endogenous opioid ligand that possesses neuroinhibitory (antinociceptive) effects via μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors. However, under chronic pain conditions, up-regulated spinal Dyn A can also interact with bradykinin receptors (BRs) to promote hyperalgesia through a neuroexcitatory(pronociceptive) effect. These excitatory effects cannot be blocked by an opioid antagonist, and thus are non-opioid in nature. On the basis of the structural dissimilarity between Dyn A and endogenous BR ligands, bradykinin(BK) and kallidin (KD), Dyn A's interaction with BRs could not be predicted, and provided an opportunity to identify a novel potential neuroexcitatory target...
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Jonathan H Shannahan, Wei Bai, Jared M Brown
Nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized in a variety of biomedical applications including drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutic targeting. These applications are made possible due to the unique physicochemical properties that are exhibited at the nanoscale. To ensure safe development of NMs for clinical use, it is necessary to understand their interactions with cells and specifically cell surface receptors, which will facilitate either their toxicity and/or clinical function. Recently our research and others have investigated the role of scavenger receptors in mediating NM-cell interactions and responses...
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
Kazunori Hamamura, Andy Chen, Hiroki Yokota
The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) is activated in response to various stresses such as viral infection, nutrient deprivation, and stress to the endoplasmic reticulum. Severe stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, for instance, induces an apoptotic pathway, while mild stress, on the contrary, leads to a pro-survival pathway. Little has been known about the elaborate role of eIF2α phosphorylation in the development of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts...
2015: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
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