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Molecular and Clinical Oncology

Jae Pil Hwang, Jiyoon Kim, Jung Mi Park
Multicentric Castleman's disease and Kaposi's sarcoma are more frequently observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients; however, 40-50% of the cases are HIV-negative. The present study reports the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with palpable masses in the axillary and right inguinal areas. The blood test results revealed increased serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level, with negative serological markers, including for HIV. The patient was investigated using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and fluorine- 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET)/CT; the images revealed multiple enlarged and intensely hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the cervical, thoracic and abdominopelvic areas...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Fang Liu, Benoît Sansas, Xavier Préville, Romain Gineste, Jialei Wang, Hui Yu, Xia Meng, Romain Micol, Luc Barraud
The treatment options for advanced (stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis remain disappointing. The development of immunotherapeutic drugs may represent a promising alternative approach to the treatment of late-stage cancer at diagnosis. These current paradigms in cancer treatment highlight the need for new biomarkers related to the immune status of the patients and/or the tumor microenvironment, for immune as well as chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of the present study was to analyze soluble immune factors in patients with lung cancer treated with chemotherapy to identify prognostic biomarkers...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Nobuki Furubayashi, Takahito Negishi, Tomoharu Uozumi, Dai Takamatsu, Koichi Shiraishi, Daisuke Hirose, Motonobu Nakamura
Nivolumab is a monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody blocking programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) that promotes the restoration of the natural T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells; however, it also causes a number of autoimmune-related adverse events (irAEs) that often involve the endocrine system. The present report describes a 71-year-old man with clear cell renal cell carcinoma metastasis in the lung. Following the 14th course of nivolumab therapy, the patient complained of general malaise, loss of appetite and mild consciousness disturbance...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Daniela Marta Rodrigues, Daniela Patrícia Cunha Machado, Sérgio André Campainha Fernandes, Ana Maria Paixão Barroso
Pulmonary cement embolism (PCE) is a recognized complication of balloon kyphoplasty, a vertebral augmentation technique that stabilizes vertebral compression fractures, alleviating associated pain. Balloon kyphoplasty is particularly relevant when patients with advanced stages of cancer present with longer survival times, and therefore benefit from such augmentation techniques to improve pain and prevent additional complications. The embolization of cement to pulmonary vasculature may be unnoticed given the frequent absence of symptoms and routine imaging tests following the procedure...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Eiseki Usami, Michio Kimura, Shoya Takenaka, Mina Iwai, Hitomi Teramachi, Tomoaki Yoshimura
Pomalidomide (POM) is a second-generation immunomodulatory agent with proven efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) proven to be refractory to previous treatment with lenalidomide (LEN) and bortezomib. We herein conducted a retrospective analysis of 14 RRMM patients receiving POM to determine its tolerability and safety in the clinical setting. The median age of the patients was 72 years (range, 58-84 years), and 85.7% of the patients were aged >70 years. The most frequent treatment dose was 3 mg/day...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Masatsune Shibutani, Kiyoshi Maeda, Hisashi Nagahara, Tatsunari Fukuoka, Shinji Matsutani, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
In clinical practice, the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is typically evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria, and an appropriate treatment plan is determined. In the case of progressive disease (PD), the components of the treatment are altered; however, PD, as defined by the RECIST criteria, includes various types of progression. While detailed consideration regarding the impact of the growth pattern of measurable target lesions on survival has been performed, the impact of the occurrence of new lesions on survival is unclear...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yukie Fujimoto, Hiromi Ozawa, Tomoko Higuchi, Yoshimasa Miyagawa, Ayako Bun, Michiko Imamura, Yasuo Miyoshi
Although the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a valuable prognostic factor for early breast cancer, the patient subgroups that may benefit the most from NLR analysis remain unknown. The present study analyzed the prognostic significance of NLR according to absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs). A total of 889 patients with operated early breast cancers were retrospectively recruited. Existing NLR and ALC baseline data from the time-period prior to operation or preoperative chemotherapy were collected. The cut-off value for NLR was set at 2...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Nobuhiro Nitori, Ayu Kato, Tomoaki Deguchi, Jumpei Nakadai, Ayako Tada, Makoto Takahashi, Rumiko Umeda, Naoteru Miyata, Mikinori Kataoka, Tomohisa Kadomura, Hajime Higuchi, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Atsushi Kato, Takashi Hatori, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Masaru Miyazaki
A 56-year-old man diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer underwent sigmoid colectomy. Nine months later, his serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level had increased, and the diagnosis of recurrent peritoneal dissemination was made based on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings. Although systemic chemotherapy comprising S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab was initiated, severe diarrhea occurred on day 4 of the second cycle despite reduction in S-1 dose. By changing the daily oral intake schedule for S-1 to an alternate-day intake from the third cycle (modified SOX plus bevacizumab), the patient was able to continue undergoing chemotherapy without any adverse gastrointestinal effects...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Maiko Niki, Aya Nakaya, Takayasu Kurata, Kahori Nakahama, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Toshihiko Kaneda, Kayoko Kibata, Makoto Ogata, Shosaku Nomura
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly changed lung cancer treatment and improved overall survival. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors may be associated with various adverse events, including encephalitis, although this complication is rare. We herein describe the clinical characteristics of a case of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced encephalitis and its management. A 51-year-old man with squamous non-small cell lung cancer was receiving pembrolizumab treatment when he suddenly displayed an altered level of consciousness...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Gonca Hanedan Uslu, Emine Canyilmaz, Lasif Serdar, Şafak Ersöz
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of melatonin and genistein in preventing radiation therapy (RT)-induced liver injury in mice. A total of 70 Swiss Albino male mice were divided into 7 equal groups (n=10/group) as follows: Melatonin (M group, G3), genistein (G group, G4), polyethylene glycol-400 (P group, G5), RT only (RT group, G2) and sham irradiation (C group, G1). RT plus genistein (RT+G group, G7) and RT plus melatonin (RT+M group, G6) were the co-treatment groups. Firstly, hepatic tissue damage was induced in mice via exposure to a single dose of 6-Gy irradiation...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yongqiang Fu, Fangming Guo, Haohao Chen, Yiping Lin, Xiaoyan Fu, Hui Zhang, Mingxing Ding
Core needle biopsy (CNB) may be used to diagnose early-stage breast cancer, but it may increase the risk of distant metastasis of tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of CNB on the distant metastasis of breast cancer. A total of 30 BALB/c mice were divided into two groups, namely biopsy and non-biopsy groups. The biopsy-related lung metastasis model (biopsy group) was established by the inoculation in the mammary fat pad of the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1 combined with CNB...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Xiaoyan Li, Dan Wu, Yuhui Zheng, Huanxing Yang, Yinghong Yang
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis may be used for the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma (SS), particularly of the poorly differentiated type. While the majority of the studies report that the SYT FISH probe is considered to be break-apart in SS, with two orange and two green signals, the SYT probe in the present case of a 52-year-old male patient with pulmonary SS displayed orange and green signal separation, along with SYT orange signal amplification...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Suguru Shirotake, Go Kaneko, Koji Nagata, Masafumi Oyama, Koshiro Nishimoto
The present case report describes a case of left renal clear cell carcinoma with brain, lung, para-aortic, and lymph node metastases (cT1bN1M1) in a 52-year-old Japanese male. The patient received sequential anticancer treatments with pazopanib, everolimus, and axitinib, but exhibited treatment-resistant tumor growth. Treatment with nivolumab resulted in a complete response in metastatic sites. However, the residual renal tumor, which was enhanced by contrast medium, required radical nephrectomy. Pathological analyses of the renal tumor revealed that it consisted of fibrotic and lymphocyte-infiltrated tissues in which morphological cancer cells were not detected...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Kohei Suzuki, Junkoh Yamamoto, Shingo Kakeda, Seishiro Takamatsu, Ryo Miyaoka, Takehiro Kitagawa, Takeshi Saito, Yoshiteru Nakano, Shigeru Nishizawa
Nilotinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is considered as one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); however, the use of nilotinib has been reported to be associated with vascular adverse events, such as peripheral arterial occlusive disease and ischemic heart disease. Moreover, there are few reports on cerebral vascular disease associated with nilotinib use. We herein describe the case of a 55-year-old male patient with CML, who presented with cerebral infarction and severe cerebrovascular stenosis that developed during nilotinib treatment...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Naotake Funamizu, Yukio Nakabayashi, Katsushi Dairaku, Kenta Tomori, Yuki Hiramoto, Kazunao Kurihara
Primary adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) arising from the ileum is an exceptionally rare malignant neoplasm exhibiting mixed glandular and squamous differentiation. The clinicopathological characteristics of ASCC have not been clearly determined due to its rarity. We herein report a case of a 74-year-old man with a successfully treated ASCC of the ileum. The patient visited a medical clinic due to abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography imaging revealed an intestinal tumor in the ileum. Prior to undergoing capsule endoscopy, the patient complained of severe abdominal pain due to intestinal obstruction from the patency capsule and the tumor...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Lena Zaubitzer, Nicole Rotter, Christoph Aderhold, Timo Gaiser, Frederic Jungbauer, Benedikt Kramer, Beatrice Kuhlin, Carsten Thorn, Anne Lammert
Lung cancer rarely metastasizes to the palatine tonsil. There have only been a few cases that have reported on palatine tonsillar metastases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In the majority of these cases the primary diagnosis is a small cell lung cancer. The present case report resents an unusual case of a 66-year-old woman with a multiple metastasized lung adenocarcinoma, which was finally detected by tonsillectomy. The present case report and review of the literature revealed the importance of complete and systematic tumor staging, including the examination of the oral cavity in case of lung cancer and that the evident tentative diagnosis is not always the right one...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Maroua Manai, Pascal Finetti, Nesrine Mejri, Salma Athimni, Daniel Birnbaum, François Bertucci, Khaled Rahal, Amor Gamoudi, Max Chaffanet, Mohamed Manai, Hamouda Boussen
To report epidemiological and anatomo-clinical features within a retrospective series of inflammatory breast cancer and to evaluate prognostic factors. This retrospective study included 210 Tunisian patients presenting a clinically diagnosed IBC, treated at the Institute Salah Azaiez (ISA) of Tunis, Tunisia, from 2008 to 2013. We collected data on epidemiology, anatomo-clinical and biological features and histologic response to neoadjuvant therapy. Overall and disease-free survivals were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank tests and Cox's models were used to identify prognostic factors impacting survival...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Bin Ke, Xiao-Fan Guo, Ning Li, Liang-Liang Wu, Bin Li, Ru-Peng Zhang, Han Liang
In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the Stathmin1 (STMN1) is overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC) and that its high expression level is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has also been shown to be critically involved in GC invasion and metastasis. Certain studies have indicated that STMN1 may serve an important role in the EMT process. However, the association between STMN1 expression and EMT-associated markers, as well as clinicopathological characteristics of patients with GC, remains unclear...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Francesca Sanguedolce, Davide Russo, Vito Mancini, Oscar Selvaggio, Beppe Calo, Giuseppe Carrieri, Luigi Cormio
Micropapillary carcinoma of the bladder (MPBC) is a variant type of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma, which portends a poor biological behavior in terms of disease stage at first diagnosis and clinical outcome; its peculiar morphology raises issues concerning the ability of tumor detection by imaging techniques and proper biopsy procedure, and the appropriate treatment for non-muscle infiltrating and muscle-infiltrating MPBC remains a matter of debate. On the basis of its established prognostic and therapeutic role in breast and gastro-esophageal cancer in the first instance, the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) has been investigated in selected case series of MPBC over the last 10 years...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Monika Kmetová Sivoňová, Peter Kaplán, Zuzana Tatarková, Lucia Lichardusová, Róbert Dušenka, Jana Jurečeková
Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) play a critical role not only in normal prostate development, but also in prostate cancer. For that reason, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the primary treatment for prostate cancer. However, the majority of patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer, which eventually leads to mortality. Novel therapeutic approaches, including dietary changes, have been explored. Soy isoflavones have become a focus of interest because of their positive health benefits on numerous diseases, particularly hormone-related cancers, including prostate and breast cancers...
February 2019: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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