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Journal of Developmental Biology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717314/the-forgotten-skeletogenic-condensations-a-comparison-of-early-skeletal-development-amongst-vertebrates
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer L Giffin, Danielle Gaitor, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
The development of a skeletogenic condensation is perhaps the most critical yet considerably overlooked stage of skeletogenesis. Described in this comprehensive review are the mechanisms that facilitate skeletogenic condensation formation, growth, and maintenance to allow for overt differentiation into a skeletal element. This review discusses the current knowledge of gene regulation and characterization of skeletogenic condensations in the chicken, mouse, zebrafish, and other developmental models. We limited our scope to condensations that give rise to the bones and cartilages of the vertebrate skeleton, with a particular focus on craniofacial and limb bud regions...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30650592/crosstalk-of-intercellular-signaling-pathways-in-the-generation-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-and-from-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Claude Brodski, Sandra Blaess, Juha Partanen, Nilima Prakash
Dopamine-synthesizing neurons located in the mammalian ventral midbrain are at the center stage of biomedical research due to their involvement in severe human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, most prominently Parkinson's Disease (PD). The induction of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons depends on two important signaling centers of the mammalian embryo: the ventral midline or floor plate (FP) of the neural tube, and the isthmic organizer (IsO) at the mid-/hindbrain boundary (MHB). Cells located within and close to the FP secrete sonic hedgehog (SHH), and members of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT1/5A), as well as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30586943/the-chromatin-remodeler-let-418-mi2-is-required-cell-non-autonomously-for-the-post-embryonic-development-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Makhabbat Saudenova, Chantal Wicky
Chromatin condition is crucial for the cells to respond to their environment. In C. elegans , post-embryonic development is accompanied by the exit of progenitor cells from quiescence in response to food. The chromatin protein LET-418/Mi2 is required for this transition in development indicating that proper chromatin structure in cells of the freshly hatched larvae is important to respond to food. However, the identity of the tissue or cells where LET-418/Mi2 is required, as well as the developmental signals that it is modulating have not been elucidated...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30558321/it-s-about-time-ossification-center-formation-in-c57bl-6-mice-from-e12%C3%A2-e16
#4
Kevin Flaherty, Joan T Richtsmeier
The establishment of precise, high-resolution temporal sequences for morphogenetic events in laboratory mice remains a vexing issue in developmental biology. Mouse embryos collected at the same period of gestation, even those from the same litter, show wide variation in individual levels of progress along their developmental trajectory. Therefore, age at harvest does not provide sufficient information about developmental progress to serve as the basis for forming samples for the study of rapidly or near-simultaneously occurring events such as the sequence of ossification center formation...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30544993/the-signaling-network-controlling-c-elegans-vulval-cell-fate-patterning
#5
REVIEW
Hanna Shin, David J Reiner
EGF, emitted by the Anchor Cell, patterns six equipotent C. elegans vulval precursor cells to assume a precise array of three cell fates with high fidelity. A group of core and modulatory signaling cascades forms a signaling network that demonstrates plasticity during the transition from naïve to terminally differentiated cells. In this review, we summarize the history of classical developmental manipulations and molecular genetics experiments that led to our understanding of the signals governing this process, and discuss principles of signal transduction and developmental biology that have emerged from these studies...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30513623/prenatal-neuropathologies-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability-the-gestation-of-a-comprehensive-zebrafish-model
#6
REVIEW
Robert A Kozol
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping diagnostic behaviors and risk factors. These include embryonic exposure to teratogens and mutations in genes that have important functions prenatally. Animal models, including rodents and zebrafish, have been essential in delineating mechanisms of neuropathology and identifying developmental critical periods, when those mechanisms are most sensitive to disruption. This review focuses on how the developmentally accessible zebrafish is contributing to our understanding of prenatal pathologies that set the stage for later ASD-ID behavioral deficits...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30477278/g-proteins-and-gpcrs-in-c-elegans-development-a-story-of-mutual-infidelity
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Matúš, Simone Prömel
Many vital processes during C. elegans development, especially the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in embryogenesis, are controlled by complex signaling pathways. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the four Frizzled family Wnt receptors, are linchpins in regulating and orchestrating several of these mechanisms. However, despite being GPCRs, which usually couple to G proteins, these receptors do not seem to activate classical heterotrimeric G protein-mediated signaling cascades. The view on signaling during embryogenesis is further complicated by the fact that heterotrimeric G proteins do play essential roles in cell polarity during embryogenesis, but their activity is modulated in a predominantly GPCR-independent manner via G protein regulators such as GEFs GAPs and GDIs...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30424580/kat2a-and-kat2b-acetyltransferase-activity-regulates-craniofacial-cartilage-and-bone-differentiation-in-zebrafish-and-mice
#8
Rwik Sen, Sofia A Pezoa, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Laura Hernandez-Lagunas, Lee A Niswander, Kristin Bruk Artinger
Cranial neural crest cells undergo cellular growth, patterning, and differentiation within the branchial arches to form cartilage and bone, resulting in a precise pattern of skeletal elements forming the craniofacial skeleton. However, it is unclear how cranial neural crest cells are regulated to give rise to the different shapes and sizes of the bone and cartilage. Epigenetic regulators are good candidates to be involved in this regulation, since they can exert both broad as well as precise control on pattern formation...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30360387/i-spy-in-the-developing-fly-a-multitude-of-ways-to-die
#9
REVIEW
Alla Yalonetskaya, Albert A Mondragon, Johnny Elguero, Kimberly McCall
Cell proliferation and cell death are two opposing, yet complementary fundamental processes in development. Cell proliferation provides new cells, while developmental programmed cell death adjusts cell numbers and refines structures as an organism grows. Apoptosis is the best-characterized form of programmed cell death; however, there are many other non-apoptotic forms of cell death that occur throughout development. Drosophila is an excellent model for studying these varied forms of cell death given the array of cellular, molecular, and genetic techniques available...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30347666/drosophila-as-a-model-for-developmental-biology-stem-cell-fate-decisions-in-the-developing-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Katherine Harding, Kristin White
Stem cells face a diversity of choices throughout their lives. At specific times, they may decide to initiate cell division, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis, or they may enter a quiescent non-proliferative state. Neural stem cells in the Drosophila central nervous system do all of these, at stereotypical times and anatomical positions during development. Distinct populations of neural stem cells offer a unique system to investigate the regulation of a particular stem cell behavior, while comparisons between populations can lead us to a broader understanding of stem cell identity...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30340315/the-role-of-apoptotic-signaling-in-axon-guidance
#11
REVIEW
Riley Kellermeyer, Leah M Heydman, Grant S Mastick, Thomas Kidd
Navigating growth cones are exposed to multiple signals simultaneously and have to integrate competing cues into a coherent navigational response. Integration of guidance cues is traditionally thought to occur at the level of cytoskeletal dynamics. Drosophila studies indicate that cells exhibit a low level of continuous caspase protease activation, and that axon guidance cues can activate or suppress caspase activity. We base a model for axon guidance on these observations. By analogy with other systems in which caspase signaling has non-apoptotic functions, we propose that caspase signaling can either reinforce repulsion or negate attraction in response to external guidance cues by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30261583/protein-kinase-a-signaling-inhibits-iridophore-differentiation-in-zebrafish
#12
Cynthia D Cooper, Steve D Erickson, Scott Yin, Trevor Moravec, Brian Peh, Kevin Curran
In zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), iridophores are specified from neural crest cells and represent a tractable system for examining mechanisms of cell fate and differentiation. Using this system, we have investigated the role of cAMP protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in pigment cell differentiation. Activation of PKA with the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin reduces the number of differentiated iridophores in wildtype larvae, with insignificant changes to melanophore number. Inhibition of PKA with H89 significantly increases iridophore number, supporting a specific role for PKA during iridophore development...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30134561/insights-into-the-etiology-of-mammalian-neural-tube-closure-defects-from-developmental-genetic-and-evolutionary-studies
#13
REVIEW
Diana M Juriloff, Muriel J Harris
The human neural tube defects (NTD), anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, originate from a failure of the embryonic neural tube to close. Human NTD are relatively common and both complex and heterogeneous in genetic origin, but the genetic variants and developmental mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we review the numerous studies, mainly in mice, of normal neural tube closure, the mechanisms of failure caused by specific gene mutations, and the evolution of the vertebrate cranial neural tube and its genetic processes, seeking insights into the etiology of human NTD...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30126171/-drosophila-as-a-model-for-assessing-the-function-of-rna-binding-proteins-during-neurogenesis-and-neurological-disease
#14
REVIEW
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Ethan G Wright
An outstanding question in developmental neurobiology is how RNA processing events contribute to the regulation of neurogenesis. RNA processing events are increasingly recognized as playing fundamental roles in regulating multiple developmental events during neurogenesis, from the asymmetric divisions of neural stem cells, to the generation of complex and diverse neurite morphologies. Indeed, both asymmetric cell division and neurite morphogenesis are often achieved by mechanisms that generate asymmetric protein distributions, including post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms such as the transport of translationally silent messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and local translation of mRNAs within neurites...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30049947/a-potential-role-for-mmps-during-the-formation-of-non-neurogenic-placodes
#15
REVIEW
Paige M Drake, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
The formation of non-neurogenic placodes is critical prior to the development of several epithelial derivatives (e.g., feathers, teeth, etc.) and their development frequently involves morphogenetic proteins (or morphogens). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, and recent research has shown that the extracellular matrix (ECM) can modulate morphogen diffusion and cell behaviors. This review summarizes the known roles of MMPs during the development of non-neurogenic structures that involve a placodal stage...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30037066/heart-development-coronary-vascularization-and-ventricular-maturation-in-a-giant-danio-devario-malabaricus
#16
Olubusola Shifatu, Sarah Glasshagel-Chilson, Hannah M Nelson, Purva Patel, Wendy Tomamichel, Clay Higginbotham, Paula K Evans, Gregory S Lafontant, Alan R Burns, Pascal J Lafontant
Giant danios (genus Devario ), like zebrafish, are teleosts belonging to the danioninae subfamily of cyprinids. Adult giant danios are used in a variety of investigations aimed at understanding cellular and physiological processes, including heart regeneration. Despite their importance, little is known about development and growth in giant danios, or their cardiac and coronary vessels development. To address this scarcity of knowledge, we performed a systematic study of a giant danio ( Devario malabaricus ), focusing on its cardiac development, from the segmentation period to ten months post-fertilization...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30029495/development-of-normal-and-cleft-palate-a-central-role-for-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-ccn2
#17
REVIEW
Joseph T Tarr, Alex G Lambi, James P Bradley, Mary F Barbe, Steven N Popoff
Development of the palate is the result of an organized series of events that require exquisite spatial and temporal regulation at the cellular level. There are a myriad of growth factors, receptors and signaling pathways that have been shown to play an important role in growth, elevation and/or fusion of the palatal shelves. Altered expression or activation of a number of these factors, receptors and signaling pathways have been shown to cause cleft palate in humans or mice with varying degrees of penetrance...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30011921/specification-and-patterning-of-drosophila-appendages
#18
REVIEW
Mireya Ruiz-Losada, David Blom-Dahl, Sergio Córdoba, Carlos Estella
Appendages are external projections of the body that serve the animal for locomotion, feeding, or environment exploration. The appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are derived from the imaginal discs, epithelial sac-like structures specified in the embryo that grow and pattern during larva development. In the last decades, genetic and developmental studies in the fruit fly have provided extensive knowledge regarding the mechanisms that direct the formation of the appendages. Importantly, many of the signaling pathways and patterning genes identified and characterized in Drosophila have similar functions during vertebrate appendage development...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29949945/forced-expression-of-foxg1-in-the-cortical-hem-leads-to-the-transformation-of-cajal-retzius-cells-into-dentate-granule-neurons
#19
Bin Liu, Hongmei Xiao, Chunjie Zhao
The Wnt- and BMP-rich cortical hem has been demonstrated to be critical for the pattern formation of the telencephalon, and it is particularly important for the induction of the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the cortical hem is one of the sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Many Cajal-Retzius cells are produced in the hem and populated to the media-caudal surface of the telencephalon. However, the mechanism of the maintenance of the hem remain unclear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line CAG-loxp-stop-loxp-Foxg1-IRES-EGFP ...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29933588/the-impact-of-two-different-cold-extruded-feeds-and-feeding-regimens-on-zebrafish-survival-growth-and-reproductive-performance
#20
Joana F Monteiro, Sandra Martins, Matheus Farias, Telma Costa, Ana Catarina Certal
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is one of the top model organisms used in biomedical research. Therefore, it is fundamental that zebrafish facilities continuously improve husbandry methods to provide fish with the best physiological and welfare conditions that suit each experimental purpose. Nutrition is a husbandry aspect that needs further optimization, as it greatly affects growth, reproduction, health and behaviour. Here, we have compared the impact of different feeding regimens on zebrafish survival, growth and reproductive performance...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
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