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International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction

Nada O F Kassem, Noura O Kassem, Sandy Liles, Sheila R Jackson, Alexander Ivan B Posis, Dale A Chatfield, Melbourne F Hovell
Background: Nicotine, an addictive drug, is present in all forms of tobacco products, including hookah tobacco, which is not yet regulated in the United States. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the uptake of nicotine in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at indoor hookah social events in natural settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. Patients and Methods: We quantified cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the urine of 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers...
March 2018: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri, Batool Sharifi-Mood, Hamid-Reza Kouhpayeh, Javad Moazen, Mohsen Farrokhian, Masoud Salehi
BACKGROUND: Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Ankur Sachdeva, Mina Chandra, Mona Choudhary, Prabhoo Dayal, Kuljeet Singh Anand
CONTEXT: Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms "alcohol and dementia", "alcohol and cognitive impairment", and "alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff" mentioned in the title of the published papers...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Abolghasem Yaghoobi, Serwa Mohammadzade, Ali Asghar Chegini, Mosaeib Yarmohammadi Vasel, Mohammad Reza Zoghi Paidar
BACKGROUND: The anonymity in the cyberspace environment, as well as the rapid advent of and improvements to online activities has increased cybercrime. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to survey the relationship between attachment styles, self-monitoring and cybercrime in social network users. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Collins and Read Adult Attachment Scale, and the Snyder self-monitoring and cybercrime scales were sent to 500 social network users...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Hossein Ansari, Mahdi Mohammadi, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei, Mohammadreza Pishevare-Mofrad, Mahmodreza Miri-Bonjar
BACKGROUND: Although smoking and drug use are the major causes of accidents and death of drivers, few studies have been conducted on the prevalence of smoking and its associated factors in this occupational group. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and its relationship with blood parameters among drivers in Zahedan city, Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 1836 inner and intercity drivers were investigated in 2013 in terms of smoking and drug use and blood parameters...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Yasan Kazemzadeh, Mostafa Shokoohi, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost
BACKGROUND: Since the direct questions usually underestimate the frequency of sensitive behaviors, indirect methods can be used to estimate the frequency of some risky behaviors such as illicit drug use, sexual behaviors especially where these behaviors are highly stigmatized. OBJECTIVES: In the current study, we indirectly estimated the prevalence of some risky behaviors among college students using two indirect methods: network scale-up (NSU) and crosswise model (CM)...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Farkhondeh Sharif, Zahra Molazem, Arash Mani
BACKGROUND: Research shows that parents have an immense influence over their children's behavior during adolescence. Adolescents who grow up with parents who are addicted to drugs and alcohol are more likely to turn to self-destructive behaviors such as suicide attempts. Because addiction in Iran is a primarily masculine phenomenon and in traditional Iranian culture, the father is responsible for family affairs and is recognized as the family provider, paternal addiction affects adolescent children...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Sathya Prakash, Rishab Gupta
BACKGROUND: No study from India has examined pathways to care in alcohol using population systematically. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to understand the pathways to care among alcohol-dependent individuals seeking help at a tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional, observational study. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with alcohol- dependence syndrome as per DSM-IV-TR were included in the study. Pathways to care were assessed using the world health organization encounter form...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Mina Zarei, Behnam Shariati, Reza Bidaki
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of foreign bodies has been previously reported in some patients with schizophrenia. This behavior may be a manifestation of delusional beliefs or a response to command hallucinations and can lead to severe complications. CASE PRESENTATION: This paper reports a patient with schizophrenia who, as a manifestation of his illness, ingested a metallic skewer to kill ademon inside his abdomen that he believed was controlling him. As a result, he developed an acute intestinal perforation and underwent surgery...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Behrouz Dolatshahi, Ali Farhoudian, Mozhgan Falahatdoost, Mahmoud Tavakoli, Ebrahim Rezaie Dogahe
BACKGROUND: Increased prevalent use of methamphetamine is a global public challenge. Information on drug use can be helpful in preventing high-risk behavior related to drug abuse. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the sexual function changes related to methamphetamine use in the male clients of public and private addiction treatment centers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this qualitative study, 45 men (35 methamphetamine users, 5 family members of the users, and 5 psychiatrists or physicians who were famous for treating or researching addiction) are involved...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Fateme Torkashvand, Hamid Najmeddin, Mohsen Rezaeian
BACKGROUND: Retention in treatment is a key factor to the success of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and considered an important measure in evaluation of treatment effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the retention rate and predictors of retention in MMT in Rafsanjan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a historical cohort study. A total of 1396 patients admitted between March 2011 and March 2012 in 16 MMT clinics (13 private and 3 state clinics) in Rafsanjan, entered the study and their retention rate was examined for one year...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Shirin Saravani, Tahereh Nosrat Zehi, Hamideh Kadeh, Sarvar Mir
BACKGROUND: Different factors can be responsible for the increased prevalence of dental caries and missing teeth in HIV-positive patients. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates dental health status and its relationship with social, behavioral, and medical factors in HIV-positive patients under the coverage of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in Southeast Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the dental health status of 119 HIV-positive patients was assessed in accordance with WHO indices and included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Leila Farhad Mollashahi, Marieh Honarmand, Alireza Nakhaee, Ghasem Mollashahi
BACKGROUND: Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. OBJECTIVES: In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Bita Dadpour, Arya Hedjazi, Hamideh Ghorbani, Hamid Khosrojerdi, Seyed Mohsen Vaziri, Haleh Malek Zadeh, Amir Habibi Tamijani
BACKGROUND: Iran has one of the lowest alcoholic beverage use rates in comparison with other countries, because it is legally forbidden and because of religious beliefs. Even so, unrecorded and noncommercial alcohol remains a considerable concern, which needs special attention. OBJECTIVES: In the current research, we have studied the general composition of noncommercial alcohol samples to identify potentially toxic components in the context of the city of Mashhad in IR Iran...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Mercedeh Samiei, Afsaneh Moradi, Roya Noori, Sepideh Aryanfard, Hassan Rafiey, Hooman Naranjiha
BACKGROUND: As the most populated Persian Gulf country, in Iran, engagement with drug injection and unsafe sex are the main routes of HIV transmission among some drug-dependent women. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored the barriers that a group of drug-dependent women reported in accessing and adhering to HIV services in drug use treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 Persian women at five outpatient drug treatment centers between January and December 2011...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Imaneh Abasi, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani
CONTEXT: Recent years have produced many articles about women's addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women's taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: "women and addiction", "women addiction and family", "addiction", "substance abuse" and "family"...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Ali Heidarianpour, Majid Vahidian Rezazadeh, Alireza Zamani
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction triggers the infliction of a variety of diseases. Various subjects have indicated that during the withdrawal syndrome period, the immune system is weakened. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the changes in serum levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) during the morphine withdrawal syndrome induced by 8 weeks of moderate exercise and their effects on the immune system function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats (220 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6): healthy control (HC), addicted control (AC), healthy trained (HT), and addicted trained (AT) groups...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Masoomeh Shirzaiy, Zahra Sarani, Sudabeh Bagheri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Hamid Khanipour, Mitra Hakim Shooshtari, Reza Bidaki
BACKGROUND: Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were: 1) to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2) to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Ensiyeh Norozi, Mohammad Reza Miri, Raheleh Soltani, Ahmad Ali Eslami, Ali Reza Harivandi, Reza Dastjerdi
BACKGROUND: Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. OBJECTIVES: In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The translation process followed Beaton et al...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
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