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Toxicology Research

Qian Xu, Lijun Fang, Bin Chen, Hong Zhang, Qianqian Wu, Hongbo Zhang, Aiqing Wang, Jian Tong, Shasha Tao, Hailin Tian
Radon is a naturally occurring radionuclide, which has a wide environmental distributed. It emits multiple high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha particles during radiative decay, and has been regarded as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Currently, residential radon exposure is considered as the second highest cause of lung cancer and the leading cause among nonsmokers. Radon exposure leads to genomic instability, which causes the accumulation of multiple genetic changes and leads to cancer development...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Chien-Wei Wu, Pei-Jung Lin, Jia-Shiuan Tsai, Chih-Ying Lin, Lih-Yuan Lin
Arsenic and its compounds are toxic environmental pollutants and known carcinogens. We investigated here the mechanism of arsenite-induced damage in renal cells. Treating human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) with sodium arsenite reduces cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The decline of cell viability is due to apoptotic death since arsenite treatment reduces Akt activity and the Bcl2 level but increases caspase 3 activity and the cytochrome c level. These effects can be reverted by the addition of an apoptosis inhibitor...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Ming Li, Shuo Wang, Xianjie Li, Ruirui Kou, Qiong Wang, Xujing Wang, Ning Zhao, Tao Zeng, Keqin Xie
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of diallyl sulfide (DAS), an organosulfur compound extracted from garlic, on drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury caused by acetaminophen (APAP) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) in mice. DAS (100, 200, or 400 μmol kg-1 ) was orally administered 1 hour before APAP or CCl4 intraperitoneal injection, and the serum and liver tissue were collected 24 hours after APAP or CCl4 exposure. The serum aminotransferase activities and liver histopathological examination showed that DAS exhibited obvious hepatoprotective effects against acute liver injury induced by APAP or CCl4 ...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Jie Yu, Yin Tang, Jie Xu
Objective : Cooking and heating with coal is the main source of household air pollution in acid rain-plagued areas of China and is a leading contributor to disease burden. In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of exposure to indoor fine particulate matter emission from coal combustion on the expression levels of inflammatory factors in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mice. Methods : Forty BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into four groups (control group, PM2.5 group, OVA group, and OVA + PM2.5 group; n = 10) and treated with ovalbumin (OVA) or PM2...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Ellen Ingre-Khans, Marlene Ågerstrand, Anna Beronius, Christina Rudén
Regulatory authorities rely on hazard and risk assessments performed under REACH for identifying chemicals of concern and to take action. Therefore, these assessments must be systematic and transparent. This study investigates how registrants evaluate and report data evaluations under REACH and the procedures established by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) to support these data evaluations. Data on the endpoint repeated dose toxicity were retrieved from the REACH registration database for 60 substances...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Lu Wang, Boyu Mao, Huixin He, Yu Shang, Yufang Zhong, Zhiqiang Yu, Yiting Yang, Hui Li, Jing An
Triclosan (TCS) is used as an antimicrobial agent and has been widely dispersed and detected in the environment and organisms including human samples. Methyl-triclosan (MTCS) is the predominant bacterial TCS metabolite. At present, the toxicological effects and mechanism of TCS and MTCS are still not fully understood. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of TCS and MTCS in HepG2 cells were investigated in terms of cell proliferation, comet assay, cell cycle, and apoptosis. In addition, the expressions of related proteins were detected with western blotting analysis...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
V Kalyanaraman, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj Naveen, N Mohana, R M Balaje, K R Navaneethakrishnan, B Brabu, S S Murugan, T S Kumaravel
An implantation study of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NP) combined with 28-day systemic toxicity and genotoxicity studies aligned to current regulatory standards was conducted. The results suggested that local tissue reactions caused by CeO2-NP was minimal (implantation irritation index of less than 3) and was better tolerated than most other implant materials tested in our laboratory. Furthermore, CeO2-NP showed virtually no systemic toxicity or in vivo micronucleus induction in bone marrow via implantation route...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Yuanyuan Xiao, Ming Zeng, Lirong Yin, Na Li, Fang Xiao
Previous evidence revealed significant elevated liver cancer mortality in the areas where water was contaminated with hexavalent chromium [Cr(vi)], which highlighted that we should pay more attention to Cr(vi)-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes. We found that Clusterin (CLU) was up-regulated in Cr(vi)-exposed L-02 hepatocytes, but the role CLU played in Cr(vi)-induced cytotoxicity has never been explored. In the present study, we demonstrate Cr(vi) targeted mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (MRCC I) activity and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, which caused mitochondrial damage that was characterized by the increase of permeability transition pore (PTP) open rate, the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Cytochrome C (Cyt C) from mitochondria to cytoplasm, which then induced cell viability loss and increased aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase (ALT) leakage...
January 1, 2019: Toxicology Research
Jyh-Cheng Chen, Chia-Hung Wu, Yi-Shuan Peng, Hao-Yu Zheng, Yuan-Cheng Lin, Peng-Fang Ma, Ting-Chuan Yen, Tzu-Ying Chen, Yun-Wei Lin
Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects that include anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein is an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair and is involved in regulating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation and viability. Erlotinib (TarcevaR ) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has demonstrated clinical activity in NSCLC cells...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Disi Bai, Qingzhao Li, Jianhui Wang, Junjian Zhao, Xuenan Deng, Lu Yuan, Ping Wu
Recently, interest in the potential applications of tin disulphide nanoflowers (SnS2 NFs) in the treatment of waste water and their antibacterial properties has increased. However, their effects on neurotoxicity, brain cognition and behavioural injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms of these effects have remained unknown. In the present study, we compared the neurotoxicity of SnS2 NFs (50 nm) administered intragastrically at different doses (5, 10, and 50 mg kg-1 ) in mice for 60 days. The results showed that the neurotoxicity of SnS2 NFs in mice is dose-dependent...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Tanwei Yuan, Hongbo Zhang, Bin Chen, Hong Zhang, Shasha Tao
High dose arsenic in drinking water (≥100 μg L-1 ) is known to induce lung cancer, but lung cancer risks at low to moderate arsenic levels and its dose-response relationship remains inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review of cohort and case-control studies that quantitatively reported the association between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and lung cancer risks by searching the PubMed database till June 14, 2018. Pooled relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer associated with full range (10 μg L-1 -1000 μg L-1 ) and low to moderate range (<100 μg L-1 ) of water arsenic concentrations were calculated using random-effects models...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Nelson Andrade, Cláudia Silva, Fátima Martel
The pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastrointestinal cancers and inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress levels. We aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert -butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on the uptake of 3 H-deoxy-d-glucose (3 H-DG) and 14 C-fructose by the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels and was not cytotoxic. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased uptake of both low (SGLT1-mediated) and high concentrations (SGLT1- and GLUT2-mediated) of 3 H-DG, but did not affect absorption of 14 C-fructose (GLUT2- and GLUT5-mediated)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Ronghua Li, Tingting Zhang, Mei Qin, Peng Yue, Ming Cai, Xuejun He, Hongqun Qiao
Ginkgo biloba (a herbal product) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Ginkgolide B is one of the important pharmacologically active components of Ginkgo biloba . Dimethylaminoethyl ginkgolide B (a novel ginkgolide B derivative) has been developed to overcome the poor water-solubility of natural drugs and to achieve higher bioavailability. This study investigated the potential effects of dimethylaminoethyl ginkgolide B on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits following maternal exposure on gestational day (GD) 6-15 and GD 6-18, respectively...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Yueli Yao, Xiaoru Chang, Dong Wang, Haitao Ma, Huiling Wang, Haojun Zhang, Chengyun Li, Junling Wang
The absence of the thyroid hormone (TH) could impair testicular function, but its mechanism is still rudimentary. This study aims to explore the roles of estrogen receptor (ER α, β) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways in apoptosis in testes of hypothyroidism rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), low-(L) and high-hypothyroidism (H) groups [1 mL per 100 g BW per day normal saline, 0...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Wenjun Qu, Dong Yuan, Lining Zhao, Wansong Zong, Rutao Liu
The wide range of applications of copper have caused widespread concern about its toxicity. However, few studies have reported the mechanism of the binding interaction between copper ions and digestive enzymes, which play an important role in physiological health and industrial production. In this study, the effects of copper ions on the conformation and activity of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), multiple spectral techniques, molecular simulation and enzyme activity assays...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Neha P Sangai, Chirag N Patel, Himanshu A Pandya
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor of xenobiotic type, mainly used for the production of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and non-polymer additives. Because of its wide usages in the environment, the toxic effects of BPA have proved to be harmful to human health. However, its effects on human haemoglobin remain unclear. The affinity between BPA and haemoglobin, as well as erythrocytes, is an important factor in understanding the mechanism of the toxicity of BPA. Flavonoids are strong antioxidants that prevent oxidative stress and Quercetin is a flavonoid found in numerous vegetables and fruits...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Bingqiong Yu, Long Ma, Jiancheng Jin, Fenglei Jiang, Gangcheng Zhou, Kun Yan, Yi Liu
Gold(i) complexes have been widely used as antibacterial and antitumor agents because of their excellent biological activities. However, there are few reports on the study of gold(i) complexes at the subcellular level. Herein, we investigated the toxicity of a gold(i) complex ( N , N '-disubstituted cyclic thiourea ligand) - AuTuCl - to isolated mitochondria via various methods. The results showed that AuTuCl induced mitochondrial swelling, elevated ROS generation and triggered collapse of the membrane potential, which indicated the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Xun Xiang, Tao Gao, Bo-Rui Zhang, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yi Liu
Quantum dots (QDs) are used in the bio-medical area because of their excellent optical properties. Their biomedical utilization has remained a serious biosecurity concern. Cytotoxicity experiments have shown that QD toxicity is connected to the properties of the QDs. In this paper, the toxicity of QDs was studied from the aspect of surface functional groups at the mitochondrial level. Three types of ligands, thioglycollic acid (TGA), mercaptoethylamine (MEA) and l-cysteine (l-Cys), which have similar structures but different functional groups were used to coat CdTe QDs...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
R L Smith, S C Mitchell
Unravelling the molecular basis of thalidomide embryotoxicity, which is remarkably species-specific, is challenging in view of its low toxicity in the mature animal. Employing data derived solely from proven sensitive primate species or susceptible strains of rabbit, the structure-activity relationship of over 50 compounds which are, arguably, congeners of thalidomide has been reviewed. The molecular requirement for 'thalidomide-type' teratogenicity was highly structure dependent. Both the phthalimide and glutarimide groups were essential for embryopathic activity, although minor substitutions in either or both rings could be tolerated without a loss of toxicity...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Xiaoqi Li, Rui An, Kun Liang, Xinhong Wang, Lisha You
Phototoxicity can cause toxic responses such as edemas and lesions, and is one of the severe adverse effects that largely limit the use of these phototoxic drugs. Some traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and their constituents have been reported to be phototoxic. However, to date, their phototoxicity information is still very limited, and lacks systemic investigation. This article presents the phototoxicity potential of various types of TCMs and their active components in an effort to provide valuable information for drug research and discovery to mitigate phototoxicity concerns...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
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