journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008021/if-engrams-are-the-answer-what-is-the-question
#1
REVIEW
Fionn M O'Sullivan, Tomás J Ryan
Engram labelling and manipulation methodologies are now a staple of contemporary neuroscientific practice, giving the impression that the physical basis of engrams has been discovered. Despite enormous progress, engrams have not been clearly identified, and it is unclear what they should look like. There is an epistemic bias in engram neuroscience toward characterizing biological changes while neglecting the development of theory. However, the tools of engram biology are exciting precisely because they are not just an incremental step forward in understanding the mechanisms of plasticity and learning but because they can be leveraged to inform theory on one of the fundamental mysteries in neuroscience-how and in what format the brain stores information...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008020/engram-studies-a-call-for-historical-philosophical-and-sociological-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Luca Chiapperino, Francesco Panese
In this chapter, we identify three distinct avenues of research on the philosophical, historical, and sociopolitical dimensions of engram research. First, we single out the need to refine philosophical understandings of memory within neuroscientific research on the engram. Specifically, we question the place of constructivist and preservationist philosophical claims on memory in the formulation of the engram concept and its operationalization in contemporary neuroscience research. Second, we delve into the received historiography of the engram claiming its disappearance after Richard Semon's (1859-1918) coinage of the concept...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008019/a-computational-framework-for-memory-engrams
#3
REVIEW
Chiara Gastaldi, Wulfram Gerstner
Memory engrams in mice brains are potentially related to groups of concept cells in human brains. A single concept cell in human hippocampus responds, for example, not only to different images of the same object or person but also to its name written down in characters. Importantly, a single mental concept (object or person) is represented by several concept cells and each concept cell can respond to more than one concept. Computational work shows how mental concepts can be embedded in recurrent artificial neural networks as memory engrams and how neurons that are shared between different engrams can lead to associations between concepts...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008018/understanding-others-distress-through-past-experiences-the-role-of-memory-engram-cells-in-observational-fear
#4
REVIEW
Takashi Kitamura, Kritika Ramesh, Joseph I Terranova
For individuals to survive and function in society, it is essential that they recognize, interact with, and learn from other conspecifics. Observational fear (OF) is the well-conserved empathic ability of individuals to understand the other's aversive situation. While it is widely known that factors such as prior similar aversive experience and social familiarity with the demonstrator facilitate OF, the neural circuit mechanisms that explicitly regulate experience-dependent OF (Exp OF) were unclear. In this review, we examine the neural circuit mechanisms that regulate OF, with an emphasis on rodent models, and then discuss emerging evidence for the role of fear memory engram cells in the regulation of Exp OF...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008017/what-can-hippocampal-engrams-tell-us-about-encoding-spatial-navigation
#5
REVIEW
Lorena Andreoli, Kazumasa Z Tanaka
The hippocampus is indispensable for episodic memories, but its particular role in the process is still unclear. This chapter briefly overviews past studies focusing on place cells and memory engrams, highlighting their potential roles in spatial navigation. Future work reconciling these two lines of studies would provide a comprehensive view of the specific contribution of the hippocampus and a better understanding of how memory engrams support memory.
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008016/adult-neurogenesis-context-encoding-and-pattern-separation-a-pathway-for-treating-overgeneralization
#6
REVIEW
Wei-Li Chang, Rene Hen
In mammals, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus is one of two brain regions (with the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb) that continues to generate new neurons throughout adulthood, a phenomenon known as adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) (Eriksson et al., Nat Med 4:1313-1317, 1998; García-Verdugo et al., J Neurobiol 36:234-248, 1998). The integration of these new neurons into the dentate gyrus (DG) has implications for memory encoding, with unique firing and wiring properties of immature neurons that affect how the hippocampal network encodes and stores attributes of memory...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008015/engrams-of-fear-memory-attenuation
#7
REVIEW
Johannes Gräff
Fear attenuation is an etiologically relevant process for animal survival, since once acquired information needs to be continuously updated in the face of changing environmental contingencies. Thus, when situations are encountered that were originally perceived as fearful but are no longer so, fear must be attenuated, otherwise, it risks becoming maladaptive. But what happens to the original memory trace of fear during fear attenuation? In this chapter, we review the studies that have started to approach this question from an engram perspective...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008014/synaptic-engram
#8
REVIEW
Hyunsu Jung, Daehee Han, Chaery Lee, Bong-Kiun Kaang
The concept of the engram refers to structural and/or physiological changes that underlie memory associations during learning. However, the precise biological basis of the engram remains elusive, with ongoing controversy regarding whether it resides at the cellular level or within the synaptic connections between activated cells. Here, we briefly review the studies investigating the cellular engram and the challenges they encounter. Subsequently, we delve into the biological basis of the engram within synaptic connections...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008013/unveiling-transcriptional-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-within-engram-cells-insights-into-memory-formation-and-stability
#9
REVIEW
Miguel Fuentes-Ramos, Ángel Barco
Memory traces for behavioral experiences, such as fear conditioning or taste aversion, are believed to be stored through biophysical and molecular changes in distributed neuronal ensembles across various brain regions. These ensembles are known as engrams, and the cells that constitute them are referred to as engram cells. Recent advancements in techniques for labeling and manipulating neural activity have facilitated the study of engram cells throughout different memory phases, including acquisition, allocation, long-term storage, retrieval, and erasure...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008012/all-iegs-are-not-created-equal-molecular-sorting-within-the-memory-engram
#10
REVIEW
Tushar D Yelhekar, Meizhen Meng, Joslyn Doupe, Yingxi Lin
When neurons are recruited to form the memory engram, they are driven to activate the expression of a series of immediate-early genes (IEGs). While these IEGs have been used relatively indiscriminately to identify the so-called engram neurons, recent research has demonstrated that different IEG ensembles can be physically and functionally distinct within the memory engram. This inherent heterogeneity of the memory engram is driven by the diversity in the functions and distributions of different IEGs. This process, which we call molecular sorting, is analogous to sorting the entire population of engram neurons into different sub-engrams molecularly defined by different IEGs...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008011/the-role-of-prefrontal-ensembles-in-memory-across-time-time-dependent-transformations-of-prefrontal-memory-ensembles
#11
REVIEW
Zachary Zeidler, Laura DeNardo
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in recalling recent and remote fearful memories. Modern neuroscience techniques, such as projection-specific circuit manipulation and activity-dependent labeling, have illuminated how mPFC memory ensembles are reorganized over time. This chapter discusses the implications of new findings for traditional theories of memory, such as the systems consolidation theory and theories of memory engrams. It also examines the specific contributions of mPFC subregions, like the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, in fear memory, highlighting how their distinct connections influence memory recall...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008010/hippocampal-engrams-and-contextual-memory
#12
REVIEW
Krithika Vasudevan, James E Hassell, Stephen Maren
Memories are not formed in a vacuum and often include rich details about the time and place in which events occur. Contextual stimuli promote the retrieval of events that have previously occurred in the encoding context and limit the retrieval of context-inappropriate information. Contexts that are associated with traumatic or harmful events both directly elicit fear and serve as reminders of aversive events associated with trauma. It has long been appreciated that the hippocampus is involved in contextual learning and memory and is central to contextual fear conditioning...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008009/memory-storage-in-distributed-engram-cell-ensembles
#13
REVIEW
Ying Zhang, Dheeraj S Roy
One of the most fascinating aspects of the brain is its ability to acquire new information from experience and retain it over time as memory. The search for physical correlates of memory, the memory engram, has been a longstanding priority in modern neurobiology. Advanced genetic approaches have led to the localization of engram cells in a few brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex. Additionally, engram cells exhibit learning-induced, persistent modifications and have at least two states, active and silent...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008008/engrams-from-behavior-to-brain-wide-networks
#14
REVIEW
Kaitlyn E Dorst, Steve Ramirez
Animals utilize a repertoire of behavioral responses during everyday experiences. During a potentially dangerous encounter, defensive actions such as "fight, flight, or freeze" are selected for survival. The successful use of behavior is determined by a series of real-time computations combining an animal's internal (i.e., body) and external (i.e., environment) state. Brain-wide neural pathways are engaged throughout this process to detect stimuli, integrate information, and command behavioral output. The hippocampus, in particular, plays a role in the encoding and storing of the episodic information surrounding these encounters as putative "engram" or experience-modified cellular ensembles...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/39008007/engrams-to-remember-a-conversation-between-johannes-gr%C3%A3-ff-and-steve-ramirez
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Johannes Gräff, Steve Ramirez
Johannes Gräff (JG): Steve, in preparation for this conversation, I pulled out the book "In search of memory" by Eric Kandel from my bookshelf. Obviously one big question is, given that this book was written more than 20 years ago: Are we there yet? Have we found memory?
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874735/depression-cancer-inflammation-and-endogenous-opioids-pathogenic-relationships-and-therapeutic-options
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer Hancock, Cristian Sirbu, Patrick L Kerr
Endogenous opioids and their associated receptors form a system that maintains survival by positively reinforcing behaviors that are vital to life. Cancer and cancer treatment side effects capitalize on this system pathogenically, leading to maladaptive biological responses (e.g., inflammation), as well as cognitive and emotional consequences, most notably depression. Psychologists who treat people with cancer frequently find depression to be a primary target for intervention. However, in people with cancer, the etiology of depression is unique and complex...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874734/endorphins-sexuality-and-reproduction
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marjan Khajehei
Beta-endorphin is secreted from the hypothalamus and pituitary in both mother and newborn. The placenta produces numerous pituitary hormones from the third month of pregnancy, one of which is βE. It has been suggested that βE has a role in the appetitive and precopulatory phase of sexual behavior in animals. An increase in endorphin levels during sexual activity in humans may contribute to attachment and bonding between partners, but contradictory reports in the literature question the association between sexuality and βE levels...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874733/the-role-of-endogenous-opioids-in-cardioprotection
#18
REVIEW
Cristina Sirbu
The opioid system involves opioid receptors (OPRs) and endogenous opioid peptides.This chapter will focus on the distribution of OPRs in the cardiovascular system, the expression pattern in the heart, the activation by opioid peptides, and the effects of OPRs activation with potential relevance in cardiovascular performance. In the heart, OPRs are co-expressed with beta adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) in the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, functionally cross-talk with β-Ars and modify catecholamine-induced effects...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874732/integration-of-endogenous-opioid-system-research-in-the-interprofessional-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-obesity-and-eating-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Marcela Rodriguez Flores, Sylvana Stephano Zuniga
This third and final chapter in our trilogy introduces the clinical distinctions and phenotypical similarities between obesity and eating disorders. Research elaborating on the shared neurobiological substrates for obesity and eating disorders is discussed. We present an interprofessional model of treatment for both disordered eating and for obesity. Additionally, this chapter establishes the translational importance of research connecting endogenous opioid activity with both obesity and eating disorders, with an emphasis on clinical interventions...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38874731/role-of-endogenous-opioids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-obesity-and-eating-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Sylvana Stephano Zuniga, Marcela Rodriguez Flores, Adriana Albu
This second chapter in our trilogy reviews and critically appraises the scientific evidence for the role of endogenous opioid system (EOS) activity in the onset and progression of both obesity and eating disorders. Defining features of normative eating and maladaptive eating behaviors are discussed as a foundation. We review the scientific literature pertaining to the predisposing risk factors and pathophysiology for obesity and eating disorders. Research targeting the association between obesity, disordered eating, and psychiatric comorbidities is reviewed...
2024: Advances in Neurobiology
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