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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604999/uncertainty-and-blocking-in-human-causal-learning
#1
Peter M Jones, Tara Zaksaite, Chris J Mitchell
The blocking phenomenon is one of the most enduring issues in the study of learning. Numerous explanations have been proposed, which fall into two main categories. An associative analysis states that, following A+/AX+ training, Cue A prevents an associative link from forming between X and the outcome. In contrast, an inferential explanation is that A+/AX+ training does not permit an inference that X causes the outcome. More specifically, the trials on which X is presented (AX+) are often argued to be uninformative with respect to the causal status of X because the outcome would have resulted on AX trials whether X was causal or not...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604998/operant-evaluative-conditioning
#2
Andreas B Eder, Anand Krishna, Pieter Van Dessel
Two experiments investigated an evaluative transfer from actions producing pleasant and unpleasant outcomes to novel stimuli that were assigned to those actions in a subsequent stimulus-response task. Results showed that a fictitious social group was liked more when this group was assigned to the action previously associated with pleasant outcomes relative to the other action. This evaluative transfer from operant contingencies was observed although the actions did not generate outcomes during the stimulus-action pairing...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604997/goal-directed-control-in-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#3
Tina Seabrooke, Lee Hogarth, C E R Edmunds, Chris J Mitchell
The current article concerns human outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT), where Pavlovian cues selectively invigorate instrumental responses that predict common rewarding outcomes. Several recent experiments have observed PIT effects that were insensitive to outcome devaluation manipulations, which has been taken as evidence of an automatic "associative" mechanism. Other similar studies observed PIT effects that were sensitive to devaluation, which suggests a more controlled, goal-directed process...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604996/biasing-performance-through-differential-payoff-in-a-temporal-bisection-task
#4
Renata Cambraia, Marco Vasconcelos, Jérémie Jozefowiez, Armando Machado
We investigated how differential payoffs affect temporal discrimination. In a temporal bisection task, pigeons learned to choose one key after a short sample and another key after a long sample. When presented with a range of intermediate samples they produced a Gaussian psychometric function characterized by a location (bias) parameter and a scale (sensitivity) parameter. When one key yielded more reinforcers than the other, the location parameter changed, with the pigeons biasing their choices toward the richer key...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604995/on-the-role-of-responses-in-pavlovian-acquisition
#5
Stefano Ghirlanda, Magnus Enquist
A defining feature of Pavlovian conditioning is that the unconditioned stimulus (US) is delivered whether or not the animal performs a conditioned response (CR). This has lead to the question: Does CR performance play any role in conditioning? Between the 1930s and 1970s, a consensus emerged that CR acquisition is driven by CS-US (CS, conditioned stimulus) experiences, and that CRs play a minimal role, if any. Here we revisit the question and present 2 new quantitative methods to evaluate whether CRs influence the course of learning...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604994/the-partial-reinforcement-extinction-effect-the-proportion-of-trials-reinforced-during-conditioning-predicts-the-number-of-trials-to-extinction
#6
C K Jonas Chan, Justin A Harris
Four experiments compared the extinction of responding to a continuously reinforced (CRf) conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus [CS]) consistently reinforced on every trial, with extinction of responding to a partially reinforced (PRf) CS that had been inconsistently reinforced. To equate the acquisition of responding between the two CSs, the average duration of the CRf CS was extended so that it scheduled the same overall rate of reinforcement per unit time as the PRf CS. Experiment 1 used a within-subjects design to compare the rates of extinction for a 10-s PRf CS reinforced on 33% of trials versus a 30-s CRf CS...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604993/conditioned-inhibition-historical-critiques-and-controversies-in-the-light-of-recent-advances
#7
Rodrigo Sosa, M Natali Ramírez
Conditioned inhibition is a Pavlovian learning phenomenon in which a stimulus that predicts the absence of an otherwise expected outcome comes to control an organism's responding. Such responding usually manifests as a tendency that opposes that of a stimulus that predicts the outcome, also known as a conditioned excitor. Some learning theorists have expressed concerns about the validity and usefulness of conditioned inhibition as a concept; claims that may have negatively affected the reputation of this research area...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604992/learned-biases-in-the-processing-of-outcomes-a-brief-review-of-the-outcome-predictability-effect
#8
Oren Griffiths, Evan Livesey, Anna Thorwart
Much empirical work and theoretical discussion in the associative learning literature has focused on when and how a cue changes in its associability. A series of new findings in human learning preparations (collectively referred to as the "outcome predictability" effect) appear to show that outcomes vary in their capacity to enter into novel associations as a product of their associative history. This effect is reminiscent of how cues change in associability as a consequence of their reinforcement history...
January 2019: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407067/short-term-memory-in-habituation-and-dishabituation-of-newborn-chicks-freezing-response
#9
Andrea Dissegna, Massimo Turatto, Cinzia Chiandetti
Cognitive models of habituation and dishabituation postulate that the latter is attributable to the perturbation of the model of the repeated stimulation stored in short-term memory (STM) by the occurrence of a new stimulus, called dishabituator. However, although both behavioral phenomena depend on STM, previous studies in Aplysia have found that dishabituation seems to require further steps of development of the STM system to emerge. Here, we addressed whether this is a universal condition for the appearance of the 2 forms of learning, namely whether dishabituation must necessarily follow habituation...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407066/reward-shifts-in-forced-choice-and-free-choice-autoshaping-with-rats
#10
Shannon E Conrad, Mauricio R Papini
Successive negative contrast (SNC) involves a disruption of behavior when the paired reward is unexpectedly reduced from a large to a small amount, relative to a control always receiving the small amount. Five experiments with rats explored SNC in the Pavlovian autoshaping procedure in which a retractable lever is paired with the delivery of food pellets. In Experiment 1, a 12-to-2 pellet downshift either early in training (after 3 sessions) or late in training (after 20 sessions) yielded no significant evidence of SNC either in terms of lever pressing or goal entries...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407065/log-versus-linear-timing-in-human-temporal-bisection-a-signal-detection-theory-study
#11
Jérémie Jozefowiez, Clément Gaudichon, Francis Mekkass, Armando Machado
Using signal detection theory, we investigated whether human participants represent time linearly or logarithmically in a bisection task. Participants saw a stimulus 1.0 to 1.5 s in duration, and then judged whether the stimulus duration was closer to 1.0 s or to 1.5 s, and how sure they were of their response. Whereas the mean of the subjective stimulus duration was a linear function of the objective stimulus duration, participants produced remarkably different psychophysical functions-linear for some participants, concave for others, and convex for still others...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407064/extinction-makes-acquisition-context-specific-in-conditioned-taste-aversion-regardless-of-the-context-where-acquisition-and-testing-take-place
#12
Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, Juan M Rosas, Javier Nieto
Retrieval of a flavor-illness association has been found to show contextual dependence when the association is learned after a nontarget flavor-illness association has been extinguished in what has been named as the extinction makes acquisition context-specific (EMACS) effect. Four experiments were designed to further explore the EMACS effect in conditioned taste aversion. Experiments 1 and 2 replicated the EMACS effect using rats that did not experience extinction, and rats that underwent extinction of a different flavor as controls...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407063/stimulus-control-of-actions-and-habits-a-role-for-reinforcer-predictability-and-attention-in-the-development-of-habitual-behavior
#13
Eric A Thrailkill, Sydney Trask, Pedro Vidal, José A Alcalá, Mark E Bouton
Goal-directed actions are instrumental behaviors whose performance depends on the organism's knowledge of the reinforcing outcome's value. In contrast, habits are instrumental behaviors that are insensitive to the outcome's current value. Although habits in everyday life are typically controlled by stimuli that occasion them, most research has studied habits using free-operant procedures in which no discrete stimuli are present to occasion the response. We therefore studied habit learning when rats were reinforced for lever pressing on a random-interval 30-s schedule in the presence of a discriminative stimulus (S) but not in its absence...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407062/the-nature-of-phenotypic-variation-in-pavlovian-conditioning
#14
Adela F Iliescu, Jeremy Hall, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Pavlovian conditioning procedures result in dramatic individual differences in the topography of learnt behaviors in rats: When the temporary insertion of a lever into an operant chamber is paired with food pellets, some rats (known as sign-trackers) predominantly interact with the lever, while others (known as goal-trackers) predominantly approach the food well. Two experiments examined the sensitivity of these two behaviors to changing reinforcement contingencies in groups of male and female rats exhibiting the different phenotypes (i...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30407061/brain-mechanisms-controlling-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#15
Joanna O Y Yau, Gavan P McNally
A key insight of associative learning theory is that learning depends on the actions of prediction error: a discrepancy between the actual and expected outcomes of a conditioning trial. This view of learning has inspired, and in turn been supported by, work in the neurosciences ranging from single unit recording and neuroimaging studies to pharmacological, chemogenetic, and optogenetic interventions. Here we review evidence describing how error-correcting learning rules are instantiated in the activity of distributed neural circuits controlling the effectiveness of unconditioned stimuli during Pavlovian fear conditioning...
October 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29975078/landmark-learning-cue-conflict-and-outbound-view-sequence-in-navigating-desert-ants
#16
Cody A Freas, Ken Cheng
Mobile animals need to reliably find goal locations and animal navigators acquire and use multiple cue sets within their environment designating direction and distance estimates of these locations. Foraging ants use multiple navigational tools including path integration and the learning of the landmark panorama. During landmark-based navigation, foragers first acquire the landmark cues around the nest through preforaging learning walks, and then learn non-nest site cues along their foraging routes. Here, we explore both foragers' ability to extrapolate views from around the nest to local displacement sites and landmark learning during the first foraging trips away from the nest area...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29985046/human-performance-on-random-interval-schedules
#17
Phil Reed, Demelza Smale, Dimitra Owens, Gary Freegard
Four experiments explored the factors controlling human responding on random interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement. All experiments identified 2 types of responding: "bout-initiation" and "within-bout" responding. Responding on RI schedules was related to the interval value rates, being higher on an RI-30s than on an RI-60s or RI-120s schedule, which impacted bout-initiation responding to the greater degree (Experiments 1 and 3). Experiment 2 found similar overall response rates on random ratio (RR) and random interval with a linear feedback loop (RI+) schedules, with both higher than on an RI schedule...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29985045/extinguishing-cue-controlled-reward-choice-effects-of-pavlovian-extinction-on-outcome-selective-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#18
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Alexis Porter, Chris J Mitchell
Outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) refers to the finding that presenting Pavlovian predictors of outcomes can enhance the vigor of instrumental responding for those same outcomes. Three experiments examined the sensitivity of outcome-selective PIT to Pavlovian (stimulus-outcome) extinction. In Experiment 1, participants first learnt to perform different instrumental responses to earn different outcomes. In a separate Pavlovian training phase, certain stimuli were established as Pavlovian signals of the different outcomes...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29985044/midsession-reversal-task-with-pigeons-parallel-processing-of-alternatives-explains-choices
#19
Aaron P Smith, Thomas R Zentall, Alex Kacelnik
Most models of choice assume a "tug of war" (ToW) between options present at the time of the choice, arguing that preferences are built on this process, and implying that adding options increases delay to act. In contrast, the sequential choice model (SCM) proposes that choices are driven by parallel expression of the mechanisms that control action in sequential encounters, without comparative deliberation at choice time. Only the SCM predicts choice preferences based on latencies to respond in single-option encounters...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29985043/an-associability-decay-model-of-paradoxical-choice
#20
Carter W Daniels, Federico Sanabria
Paradoxical choices in human and nonhuman animals represent substantial deviations from rational models of behavior; such deviations often demand models that incorporate multiple perspectives, including psychology, biology, and economics. The past couple of decades have seen an increased interest in the paradoxical choice of pigeons in 2-armed bandit tasks (2ABT) developed by Zentall and colleagues. In these 2ABTs, pigeons, but not rats, systematically choose an alternative that yields less reward over multiple trials but provides more information on events within a trial, over an alternative that yields more reward over trials but provides less information on events within a trial...
July 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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