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Frontiers in Chemistry

Evan F Haney, Suzana K Straus, Robert E W Hancock
Current research has demonstrated that small cationic amphipathic peptides have strong potential not only as antimicrobials, but also as antibiofilm agents, immune modulators, and anti-inflammatories. Although traditionally termed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) these additional roles have prompted a shift in terminology to use the broader term host defense peptides (HDPs) to capture the multi-functional nature of these molecules. In this review, we critically examined the role of AMPs and HDPs in infectious diseases and inflammation...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Maria Laura Ermini, Xue Chadtová Song, Tomáš Špringer, Jiří Homola
Nanoparticles functionalized with specific biological recognition molecules play a major role for sensor response enhancement in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors. The functionalization procedure of such nanoparticles is crucial, since it influences their interactions with the environment and determines their applicability to biomolecular detection in complex matrices. In this work we show how the ζ-potential (Zpot) of bio-functionalized gold spherical NPs (Bio-NPs) is related to the SPR sensor response enhancement of an immune-sandwich-assay for the detection of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a cancer marker for colorectal carcinomas...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Gustav Emilsson, Evelyn Röder, Bita Malekian, Kunli Xiong, John Manzi, Feng-Ching Tsai, Nam-Joon Cho, Marta Bally, Andreas Dahlin
Biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures are widely used in various applications and benefit from numerous operational advantages. One type of application where nanostructured sensors provide unique value in comparison with, for instance, conventional surface plasmon resonance, is investigations of the influence of nanoscale geometry on biomolecular binding events. In this study, we show that plasmonic "nanowells" conformally coated with a continuous lipid bilayer can be used to detect the preferential binding of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate protein (IRSp53) I-BAR domain to regions of negative surface curvature, i...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Hiroki Sakuta, Tadashi Fujimoto, Yusuke Yamana, Yusuke Hoda, Kanta Tsumoto, Kenichi Yoshikawa
To artificially construct a three-dimensional cell assembly, we investigated the availability of long-duration microdroplets that emerged near a critical point in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) with the hydrophilic binary polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and dextran (DEX), as host containers. We found that erythrocytes (horse red blood cells; RBCs) and NAMRU mouse mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG cells) were completely and spontaneously entrapped inside DEX-rich microdroplets. RBCs and NMuMG cells were located in the interior and at the periphery of the droplets at PEG/DEX = 5%:5%...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Xiaoxiong Cai, Qionghao Xu, Gaomei Tu, Yanghe Fu, Fumin Zhang, Weidong Zhu
The synthesis of heterogeneous cooperative catalysts in which two or more catalytically active components are spatially separated within a single material has generated considerable research efforts. The multiple functionalities of catalysts can significantly improve the efficiency of existing organic chemical transformations. Herein, we introduce ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles (NPs) on the surfaces of a metal-organic framework pre-encapsulated with polyoxometalate silicotungstic acid (SiW) UiO-66 (University of Oslo [UiO]) and prepared a 2...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Han Wang, Zihan Qiu, He Liu, Amarasooriya M D S Jayawardhana, Zhizhou Yue, Hala Daghlas, David J Bowers, Bansidhar Datta, Yao-Rong Zheng
A long-standing challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer is drug resistance to standard platinum-based chemotherapy. Recently, increasing attention has been drawn to the use of self-assembled metal-organic complexes as novel therapeutics for cancer treatment. However, high hydrophobicity that is often associated with these structures lowers their solubility and hinders their clinical translation. In this article, we present a proof-of-concept study of using nanoprecipitation to formulate the hydrophobic metal-organic cages and facilitate their use in treating chemoresistant ovarian cancer...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Siowwoon Ng, Hanna Sopha, Raul Zazpe, Zdenek Spotz, Vijay Bijalwan, Filip Dvorak, Ludek Hromadko, Jan Prikryl, Jan M Macak
The present work presents a strategy to stabilize amorphous anodic self-organized TiO2 nanotube layers against morphological changes and crystallization upon extensive water soaking. The growth of needle-like nanoparticles was observed on the outer and inner walls of amorphous nanotube layers after extensive water soakings, in line with the literature on water annealing. In contrary, when TiO2 nanotube layers uniformly coated by thin TiO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD) were soaked in water, the growth rates of needle-like nanoparticles were substantially reduced...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Xuan Zhang, Li Zhang, Wei-Wei Ma, Yong Zhou, Zhen-Ni Lu, Suying Xu
A benzothiazole-based near-infrared (NIR) ratiometric fluorescent probe ( HBT-Cys ) was developed for discriminating cysteine (Cys) from homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). The probe was designed by masking phenol group in the conjugated benzothiazole derivative with methacrylate group that could be selectively removed by Cys, and therefore an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence was switched on in the NIR region. In the absence of Cys, the probe exhibited a strong blue fluorescence emission at 431 nm, whereas a NIR fluorescence emission at 710 nm was significantly enhanced accompanied by a decrease of emission at 431 nm in the presence of Cys, allowing a ratiometric fluorescence detection of Cys...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Katharina Schulz, Christopher Pöhlmann, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Thomas Elßner
Phycotoxins and mycotoxins, such as paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, type A trichothecenes, and aflatoxins are among the most toxic low molecular weight toxins associated with human poisoning incidents through the consumption of naturally contaminated food. Therefore, there is an utmost need for rapid and sensitive on-site detection systems. Herein, an electrochemical biochip for fast detection of saxitoxin, T-2 toxin as well as aflatoxin M1 and their corresponding congeners, respectively, using a portable and fully automated detection platform (pBDi, portable BioDetector integrated) was developed...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Hui Liu, Caiqin Wang, Peixi Wang, Nan Liu, Qingfeng Du
Extremely stable and biocompatible 3D magnetically responsive photonic crystals (MRPCs) are successfully prepared in aqueous solution. Classic hydrothermal synthesis was applied for preparation of the Fe3 O4 @C core. Modified Stöber method was then employed for synthesis of the different size of Fe3 O4 @C@SiO2 . Unlike the traditional magnetic nanoparticles, the highly negative charged superparamagnetic nanospheres (SMNs), i.e., the double-shell structure Fe3 O4 @C@SiO2 are capable of rapidly self-assembling into 3D MRPCs with full visible and various colors that can be periodically and reversibly tuned under different kinds of external magnetic fields (EMFs) within 1 s...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Till Biskup
Organic photovoltaics (OPV) is a promising technology to account for the increasing demand for energy in form of electricity. Whereas the last decades have seen tremendous progress in the field witnessed by the steady increase in efficiency of OPV devices, we still lack proper understanding of fundamental aspects of light-energy conversion, demanding for systematic investigation on a fundamental level. A detailed understanding of the electronic structure of semiconducting polymers and their building blocks is essential to develop efficient materials for organic electronics...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Sarah L Griffin, Claire Wilson, Ross S Forgan
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-network structures built from metal ions or clusters and connecting organic ligands-are typically synthesized by solvothermal self-assembly. For transition metal based MOFs, structural predictability is facilitated by control over coordination geometries and linker connectivity under the principles of isoreticular synthesis. For rare earth (RE) MOFs, coordination behavior is dominated by steric and electronic factors, leading to unpredictable structures, and poor control over self-assembly...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Gergo Peter Szekeres, Janina Kneipp
The collection of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of proteins and other biomolecules in complex biological samples such as animal cells has been achieved with gold nanoparticles that are introduced to the sample. As a model for such a situation, SERS spectra were measured in protein solutions using gold nanoparticles in the absence of aggregating agents, allowing for the free formation of a protein corona. The SERS spectra indicate a varied interaction of the protein molecule with the gold nanoparticles, depending on protein concentration...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Ming Zhang, Kai Wang, Cai-Jun Zheng, De-Qi Wang, Yi-Zhong Shi, Hui Lin, Si-Lu Tao, Xing Li, Xiao-Hong Zhang
Exciplexes are ideal candidates as effective thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters. However, efficient orange and red TADF exciplexes have been reported seldomly, because their significant non-radiative (NR) decay of excited states lead to unavoidable energy loss. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to construct efficient red TADF exciplexes by introducing phosphor as one component. Due to the strong spin-orbit coupling of heavy metal (e.g., Ir, Pt, et al.) ion cores, the NR decays will be evidently decreased for both singlet and triplet excitons, reducing the undesired exciton waste...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Joana D Amaral, Dário Silva, Cecília M P Rodrigues, Susana Solá, Maria M M Santos
Brain tumor, as any type of cancer, is assumed to be sustained by a small subpopulation of stem-like cells with distinctive properties that allow them to survive conventional therapies and drive tumor recurrence. Thus, the identification of new molecules capable of controlling stemness properties may be key in developing effective therapeutic strategies for cancer by inducing stem-like cells differentiation. Spiropyrazoline oxindoles have previously been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulate p53 steady-state levels, while decreasing its main inhibitor MDM2 in the HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jennifer L Minnick, Doaa Domyati, Rachel Ammons, Laleh Tahsini
Over the last two decades, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-copper catalysts have received considerable attention in organic synthesis. Despite the popularity of copper complexes containing monodentate NHC ligands and recent development of poly(NHC) platforms, their application in C-C and C-heteroatom cross-coupling reactions has been limited. Recently, we reported an air-assisted Sonogashira-type cross-coupling catalyzed by well-defined cationic copper-pincer bis(NHC) complexes. Herein, we report the application of these complexes in Ullmann-type C-X (X = N, O) coupling of azoles and phenols with aryl halides in a relatively short reaction time...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Hock Eng Khoo, Azrina Azlan, Noor Atiqah Aizan Abd Kadir
This study aims to identify potential phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and other phytochemicals, as well as fatty acid profile and peptides in Canarium odontophyllum (CO) oil and oleoresin, extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. LC-ESI-MS was applied in separation and tentative identification of phytochemicals in CO oil and oleoresin. Based on the results, 11 common fatty acids and their isomers, monoglycerides, diglycerides, as well as other types of lipid, were tentatively identified in the CO oil and oleoresin...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Petra Granitzer, Klemens Rumpf, Peter Poelt, Michael Reissner
The aim of the presented work is to combine luminescent porous silicon (PSi) with a ferromagnetic metal (Ni) to modify on the one hand the photoluminescence by the presence of metal deposits and on the other hand to influence the optical properties by an external magnetic field. The optical properties are investigated especially with respect to the wavelength-shift of the photoluminescence due to the metal filling. With increasing metal deposits within PSi the photoluminescence peak is blue-shifted and furthermore an increase of the intensity is observed...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Suqing Zheng, Wenping Chang, Wenxin Xu, Yong Xu, Fu Lin
Artificial sweeteners (AS) can elicit the strong sweet sensation with the low or zero calorie, and are widely used to replace the nutritive sugar in the food and beverage industry. However, the safety issue of current AS is still controversial. Thus, it is imperative to develop more safe and potent AS. Due to the costly and laborious experimental-screening of AS, in-silico sweetener/sweetness prediction could provide a good avenue to identify the potential sweetener candidates before experiment. In this work, we curate the largest dataset of 530 sweeteners and 850 non-sweeteners, and collect the second largest dataset of 352 sweeteners with the relative sweetness (RS) from the literature...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Galina Nifontova, Fernanda Ramos-Gomes, Maria Baryshnikova, Frauke Alves, Igor Nabiev, Alyona Sukhanova
Imaging agents and drug carriers are commonly targeted toward cancer cell through functionalization with specific recognition molecules. Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals whose extraordinary brightness and photostability make them attractive for direct fluorescent labeling of biomolecules or optical encoding of the membranes and cells. Here, we analyse the cytotoxicity of QD-encoded microcapsules, validate an approach to the activation of the microcapsule's surface for further functionalization with monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the extracellular domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and already in clinical use for the treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
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