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Brain Tumor Research and Treatment

Yun Seong Cho, Hyang Joo Ryu, Se Hoon Kim, Seok Gu Kang
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that mainly arises from the medulla of the adrenal gland. Some PCCs become malignant and metastasize to other organs. For example, it typically involves skeletal system, liver, lung, and regional lymph nodes. However, only a few cases of PCC with brain metastasis have been reported worldwide. We report a case of metastatic brain tumor from PCC in South Korea in 2016. A 52-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness and motor aphasia. He had a medical history of PCC with multi-organ metastasis, previously underwent several operations, and was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Yun Hyeok Choi, Chan Young Choi, Chae Heuck Lee, Hae Won Koo, Sun Hee Chang
Meningioma is relatively common, benign, and extra-axial tumor accounting for about 20% of primary brain and spinal cord tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified these tumors into Grade I (benign), Grade II (atypical), and Grade III (anaplastic) meningioma. Grade I meningioma which is slowly growing tumor and have some rare subtypes. Among them, metaplastic subtype is defined as a tumor containing focal or widespread mesenchymal components including osseous, cartilaginous, lipomatous, myxoid or xanthomatous tissue, singly or in combinations...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Joo Hyun Kim, Sang Phil Park, Byung Gwan Moon, Deok Ryeong Kim
A 59-year-old patient with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma presented with decreased consciousness and left hemiparesis. A rim-enhanced mass lesion without diffusion restriction was observed in contrast-enhanced MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging. Based on these findings, metastatic brain tumor was suspected. However, brain abscess (BA) was diagnosed after multiple bacterial colonies were observed in aspiration biopsy. Initial conventional antibiotic treatment including vancomycin had failed, so linezolid was used as second-line therapy...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Hyun Seok Lee, Young Cho Koh, Hong Gee Roh, Hyung Kyu Park, Soo Yeon Kim
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare non-neoplastic bone lesion that involves mostly the long bones and vertebrae and may occur very rarely in the craniofacial bones. ABCs may occur as secondary bony pathologies in association with various benign and malignant bone tumors and with fibrous dysplasia (FD). FD is a common non-neoplastic bony pathology mostly affecting craniofacial bones. Secondary ABC occurring in craniofacial FD is extremely rare, with only approximately 20 cases reported in the literature to date...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Sung Min Cho, Hyok Rae Cho, Yong Seok Park, Hee Gyeong Chang
Extremely massive sellar xanthogranuloma (XG) are rare, and the surgical outcome and prognosis are not well known. XG remain unknown whether they are derived from Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) or craniopharyngiomas (CPs) following extensive inflammation and metaplasia, to the point that no epithelium is readily identifiable. These lesions usually tend to occur in younger patients (mean 28.3 years), have a smaller diameter, and remain primarily intrasellar region with infrequent calcification. This 36-year-old man presented our hospital with visual deterioration...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Gi Yong Yoon, Hyuk Jin Oh, Jae Sang Oh, Seok Mann Yoon, Hack Gun Bae
Gliosarcoma (GS), known as variant of glioblastoma multiforme, is aggressive and very rare primary central nervous system malignant neoplasm. They are usually located in the supratentorial area with possible direct dural invasion or only reactive dural thickening. However, in this case, GS was located in lateral side of left posterior cranial fossa. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 3 month history of continuous dizziness and gait disturbance without past medical history. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI demonstrated 5...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Behzad Aminzadeh, Mohammad Faraji Rad, Sirous Nekooei, Mahsa Nahidi, Ehsan Keykhosravi
Germinoma is the most common type of intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs). Pineal gland and suprasellar region are the most frequent sites of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Intracranial masses caused by Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) mimics features of CNS GCTs. LCH frequently involve spine and is the most common cause of vertebra plana in children. A 15-year-old boy presented with progressing symptoms of polydipsia, polyuria, general headache, nausea and severe back pain. Brain MRI showed brain tumor with simultaneous involvement of suprasellar region and pineal gland...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Seong Hyun Park, Ki Su Park, Jeong Hyun Hwang
We report a rare case of arachnoid granulations mimicking multiple osteolytic bone lesions. A 66-year-old woman was admitted to a local clinic for a regular checkup. Upon admission, brain CT showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the occipital bone. These needed to be differentiated from multiple osteolytic bone tumor. Subsequent brain MRI revealed that the osteolytic lesions were isointense to cerebrospinal fluid, hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and with subtle capsules around the osteolytic lesions that were visible after gadolinium injection...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Jun Hoe Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, Sung Hye Park, Young Hun Choi, Byung Kyu Cho, Seung Ki Kim
BACKGROUND: Recently, modern technology such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), neuro-navigation and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) have been actively adopted for the treatment of thalamic tumors. We evaluated surgical outcomes and efficacy of the aforementioned technologies for the treatment of pediatric thalamic tumors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from 37 children with thalamic tumors between 2004 and 2017. There were 44 operations (27 tumor resections, 17 biopsies)...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Hyojeong Kim, Eun Mi Lee
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is an uncommon, but devastating complication of advanced cancer and has no standard treatment. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with solid tumors who were diagnosed with LM. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2017, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with solid tumors who were diagnosed with LM. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were enrolled in this study...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Ji Hoon Jung, Byeong Cheol Ahn
Brain tumors represent a diverse spectrum of histology, biology, prognosis, and treatment options. Although MRI remains the gold standard for morphological tumor characterization, positron emission tomography (PET) can play a critical role in evaluating disease status. This article focuses on the use of PET with radiolabeled glucose and amino acid analogs to aid in the diagnosis of tumors and differentiate between recurrent tumors and radiation necrosis. The most widely used tracer is ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)...
October 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Je Hun Jang, Young San Ko, Eun Kyeong Hong, Ho Shin Gwak
Surgery, anticoagulation therapy, pregnancy, and hormone treatments, such as bromocriptine, are well-characterized precipitating factors for pituitary apoplexy. However, whether cytotoxic chemotherapy for systemic cancer could cause pituitary apoplexy has not been investigated. Here, we present a case of a 41-year-old woman who developed a severe headache with decreased visual acuity after intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy to treat metastatic breast cancer. Preoperative neuroimaging revealed pituitary adenoma with necrosis...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Jin Sang Kil, Kyung Hwa Lee, Ki Seong Eom, Tae Young Kim
Intermediate pilomyxoid tumors (IPTs) were defined by the presence of some features typical of pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) in combination with features that could be considered more consistent with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). PMA is rare in the cerebellum. And, IPT in the cerebellum is rarer than PMA. To our knowledge, only 2 reports have described IPT in the cerebellum. A 5-year-old boy had nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed a large, round, low-density tumor in the cerebellar vermis area. On enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the tumor showed inhomogeneous diffuse enhancement; the central portion showed homogenous enhancement, while the peripheral portion showed inhomogeneous enhancement...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Abdul Aziz Mohamed Yusoff, Fatin Najwa Zulfakhar, Siti Zulaikha Nashwa Mohd Khair, Wan Salihah Wan Abdullah, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Zamzuri Idris
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are major cellular sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which can induce mitochondrial DNA damage and lead to carcinogenesis. The mitochondrial 10398A>G alteration in NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) can severely impair complex I, a key component of ROS production in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Alteration in ND3 10398A>G has been reported to be linked with diverse neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. The aim of this study was to find out the association of mitochondrial ND3 10398A>G alteration in brain tumor of Malaysian patients...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
John P Sheppard, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, Joel S Beckett, Noriko Salamon, Isaac Yang
Head computed tomography (CT) is instrumental for managing patients of all ages. However, its low dose radiation may pose a low but non-zero risk of tumor induction in pediatric patients. Here, we present a systematic literature review on the estimated incidence of brain tumor induction from head CT exams performed on children and adolescents. MEDLINE was searched using an electronic protocol and bibliographic searches to identify articles related to CT, cancer, and epidemiology or risk assessment. Sixteen studies that predicted or measured head CT-related neoplasm incidence or mortality were identified and reviewed...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Kyeong O Go, Kwangho Lee, Won Heo, Young Seok Lee, Young Seop Park, Sung Kwon Kim, Jeong Hee Lee, Jin Myung Jung
BACKGROUND: Tumors with cysts often correlate with gliomas, metastatic tumors, or hemangioblastomas, which require differentiation. METHODS: Thirty-eight cases of cyst associated-meningioma based on preoperative radiologic studies and histologic confirmations were reviewed from November 1998 to July 2017. RESULTS: A total of 395 cases of meningioma were observed in the 20 years, and surgical treatment of intracranial meningioma was performed in 120 cases...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Jun Jin, Jin Deok Joo, Jung Ho Han, Hee Kyung Yang, Jeong Min Hwang, Yi Jun Kim, In Ah Kim, Chae Yong Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of our optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) case series in terms of preventing tumor growth and preserving vision in ONSM patients. METHODS: Between July 2003 and March 2015, 1,398 patients with intracranial meningioma were diagnosed at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Among them, only 13 patients (0.93%) were diagnosed with ONSM and enrolled in the present study. Tumor volume changes of ONSM patients and their visual acuity were evaluated before and after treatments...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Jiwook Lee, Sung Hyun Park, Young Zoon Kim
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to investigate the role of the Neurological Assessment of Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale in predicting the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma, and compare these results to predicted data of the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)/World Health Organization (WHO) performance status. Additionally, we examined other prognostic factors in glioblastoma patients. METHODS: The medical records of 76 patients with a new diagnosis of histologically ascertained glioblastoma in the period from January 2002 to December 2015 at the authors' institution were retrospectively reviewed...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Stephen Ahn, Young Joo Kim, Youn Soo Lee, Sin-Soo Jeun
A 33-year-old woman presented with tingling and paresthesia on left extremity for 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor was iso- and hypo-intensity on T1-weighted image, mixed iso- and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images and heterogeneously enhanced with rim enhancement. Neither arachnoid cleft nor dural tail was certain but mass was located extra-axially so meningioma was suspected. During operation, tumor wasn't attached to dura at all but arachnoid attachment was seen. Pathologically, clear cell type ependymoma was confirmed...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
Muhammad Sadiq, Iftikhar Ahmad, Jamila Shuja, Zubair Ahmad, Riyasat Ahmed, Khushnaseeb Ahmad
Astroblastoma is an uncommon glial tumor with predominant manifestation in the young age. Herein, we report a case of 18-year-old astroblastoma female patient who presented with history of two months headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated well circumscribed, intra-axial abnormal signal intensity lesion (size=5×4 cm2 ) in the right parieto-occipital region of the brain. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of the gross tumor, as confirmed by an early post-surgical MRI (i...
October 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
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