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Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice

Brian Sekayombya, David Nahamya, Laura Garabedian, Morries Seru, Birna Trap
Background: The National Drug Authority (NDA) inspects and certifies private and public sector pharmacies in Uganda using an indicator-based inspection tool that measures adherence to good pharmacy practices (GPP). 67 measures identify the situation in the domains of premises, dispensing quality, stores management, and operating requirements. Although the GPP measures are well-recognized and used internationally, little is known about their validity and reliability. The study aimed to assess validity, which measures agreement of GPP measures between a gold standard inspector and NDA inspector and inter-rater reliability (IRR), which measures agreement among NDA inspectors, of GPP measures...
2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Ieva Salmane Kulikovska, Elita Poplavska, Marija Ceha, Signe Mezinska
Background: To stimulate use of generic medicines a combination of supply and demand side mechanisms are employed in the Latvian reimbursement system. It is reported that patients have high out-of-pocket pharmaceutical spending and that they overpay by not choosing generic medicines. Patient preferences may be an important obstacle in implementing generic policy. Objective of this study was to assess awareness, opinions and experience of the Latvian population regarding use of generic medicines...
2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Samuel Afari-Asiedu, John Kinsman, Ellen Boamah-Kaali, Martha Ali Abdulai, Margaret Gyapong, Osman Sankoh, Marlies Hulscher, Kwaku Poku Asante, Heiman Wertheim
Background: In Ghana, there is extensive over-the-counter dispensing of antibiotics, resulting in high levels of inappropriate use, and an increase in antibiotic resistance. Regulations prevent Licenced Chemical Sellers (LCS, Over-the-Counter Medicine Sellers) from selling antibiotics other than Cotrimoxazole. In practice, however, these sellers sell a variety of antibiotics. This paper aims to provide insight into the differences between regulatory and community demands on the sale of antibiotics, and to explore how these differences in demand could be resolved to facilitate safe and appropriate use of antibiotics in rural Ghana...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Ellen F M 't Hoen, Tapiwanashe Kujinga, Pascale Boulet
High medicines prices increasingly pose challenges for universal access to treatments of communicable and non-communicable diseases. New essential medicines are often patent-protected which sustains high prices in many countries, including in low- and middle-income countries. To respond to the HIV/AIDS crisis of the late nineties and to increase access to antiretroviral treatment, certain flexibilities contained in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS flexibilities) have been clarified and in some respects strengthened at the global level...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Rena M Conti, Kevin H Nguyen, Meredith B Rosenthal
Background: In the United States (U.S.), large price increases for selected generic drugs have elicited public outrage. Recent legislative proposals aim to increase price transparency and identify outlier drug "price spikes." It is unknown how many and what types of products would be highlighted by such efforts. Methods: IQVIA Health Incorporated's National Sales Perspectives™ provided sales, use and price data for all generic prescription products (unique molecule-manufacturer-formulation combinations) sold in the U...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Yohanes Ayele, Mulu Mamu
Background: Pharmaceuticals are produced and consumed in increasing volume every year. Unfortunately, not all medications that go in to the hand of the consumers get consumed; large quantities remain unused or expire. The accumulation of medication at household and unsafe disposal of unwanted medicines could lead to inappropriate medicine sharing, accidental childhood poisonings and diversion of medicines to illicit use. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 695 residents in kebele(ward) 16 of Jinela woreda(district), Harar city from February 27-April 27...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Jaden Brandt, Brenna Shearer, Steven G Morgan
Background: Canadians have long been proud of their universal health insurance system, which publicly funds the cost of physician visits and hospitalizations at the point of care. Prescription drugs however, have been subject to a patchwork of public and private coverage which is frequently inefficient and creates access barriers to necessary medicine for many Canadians. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to understand the important economic, policy and political considerations regarding implementation of universal prescription drug access in Canada (pan-Canadian pharmacare)...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Daniela Moye-Holz, Rene Soria Saucedo, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Hans V Hogerzeil
Background: Cancer has become the third cause of death in Mexico. Treatment for cancer is often complex and lengthy. New and better medicines enter the market at high prices, which may limit access. Like most Latin American countries, Mexico has an essential cancer medicines list that includes innovative medicines. Their accessibility and use in the public sector remains unknown. Therefore, we describe the use, as a proxy of access, of innovative and essential cancer medicines in the public sector in Mexico, by insurance institution, and by five regions between 2010 to 2016...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Tigist Gashaw, Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu, Firehiwot Amare
Background: Rational prescribing remains an important component of rational drug use. The World Health Organization (WHO) standardized and validated core prescribing indicators for evaluating prescribing pattern of drugs. The prescribing practice has been shown to deviate from national and WHO guidelines in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was; therefore, to investigate the overall prescribing behavior of four governmental hospitals: Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital (HFSUH), Federal Harar Police Hospital (FHPH), Jugel Hospital (JH) and Southeast Command III Hospital (SECIIIH), Harar, eastern Ethiopia...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Martin Oteba, Anita Katharina Wagner, Morries Seru, Martha Embrey, Birna Trap
A strong pharmaceutical sector is a precondition for effective and efficient health care and financing systems, and thus for achieving the best possible health of a population. Supported by visionary, long-term donor funds, in conjunction with mutual trust, the USAID-funded Securing Ugandans Rights to Essential Medicines (SURE) and Uganda Health Supply Chain (UHSC) program engaged in a close, more than 10 year-long (in 2018) collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Uganda. Over time, the partnership implemented numerous multi-pronged comprehensive changes in the pharmaceutical sector and conducted research to document successes and failures...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Lita Araujo, Michael Montagne
Background: The United States-Peru Free Trade Agreement required changes in the Peruvian pharmaceutical legislation that resulted in the National Drug Policy (NDP) of 2009. This study evaluated the registration of brand and generic anti-infectives before and after the agreement and implementation of the NDP and assessed the availability of anti-infectives in community pharmacies located in Arequipa-Peru. Methods: Anti-infectives registration database, provided by DIGEMID (Peruvian Drug Regulatory Authority), was evaluated from January 2005 to August 2014...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Ademola Joshua Itiola, Kenneth Anene Agu
Background: The emergency response phase to HIV epidemic in Nigeria and other countries saw to the deployment of donors' resources with little consideration for country ownership (CO) and sustainability. The progress that has been made in the fight against the pandemic has however precipitated a paradigm shift towards CO and sustainability. With the decline in donors' funding, countries must continually evaluate their readiness to own and sustain their HIV response especially the supply chain system (SCS) and bridge any observed gaps...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Aniekan Ekpenyong, Arit Udoh, Eneyi Kpokiri, Ian Bates
Background: Pharmacists are critical for attaining the goal of universal health coverage and equitable access to essential health services, particularly in relation to access to medicines and medicines expertise. We describe an analysis of the pharmacy workforce in Nigeria from 2011 to 2016 in order to gain insight on capacity and to inform pharmacy workforce planning and policy development in the country. Method: The study was conducted using census data obtained from the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria (PCN) via a validated data collection tool...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Rohit Kumar Verma, Thomas Paraidathathu, Nur Akmar Taha, Wei Wen Chong
Background: Obesity is now widely regarded as a main contributor to poor health. Involvement of community pharmacists can be a valuable tool in obesity management. However, there is still a lack of data in Malaysia on the potential involvement of and opportunities for community pharmacists in providing weight management services. Thus, it is essential to investigate the perceptions of the general public on weight management services in the community pharmacy setting. To evaluate the general public's perceptions on weight management services by community pharmacists in terms of perceived availability, utilization and factors influencing acceptability of services...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Lynn Maria Weekes, Suzanne Blogg, Sharene Jackson, Kerren Hosking
The cost and potential harms of medicines and other health technologies are issues of concern for governments and third party payers of health care. Various means have been demonstrated to promote appropriate evidence-based use of these technologies as a way to reduce waste and unintended variation. Since 1998, Australia has had a national organisation responsible for large scale programs to address safe, effective and cost effective use of health technologies. This article reviews 20 years of experience for NPS MedicineWise (NPS)...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Rabia Hussain, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Furqan Hashmi, Maryam Farooqui
Background: Medication safety is a major public health concern and there are well established pharmacovigilance programmes in developed countries. However, there is scarcity of literature on the issue in low and middle income countries. In this context, the current study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hospital pharmacists towards medication safety and ADR reporting in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: A qualitative approach was used to conduct this study...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Hillel P Cohen
A bibliometric analysis provided by Hernandez-Vasquez et al. listed the institutions that have published most extensively in the field of biosimilars. Sandoz and Novartis International were considered as separate entities, but are both are divisions of the same parent company. When considered as a single entity for purposes of tracking publications, Sandoz-Novartis is among the leaders in the number of articles published about biosimilars.
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Birna Trap, Richard Musoke, Anthony Kirunda, Martin Olowo Oteba, Martha Embrey, Dennis Ross-Degnan
Background: In late 2010, Uganda introduced a supervision, performance assessment, and recognition strategy (SPARS) to improve staff capacity in medicines management in government and private not-for-profit health facilities. This paper assesses the impact of SPARS in health facilities during their first year of supervision. Methods: SPARS uses health workers trained as Medicines Management Supervisors (MMS) to supervise health facilities and address issues identified through indicatorbased performance assessment in five domains: stock management, storage management, ordering and reporting, prescribing quality, and dispensing quality...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
D Thambavita, P Galappatthy, R L Jayakody
Background: The regulatory requirements for approval of generic medicines and the format of compiling drug dossiers vary among regulatory authorities. The variation is particularly wide between High-income countries (HIC) and lower and middle-income countries (LMIC) with different regulatory frameworks. In this study, document requirements for approval of generic products, approval timelines, and consideration of bioequivalence and/or biowaiver data by Regulatory Authorities (RAs) of 10 selected jurisdictions was studied...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Ramesh Sharma Poudel, Shakti Shrestha, Santosh Thapa, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Muniraj Chhetri
Background: Appropriate labeling of marketed medicines is necessary to fulfill the regulatory provisions and ensure patient medication safety. This study aimed to assess the primary labeling of medicines manufactured and marketed by Nepalese pharmaceutical industries. Methods: We assessed the primary labeling of all medicines available at the pharmacy of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Chitwan, Nepal, between November 2017 to December 2017. Medicines were assessed as required by Drug Standard Regulation, 2043 (1986 AD) of Nepal...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
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