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Current Addiction Reports

Devin E Banks, Tamika C B Zapolski
Purpose of Review: The "crossover" effect, a phenomenon by which some minority groups switch from low to high risk for substance use as a function of age, was first documented 25 years ago. However, rigorous methodological research examining the crossover effect has only recently emerged. The current paper reviews the past 25 years of research on the crossover effect, which has primarily examined the shift from low to high substance use risk among Blacks relative to Whites. Recent Findings: Although findings regarding the crossover effect vary based on gender, socioeconomic status, and substance, Blacks and Hispanics appear to be at lower risk for some substance use- particularly binge drinking and cigarette smoking-than Whites during adolescence and early adulthood, but at higher risk for use in later life...
September 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Aliya M Lucatch, Alexandria S Coles, Kevin P Hill, Tony P George
Purpose of review: The present review will provide an overview of the neurobiology, epidemiology, clinical impact, and treatment of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in mood disorders. Recent findings: Patients with mood disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have higher rates of cannabis use, and CUD compared to the general population. Reasons for this association are not clear, nor are the putative therapeutic effects of cannabis use, or its components delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in these illnesses...
September 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Miriam E Bocarsly
Purpose of review: Obesity in the United States has been on a constant rise since the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began tracking it over 50 years ago. Despite focused attention on this epidemic, pharmacological treatments aimed at obesity are lacking. Here, we briefly give perspective on the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying feeding behaviors and describe the existing pharmacological treatments for obesity. With this lens, I suggest future targets for the treatment of obesity...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
John F Kelly, Brandon G Bergman, Nilofar Fallah-Sohy
Purpose of review: Empirical evidence indicates that, in general, treatments which systematically engage adults with freely available twelve-step mutual-help organizations (TSMHOs), such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) often enhance treatment outcomes while reducing health care costs. Also evident is that TSMHOs facilitate recovery through mechanisms similar to those mobilized by professional interventions, such as increased abstinence self-efficacy and motivation, as well changing social networks...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Jeremy D Kidd, Kasey B Jackman, Margaret Wolff, Cindy B Veldhuis, Tonda L Hughes
Purpose of Review: Alcohol and drug use are common among youth. Rates are especially high among sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender). We conducted a scoping review of research on risk and protective factors for substance use among SGMY published between 2013-2017. Recent Findings: Ninety-seven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most focused on individual-level minority stress risk factors, particularly stigma. Fewer studies addressed protective factors such as social support or affirming policies, and few focused on gender minority youth (GMY)...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Kristina M Jackson, Tim Janssen, Joy Gabrielli
Purpose of review: We describe the state of research on substance use portrayals in marketing and media, considering exposure to tobacco, alcohol, e-cigarette, and marijuana content. Putative mechanisms are offered, and recommendations made for effective prevention strategies for mitigating the influence of these portrayals. Recent findings: There is consistent evidence that adolescents and young adults are highly exposed to substance use portrayals and that these portrayals are associated with subsequent substance use...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Alexander S Perlmutter, Myrela Bauman, Shivani Mantha, Luis E Segura, Lilian Ghandour, Silvia S Martins
Purpose of review: This paper reviews the most recent epidemiological evidence on adolescent NMPD use. Particular attention is given to prevention, assessment and diagnosis of disorder, and treatment. Recent findings: While international in scope, global evidence is only available for NMPD use, morbidity and mortality estimates. Prevention strategies, assessment and treatment are U.S.-centric. The literature on prevention strategies lacks high-quality evidence. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment of NMPD use disorder have more robust evidence bases...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Stephanie Carreiro, Peter R Chai, Jennifer Carey, Jeffrey Lai, David Smelson, Edward W Boyer
Purpose of review: The goal of this review is to highlight recent research in mHealth based approaches to the detection and treatment of substance use disorders in adolescents and young adults. Recent findings: The main methods for mHealth based detection include mobile phone based self-report tools, GPS tracking, and wearable sensors. Wearables can be used to detect physiologic changes (e.g., heart rate, electrodermal activity) or biochemical contents of analytes (i...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Fiona Beyer, Ellen Lynch, Eileen Kaner
Purpose of the Review: Excessive drinking is a major public health problem that adversely affects all parts of the population. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported that brief interventions delivered in primary care are effective at reducing alcohol consumption, albeit with small effect sizes that have decreased over time. This review summarises the updated evidence base on practitioner and digitally delivered brief interventions. Recent Findings: Using Cochrane methodology, 69 primary care brief intervention trials (33,642 participants) and 57 digital intervention trials (34,390 participants) were identified...
2018: Current Addiction Reports
Karolien van den Akker, Ghislaine Schyns, Anita Jansen
Purpose of Review: This review provides an overview of recent findings relating to the role of Pavlovian conditioning in food cue reactivity, including its application to overeating and weight loss interventions. Recent Findings: Both in the laboratory and in real life, cue-elicited appetitive reactivity (e.g., eating desires) can be easily learned, but (long-term) extinction is more difficult. New findings suggest impaired appetitive learning in obesity, which might be causally related to overeating...
2018: Current Addiction Reports
Grace Kong, Karissa E Kuguru, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Purpose of Review: This study aims to review the recent (2012-2017) available gender difference data on e-cigarette use among adolescents. Recent Findings: E-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among adolescents, and recent study findings showed that e-cigarette use can lead to cigarette smoking. However, gender differences in e-cigarette use among adolescents are relatively unknown. Summary: We used the search terms "adolescents" and "e-cigarettes" on PubMed and identified 652 articles...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Katina C Calakos, Shivani Bhatt, Dawn W Foster, Kelly P Cosgrove
Purpose of the Review: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide. In recent decades, highly concentrated products have flooded the market, and prevalence rates have increased. Gender differences exist in cannabis use, as men have higher prevalence of both cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD), while women progress more rapidly from first use to CUD. This paper reviews findings from preclinical and human studies examining the sex-specific neurobiological underpinnings of cannabis use and CUD, and associations with psychiatric symptoms...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Philip H Smith, Ezinne Akpara, Raisa Haq, Mark El-Miniawi, Azure B Thompson
Purpose of review: To summarize current research on gender differences in mentholated cigarette use and related outcomes. Secondarily, to summarize literature on gender differences in mentholated cigarette use and related outcomes among Black smokers. Recent findings: Women smokers are more likely to use menthol cigarettes than men. Other than prevalence, there is a paucity of research on gender differences in menthol related outcomes (e.g., cessation, disease)...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Wendy J Lynch, Andrea M Robinson, Jean Abel, Mark A Smith
Purpose of Review: This report provides an update on clinical and preclinical findings for the efficacy of exercise to prevent substance use disorder with a focus on recent evidence for sex differences and neurobiological mechanisms. Recent Findings: Exercise/physical activity is associated with decreased drug use in humans. Preclinical results further indicate that exercise decreases vulnerability to drug use and the development of features of substance use disorder, and suggest that females have an enhanced sensitivity to its reward-substitution effects...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Wendy J Lynch, Jean Abel, Andrea M Robinson, Mark A Smith
Purpose of Review: Exercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorder that may reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. In this review, we discuss recent evidence from clinical and preclinical studies for its efficacy, from a behavioral to a molecular level, in order to understand the exercise conditions that lead to beneficial effects. We also highlight the few recent findings of sex-specific differences. Recent Findings: Clinical and preclinical findings show that exercise decreases withdrawal symptoms, including craving, in both males and females...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Steven Schinke, Traci Marie Schwinn
Purpose of Review: Computer-based programs for substance use prevention and intervention among youth are on the ascendancy. Whether delivered by computer per se or by electronic tablet or smartphone, technology-driven programs are harmonious with how young people access information and interact with their worlds. This review examines recent evidence on computer-based programs aimed at substance use among youth, with particular attention to results from randomized trials. Recent Findings: Outcome studies of computer-based, substance use-related programs published over the past 5 years reveal mixed results amidst diverse intervention approaches and delivery settings...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Christian S Hendershot, Christina N Nona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human laboratory studies involving alcohol administration have generated critical knowledge about individual differences in risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), but have primarily involved adult populations and cross-sectional research designs. Ethical constraints have largely precluded human laboratory alcohol research in adolescence, and prospective studies have been rare. This paper provides an overview of developmental considerations in human laboratory alcohol research, with a focus on studies conducted with youth...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Eva H Telzer, Christina R Rogers, Jorien Van Hoorn
Purpose of Review: Adolescents often engage in elevated levels of risk taking that gives rise to substance use. Family and peers constitute the primary contextual risk factors for adolescent substance use. This report reviews how families and peers influence adolescent neurocognitive development to inform their risk taking and subsequent substance use. Recent Findings: Developmental neuroscience using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified regions of the brain involved in social cognition, cognitive control, and reward processing that are integrally linked to social influence on adolescent risk taking...
September 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Benjamin L Berey, Cassidy Loparco, Robert F Leeman, Joel W Grube
Purpose of Review: This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying relationships between adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and increased drinking and points to prevention/intervention strategies that may reduce effects of alcohol advertising...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Justin D Caouette, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Purpose of review: Most adolescents begin exploring cannabis in peer contexts, but the neural mechanisms that underlie peer influence on adolescent cannabis use are still unknown. This theoretical overview elucidates the intersecting roles of neural function and peer factors in cannabis use in adolescents. Recent findings: Novel paradigms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents have identified distinct neural mechanisms of risk decision-making and incentive processing in peer contexts, centered on reward-motivation and affect regulatory neural networks; these findings inform a theoretical model of peer-driven cannabis use decisions in adolescents...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
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