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Microbiology Insights

Hallie H Dolin, Thomas J Papadimos, Xiaohuan Chen, Zhixing K Pan
Pathogenic sepsis is not a monolithic condition. Three major types of sepsis exist within this category: bacterial, viral, and fungal, each with its own mechanism of action. While similar in symptoms, the etiologies and immune mechanisms of these types differ enough that a discrete patient base can be recognized for each one. Non-specific treatment, such as broad-spectrum antibiotics, without determination of sepsis origins may worsen sepsis symptoms and leads to increased morbidity and mortality in patients...
2019: Microbiology Insights
Nydia Morales-Soto, Tianyuan Cao, Nameera F Baig, Kristen M Kramer, Paul W Bohn, Joshua D Shrout
A cascade of events leads to the development of microbial biofilm communities that are thought to be responsible for over 80% of infections in humans. However, not all surface-growing bacteria reside in a stationary biofilm state. Here, we have employed confocal Raman microscopy to analyze and compare variations in the alkyl quinolone (AQ) family of molecules during the transition between surface-attached motile-swarming and stationary biofilm communities. The AQs have been established previously as important to Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, interspecies competition, and virulence...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Francine Teixeira, Sonia M Raboni, Clea El Ribeiro, João Cb França, Anne C Broska, Nathalia Ls Souza
Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. This cross-sectional study involved a retrospective analysis of data for patients with TB/HIV coinfection who attended from 2006 to 2015 through a review of medical records...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Lauren A Lambert, Dolly Katz, Pei-Jean Feng, Baby M Djojonegoro, Elizabeth Fair, Supriya Jasuja, Susan Marantz, C Robert Horsburgh, Christine Ho
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess whether choice of test for tuberculosis (TB) infection affects decisions to accept and complete treatment among contacts to TB cases. Methods: Retrospective study is conducted in which TB contacts, ⩾15 years old during 2005 and 2009, were tested for infection with either a tuberculin skin test (TST) or an interferon-gamma release assay test, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Results: Of 658 persons with valid test results, 185 (28%) had positive results, including 128 of 406 (32%) who had TST and 57 of 252 (23%) who received QFT-GIT...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Girish R Nair, Suresh Ss Raja
Bacillus is an important genus as it is a source for antibiotics, enzymes, and probiotics. Therefore, several studies are targeted on this genus in order to understand its diversity abundance in different soil environments. In present study, we investigated the diversity of Bacillus at species level using culturable approach in soils collected at different climatic zones of India and identified 20 prominent members of genus Bacillus species that are able to grow in different media types under same culture conditions...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Annie Cowell, Elizabeth Winzeler
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agent of malaria infections, rapidly evolve drug resistance and escape detection by the human immune response via the incredible mutability of its genome. Understanding the genetic mechanisms by which Plasmodium parasites develop antimalarial resistance is essential to understanding why most drugs fail in the clinic and designing the next generation of therapies. A systematic genomic analysis of 262 Plasmodium falciparum clones with stable in vitro resistance to 37 diverse compounds with potent antimalarial activity was undertaken with the main goal of identifying new drug targets...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Robert W Huigens
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and surface-attached bacterial biofilms play a significant role in human disease. Conventional antibiotics target actively replicating free-floating, planktonic cells. Unfortunately, biofilm communities are endowed with nonreplicating persister cells that are tolerant to antibiotics. Innovative approaches are necessary to identify new molecules able to eradicate resistant and tolerant bacterial cells. Our group has discovered that select halogenated quinolines (HQs) can eradicate drug-resistant, gram-positive bacterial pathogens and their corresponding biofilms...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Veena Venugopalan, Kayihura Manigaba, Samuel J Borgert, Jessica Cope, Charles A Peloquin, Kenneth P Klinker
Background: The antibiotic armamentarium used to combat multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) include carbapenems. Continuous infusion (CI) dosing is frequently employed to maximize beta-lactam efficacy; however, use of meropenem CI has been limited due to concerns with product instability. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to quantify meropenem serum concentrations to reflect drug stability when administered as CI over 8- or 12-h exchanges. In addition, a stability experiment was performed to further establish meropenem integrity over 12 h...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Patrick Twohig, Jaclyn Rivington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Microbiology Insights
Ama Okyere, Dayna Bishoff, Micah O Oyaro, Nadim J Ajami, Charles Darkoh
Fish has been an important source of proteins, essential vitamins, and low saturated fats for centuries. However, improperly handled fish can expose consumers to infectious bacteria, including difficult to treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. With the goal to investigate the existence of disease-causing and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we examined bacterial communities present on various types of fish purchased from supermarkets in Houston, Texas, USA. The bacterial communities were characterized by selective phenotypic culture methods, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, and antibiotic susceptibility testing...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Jenni Firrman, LinShu Liu, Gustavo Arango Argoty, Liqing Zhang, Peggy Tomasula, Minqian Wang, Sherri Pontious, Masuko Kobori, Weidong Xiao
In this study, the effect of the flavanone naringenin on the growth and genetic expression of the commensal gut microbes, Ruminococcus gauvreauii , Bifidobacterium catenulatum , and Enterococcus caccae , was analyzed. Analysis of growth curves revealed that Ruminococcus gauvreauii was unaffected by naringenin, Bifidobacterium catenulatum was slightly enhanced by naringenin, and Enterococcus caccae was severely inhibited by naringenin. Changes in genetic expression due to naringenin were determined using single-molecule RNA sequencing...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Dieng Assane, Camara Makhtar, Diop Abdoulaye, Fall Amary, Boiro Djibril, Diop Amadou, Diouf Jean Baptiste Niokhor, Diop Amadou, Loucoubar Cheikh, Dia Ndongo, Niang Mbayame, Fall Lamine, Boye Cheikh Saad Bouh
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of infectious disease-related morbidity, hospitalization, and morbidity among children worldwide. This study aimed to assess the viral and bacterial causes of ARI morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years in Senegal. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 5 years who had ARI. Viruses and bacteria were identified using multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and conventional biochemical techniques, respectively...
2018: Microbiology Insights
Salla J Kiiskinen, Tarja Ojanen, Yvonne Björkman, Harri Laitinen, Anja Siitonen
In Finland, all laboratories carrying out diagnostics of infectious diseases in humans are approved by the Regional State Administrative Agencies and are obligated to participate in External Quality Assurance rounds. Performance in these rounds is thought to reflect the quality of laboratory work. In the 6-year study period, 17 Finnish laboratories received 48 simulated faecal specimens for the culturing of diarrhoeal pathogens, yielding altogether 586 faecal culture External Quality Control specimens and 581 reports...
2017: Microbiology Insights
Abdul Musaweer Habib, Md Jibran Alam, Bashudev Rudra, Md Abdul Quader, Mohammad Al-Forkan
The pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastric diseases in Bangladesh as well as throughout the world. This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients in Chittagong, the second most populous city of Bangladesh, using 16S rRNA-based H. pylori-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction and Campylobacter-like organism test. We found that 67% of the population under study was positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer disease showed statistically significant association with H...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Shilpi Gupta, Nozrin Laskar, Daniel E Kadouri
Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests are performed in vitro under normal room oxygen conditions to predict the in vivo effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effect of different oxygen levels on the antibiotic susceptibility of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was found that anoxic conditions caused reduced sensitivity of bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics in four of six bacteria used in the study...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Veerendra Koppolu, Veneela Kr Vasigala
Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Jing Zhang, Guo-Chiuan Hung, Kenjiro Nagamine, Bingjie Li, Shien Tsai, Shyh-Ching Lo
Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Neelam Taneja, Harsimran Kaur
Currently, drug resistance, especially against cephalosporins and carbapenems, among gram-negative bacteria is an important challenge, which is further enhanced by the limited availability of drugs against these bugs. There are certain antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, temocillin, and rifampicin) that have been revived from the past to tackle the menace of superbugs, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas species. Very few newer antibiotics have been added to the pool of existing drugs...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Sudipta Roy, Sahana Yasmin, Subhadeep Ghosh, Somesankar Bhattacharya, Debdulal Banerjee
This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property...
2016: Microbiology Insights
Kaushik Venkiteshwaran, Benjamin Bocher, James Maki, Daniel Zitomer
Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD...
2015: Microbiology Insights
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