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Longevity & Healthspan

Teresa G Valencak, Vian Azzu
Mitochondria play vital roles in metabolic energy transduction, intermediate molecule metabolism, metal ion homeostasis, programmed cell death and regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species. As a result of their broad range of functions, mitochondria have been strongly implicated in aging and longevity. Numerous studies show that aging and decreased lifespan are also associated with high reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria, increased mitochondrial DNA and protein damage, and with changes in the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes...
March 3, 2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Clara Correia-Melo, Graeme Hewitt, João F Passos
Senescence, the state of irreversible cell-cycle arrest, plays paradoxical albeit important roles in vivo: it protects organisms against cancer but also contributes to age-related loss of tissue function. The DNA damage response (DDR) has a central role in cellular senescence. Not only does it contribute to the irreversible loss of replicative capacity but also to the production and secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and bioactive peptides collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
January 16, 2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Alice de Castro, Fay Minty, Eva Hattinger, Ronald Wolf, Eric Kenneth Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Replicative senescence is preceded by loss of repeat sequences of DNA from the telomeres that eventually leads to telomere dysfunction, the accumulation of irreparable DNA double strand breaks and a DNA damage response (DDR). However, we have previously reported that whilst telomere dysfunction in human keratinocytes is associated with a permanent cell cycle arrest, the DDR was very weak and transcriptional profiling also revealed several molecules normally associated with keratinocytes terminal differentiation, including S100A7 (psoriasin)...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Holly M Brown-Borg, Sharlene Rakoczy, Joseph A Wonderlich, Vanessa Armstrong, Lalida Rojanathammanee
BACKGROUND: Extending mammalian health span and life span has been achieved under a variety of dietary restriction protocols. Reducing the intake of a specific amino acid has also been shown to extend health and longevity. We recently reported that methionine (MET) restriction is not effective in life span extension in growth hormone (GH) signaling mutants. To better understand the apparent necessity of GH in the 'sensing' of altered dietary MET, the current study was designed to evaluate MET and glutathione (GSH) metabolism (as well as other pathways) in long-living GH-deficient Ames dwarf and wild-type mice following 8 weeks of restricted (0...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Robin A McGregor, David Cameron-Smith, Sally D Poppitt
Worldwide estimates predict 2 billion people will be aged over 65 years by 2050. A major current challenge is maintaining mobility and quality of life into old age. Impaired mobility is often a precursor of functional decline, disability and loss of independence. Sarcopenia which represents the age-related decline in muscle mass is a well-established factor associated with mobility limitations in older adults. However, there is now evidence that not only changes in muscle mass but other factors underpinning muscle quality including composition, metabolism, aerobic capacity, insulin resistance, fat infiltration, fibrosis and neural activation may also play a role in the decline in muscle function and impaired mobility associated with ageing...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Dao-Fu Dai, Ying Ann Chiao, David J Marcinek, Hazel H Szeto, Peter S Rabinovitch
The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced accumulation of damage to cellular macromolecules is a primary driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan. Although this theory is one of the most popular explanations for the cause of aging, several experimental rodent models of antioxidant manipulation have failed to affect lifespan. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation clinical trials have been largely disappointing. The mitochondrial theory of aging specifies more particularly that mitochondria are both the primary sources of ROS and the primary targets of ROS damage...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Martin D Brand
The role of mitochondria in aging and disease remains contentious more than 40 years after the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging was first proposed. As part of a wider cross-journal series on contemporary mitochondrial biology, Longevity & Healthspan presents a thematic series of four reviews that discuss the evidence for and against the modern incarnations of the theory, and examine the relevance of mitochondrial membrane phospholipid unsaturation and the interactions of mitochondria with sex hormones...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Ankita Bansal, Eun-Soo Kwon, Darryl Conte, Haibo Liu, Michael J Gilchrist, Lesley T MacNeil, Heidi A Tissenbaum
BACKGROUND: Insulin/IGF-1 signaling plays a central role in longevity across phylogeny. In C. elegans, the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor, DAF-16, is the primary target of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, and multiple isoforms of DAF-16 (a, b, and d/f) modulate lifespan, metabolism, dauer formation, and stress resistance. Thus far, across phylogeny modulation of mammalian FOXOs and DAF-16 have focused on post-translational regulation with little focus on transcriptional regulation...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Jeffrey A Stuart, Lucas A Maddalena, Max Merilovich, Ellen L Robb
Since its inception more than four decades ago, the Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (MFRTA) has served as a touchstone for research into the biology of aging. The MFRTA suggests that oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from mitochondria accumulates in cells over an animal's lifespan and eventually leads to the dysfunction and failure that characterizes aging. A central prediction of the theory is that the ability to ameliorate or slow this process should be associated with a slowed rate of aging and thus increased lifespan...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Michael C Velarde
Decline in circulating sex steroid hormones accompanies several age-associated pathologies which may influence human healthspan. Mitochondria play important roles in biosynthesis of sex steroid hormones, and these hormones can also regulate mitochondrial function. Understanding the cross talk between mitochondria and sex steroid hormones may provide insights into the pathologies associated with aging. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the interplay between mitochondria and sex steroid hormones during the aging process...
2014: Longevity & Healthspan
Daniel P Tonge, Ronald G Bardsley, Tim Parr, Rose A Maciewicz, Simon W Jones
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the world and represents the leading cause of pain and disability in the elderly population. Advancing age remains the single greatest risk factor for OA. Several studies have characterised disease development in the guinea pig ageing model of OA in terms of its joint histopathology and inflammatory cytokine profile. However, the quadriceps muscle has yet to be studied in relation to age-related disease onset or early disease progression...
December 1, 2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Daniel Baylis, David B Bartlett, Harnish P Patel, Helen C Roberts
Inflammaging is characterized by the upregulation of the inflammatory response that occurs with advancing age; its roots are strongly embedded in evolutionary theory.Inflammaging is believed to be a consequence of a remodelling of the innate and acquired immune system, resulting in chronic inflammatory cytokine production.Complex interrelated genetic, environmental and age-related factors determine an individual's vulnerability or resilience to inflammaging. These factors include polymorphisms to the promoter regions of cytokines, cytokine receptors and antagonists, age-related decreases in autophagy and increased adiposity...
May 2, 2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Marije Oostindjer, Gro V Amdam
Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms...
January 7, 2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Baohua Liu, Shuangcheng Zhou, Xinguang Liu, Keyuan Zhou, Fengju Zhang, Zhongjun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alteration in the immune system is one of the most profound aspects of aging. Progressive changes in the number of B lymphocyte progenitors during aging have been reported but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. A heterozygous G608G mutation in the LMNA gene leads to a deletion of 50 amino acids in lamin A protein, termed progerin, and is the predominant cause of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Lack of Zmpste24, a metalloproteinase responsible for prelamin A processing, leads to progeroid features resembling HGPS...
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
John M Sedivy, Jan M van Deursen
Longevity & Healthspan, a new BioMed Central journal, has launched a thematic series on cellular senescence and aging, a quickly evolving field critical to our understanding of the biology of aging.
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Hannah Greenwood, David B Bartlett
The focus of the British Society for Research on Ageing (BSRA) annual scientific meeting 2012 was aging mechanisms and mitigants. The themes covered included epigenetics, stem cells and regeneration, aging pathways and molecules, the aging bladder and bowel, as well as updates from the New Dynamics of Ageing (NDA) programme. The topics incorporated new directions for staple aging research in caloric restriction (CR), inflammation, immunesenescence, neurodegeneration, homeostasis and stress resistance, as well as newer research areas such as bioengineering of tissues, including the internal anal sphincter and thymus...
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Dmytro V Gospodaryov, Ihor S Yurkevych, Mahtab Jafari, Volodymyr I Lushchak, Oleh V Lushchak
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of rhizome powder from the herb Rhodiola rosea, a traditional Western Ukraine medicinal adaptogen, on lifespan and age-related physiological functions of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. RESULTS: Flies fed food supplemented with 5.0 mg/ml and 10.0 mg/ml of R. rosea rhizome powder had a 14% to 17% higher median lifespan, whereas at 30.0 mg/ml lifespan was decreased by 9% to 12%. The preparation did not decrease fly fecundity...
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Scott A Nankervis, Jenee M Mitchell, Fadi J Charchar, Maree A McGlynn, Paul A Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction is known to extend the lifespan of all organisms in which it has been tested. Consequently, current research is investigating the role of various foods to improve health and lifespan. The role of various diets has received less attention however, and in some cases may have more capacity to improve health and longevity than specific foods alone. We examined the benefits to longevity of a low glycaemic index (GI) diet in aged Balb/c mice and examined markers of oxidative stress and subsequent effects on telomere dynamics...
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Maria E Karavassilis, Richard Faragher
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the accumulation of senescent cells is a plausible ageing mechanism. It has been proposed that the senescence of vascular cells plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular pathologies. A key prediction arising from this hypothesis is that cultures of cells derived from donors with cardiovascular disease will show reduced in vitro replicative capacities compared to those derived from disease-free controls. Accordingly, we carried out a formal review of the relationship among donor age, cardiovascular health status and maximum population doubling level attained in vitro by cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells...
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
Rebeca Garcia-Valles, Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Francisco J Garcia-Garcia, Ana Diaz, Inma Noguera, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Jose Viña
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice. RESULTS: Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72)...
2013: Longevity & Healthspan
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